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^* 



THE SOCIETY 



DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE. 



VOLUME XIII. 

INTESTINES LIMOGEa 



LONDON: 

CHARLES KNIGHT AND Co., 22, LUDGATE STREET. 

MDCCCXXXIX. 



Price Sam Skittings and ^ijpencej bound In clotk. 



r 



OOMMZHSB. 

Hi mifkl Hm. lord brougham. F.R^« lf«Dbcr tf tht MallMul iMCilatt cf 

rfc^Ohrir— 10HN WOOD, RiQ. 

WILLIAU TOOKE, Eaq^ F.R.8. 



W. AllcB, Esq., F.R. aad R.A^. 

Captain Bcaafort, R.N., F.R. and RJL8., 

Bydrofraphcr to the Adaikralty. 
O. Borrowa, M.D. 
Peter Staflbrd Carey. Baq.. A.M. 
William Coulaon, biq. 
R. D. Craig. Esq. 
J. F. DaTts, Km.. F.R.8. 
n. T. Dela Becbe. E«q.. F.R.9. 
Tba Rlfht Hon. I«ord Deaman. 
Bamori Duckworth, Etq^ tf.P. 
R. F. Dappa. Eaq. 

Tlie Right Rer. the Bishop of Durham, D.D. 
Sir Henry Ellis. Prin. Lib. BrIL Mna. 
T. F. Ellis. Esq.. A.U.. F.R.A.1I. 
John Rlllotson. ll.D.. F.R.8. 
George Erasa, Esq., U.P. 



Thomas Falconer. Esq. 

I. L. Goklsmid, Eso., F.R. and RJl.8. 

Francis Henry Ooldamld, Rs(l 

B. Gompcru, Esq., F.R. and ILA.8. 

G. B. Greenoogh. Esq., F.R. aiul L.8. 

M. D. Hill. Esq. 

Rowland Hill, Eaq.. F.R.A.a. 

Right Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhooa*, Bart^, If .P. 

DaTld Jardlne, Esq., A Jf . 

Henry B. Ecr, Esq. 

Thomas Hewitt Key, Esq.. AM, 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.lf. 

Thomas Henir Lister. Esq. 

James Loch, Esq., M .P., F.G.8. 

George Long. Esq.. A.il. 

H. Uaiden. Esq. A.BI. 

A. T. llalklo, Esq.. A.U. 



James Manning. Esq. 

R. I. Marehtaon, Esq., F.R.a, F.GA ' 

The Right Hon. Lord Nugent. 

The Right Hon. Sir Henry Parocll, Bt, M.P* 

Richard Qaain, Esq. 

Dr. RogeC Sec. R.S., F.R.A.8. 

Edward Romllly. Esq.. A.M. 

The Right Hon. Lord John Rn«ell, M.P. 

Sir M. A. Shee. P.R.A., F.ILS. 

The Right Hon. Earl Spencer. 

John Taylor. Esq. P.R.8. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson, F.L.S. 

Tliomas Vardon, Esq. 

H. Wsymouth, Esq. 

J. Whishaw, Esq., A.M.. F.R.8. 

Tlie Hon. John Wrottcsley, A.M., F.R.A.8. 

J. A. Yates, Esq., M.P. 



JUou, Stufwriskire-'IL^r. J. p. Jones, 
^mgleMem—lU^. E. Williams. 

Rer. W. Johnson. 

Mr. Miller. 
Jakhurion—J, F. Kingston, Esq. 
BunutapU. Baucraft, Esq. 

WlllUm Oribble. Esq. 
Betfasi— Dr. Drummond. 
Birsifay/iAm—J.Corric.Esq.P.U.S. Ckahnmmm, 

Fanl Moon James, Esq., Trenmrcr. 

Dr. Conolly. 
RrMppH— James Williams, Esq. 
BHsTo/— J.N. Sanders, Esq.. P.O.S. VAmrwum, 

J. Reynolds, Esq., Trtasmrtr. 

J. B. Esttln. £«i|., F.L.S., ^screfarf. 
Calemitn — Jsmew Young, Esq. 

C. H. Cameron. Esq. 
CmmbHdgt^ner. James Bowatead, M.A. 

Rer. Prof. Henslow, M.A.. F.L.S.ft G.S« 

Retr. Looaard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.8. 

RcT. John Lodge. M.A. 
' RcT. Geo. Peacock. M.A., F.R.8. h G.S. 

Re?. Prof. Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.8.4i G.8. 

Rer. C. Thlrlwall. M.A. 
Caaferfcury— John Brent, Esq., Alderman. 

William Masters, Esq. 
Cnlsa-Wm. Jardlne. Esq., PrwdmL 

Robert Inglis, Esq., Trmumrtr. 

Rer. C. Brldgman. ) 

Re?. C. Guttlaff, \SMrwimiM. 

J. R. Morrison, Esq., I 
CaHI(g«n~Re?. J. Blackwell, M.A. 
Carlifto-Thomaa Barnes, M.D., F.B.8.E. 
CnriMraon— R. A. Poole, Eaq. 

William Roberts, Esq. 
CAcfler^Hsyes Lyon, Esq. 

Henry PotU. E«q. 
C'A<cAcfler— John Forbes, M.D., F.R.8. 

C. C. Dendy. Esq. 
Cbdfcepsmn i* Re?. J. Whltrldge. 
C'eiyii— John Crawford, Esq. 

Mr. Plato Petrldce 
CoM«lrp— Arthnr Gregory, Esq. 
Dmkigh-^ahn Msdoeks Ksq.^ 

Thomas Evans, Esq. 



ZiOCAZi COIKKIKKZVVBBS. 

I>cr6f~ Joseph StmU, Esq. 

Edward Striitt, Esq., M.P. 
Dnonport mmd j^ftfscAotue— Joka Cole. Esq. 

— Normsu, Ksq. 

Lt.CoL C. Hamilton Smith. F.R.S. 
Dm h Rn T . l>mmmondi Esq. R.E., F.R.A.8. 
fdcateryA— Sir C. Bell, F.R.8. L. and E. 
ITfrwia— Joa. Wedgwood, Esq. 
BseUr^J. Tyrrell, Esq. 

John Mllford. Esq. (Conver.) 
<7temoryaasUr«-Dr. Malktn, Cowhrldga. 

W. Williams, Esq., Aberpergwm. 
OUurow^K. Flnlay, Esq. 

Professor Mylne. 

Alexander McGrigor, Esq* 

James Cowper, Esq. 
OmMnumf^V. C. Lakis, Enq. 
HmO^i. C. Parker, Esq. 
Lsmntaf/ofi JfM— Dr. Loudon, M.D. 
Lttdt^J. Marshall, Esq. 
Jmm$—J, W. Woollgar, Esq. 
Li9mool Loe. At.-^Vf, *W. Cnrrle, Eaq. Ck, 

J. Molleneuz, Eaa.,Trsanr«r. 

Re?. Dr. Shepherd. 
Mttdtnkmi^VL, Goolden, Esq., F.L.S. 
jraUftime— Clement T. Smyth, Esq. * 

John Case, Esq. 
itmlmmkmrf B. C. Tbenas. Esq. 
MtmekuUr Loe. Jm.—G, W. Wood. Esq.. CM, 

Benjamin Heywood, Esq., 1Ve«f«rsr. 

T. W. Wlnstanley, Esq., Horn, Soe. 

Sir G. Philips, Bart., M.P. 

BcnJ. Gott. Esq. 
JTasAosi— Re?. Ocorre Waddiagtoa. UJL» 
Mttrth^ Tydvil-^. J. Guest. Esq., M.P. 
J#iiicMnAamp/ofi--John G. Ball, Esq. 
IfeasMNiM— J. H. Moggridge. Esq. 
JVsuM— John Rowland, Esq. 
iVinneru/le— Re?. W. Turner. 

T. Sopwlth, E«q.. FX}.8. 
a/twport, ItUof Wtgkt—Ah. Clarke. Esq. 

T. Cooke. Jun.. Esq. 

R. G. Rirkpatrick, Esq. 
Netpori PmgneO^i. Millar, Esq. 
UTewlowit, Alon/femeryMcre— W. Pugb. Esq. ' 



AToravicA'-Rfchard Bacon. Esq. 

Wni. Forster, Esq. 
Ortett. £tt«x— Dr. Corbett, M.D. 
Otj'wrd—Mx. Daubeny, F.U.S. Prof. ofCbem. 

Re?. Prof. Powell. 

Rev* John Jordan, B.A. 

E. W. Head, Esq.. M.A. 
PssfA, Hmmgtuy — Count Siechenyl. 
i>iymoH<A~H. Woollcombe, Esq., F.A.8.,CA. 

Snow Harris, Esq.. F.R.S. 

E. Moore. M.D., r.L.S.,Sfcref«r|f. 

G. WIghtwIck, Esq. 
Prtttmgm^Ut. A. W. Darls, M.D. 
JH^fi— Re?. H. P. Hamilton, M.A., F.n.8. 
and G.S. 

Rev. P. Ewart. M.A. 
JlaMia->Rc?. Uie Warden of 

Humphreys Jones, Esq. 
Rpde, L of fyigkt'-S\x Rd. Simeon. Bl. 
Ss^intoiy'Re?. J. BarfitL 
Sk^fioU^J. H. Abrahama, SZaq. 
Shepton MoUet—G, F. Burroughs, Esq. 
.SAreiMAwry— R. A.Slaney, Esq., M.P. 
Somtk PefAerfon— John NIeholetU, Esq. 
SL Jomph-'TUr. George Strong. 
Stodtport — H. Marsland, Esq., Treofarer. 

Henry Coppock. Esq., Sterotorjf, 
B^oey, Now Semtk IFoisf— 

William M. Manning. Eaq. 
TasiflocA— Re?. W. E?ans. 

John Rundle. Esq. 
Trare — Henry Sewell Stokes, Esq. 
Tunlmdgo Wolia—Dr, Yeats, M.U. 
C/ttoMeer— Robert Blurton. Esq. 
Wo/er/ortf— Sir John Newport. Bt. 
1Forccf<«r^Dr. Hastings, M.D, 

C. H. Hebb, Esq. 
IFreeAam^Thomas Edgwoith, Kpq. 

J. E. Bowman, Esq.. F.L.S., rreomrer 

Major WUlism Lloyd. 
ForswiiM— C. E. Rumbold. Esq. 

Dawson Turner, Esq. 
YorJIr— Re?. J. Kenrick, M.A. 

J. Phililpa, Esq., F.R.8« F.O.t, 



THOMAS COAXES, Eoq., Stcnimnf* Mo. ft9, LlMoia'^.Iui Floldfc 






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< Fnatodby Wiu4aii CMnrn aad 8ovi» !NmiM<I 



.A^ 



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I N U 

>, and therefore cannot require a ereater. For a man 
jt conceive of a {^eater certainty than that any idea 
lis mind is such as he perceives it to he, and that two 
.eas. wherein he perceives a difference, are different and 
not precisely the same.' His definition, or rather explana- 
tion, of intuition is as follows: — ' Sometimes the mind per- 
ceives the afin^eement or disagreement of two ideas imme- 
diately by themselves, and this, I think, we may call intui- 
tive knowled^. In this the mind is at no pains of proving 
or examining, but perceives the truth as the eye does the 
light, only by being directed to it' (Essay on Human Un- 
derstanding, b. iv., 0. ii., $ 1.) Campbell's definition is 
similar : having defined truth to be thp conformity of our 
conceptions to t||eir antetypes ic| the nature of things, he 
declares intuitive truth to be that ' which is perceived imme- 
diately on a bare attention to the ideas under review/ 

The nature of the relation which subsists between intui- 
tion and reasoning has been strongly contested. While 
Bealtie maintains that the connexion between them, how 
closely soever they ar^ fiound ip gei)erM to be connected, is 
not necessary, but, on the contrary, a being endued with 
one may be destitute of the other; Dugald Stewart, on 
the other hand, insists that the two are not radically distinct, 
although by most writers they are considered to be different 
faculties. Locke having rightly maintained that every 
step which the reason makes in demonstrative knowledge 
has intuitive certainty, and that consequently the power of 
reasoning presupposes that of intuition, Stewart thinks 
that the intuition of Locke implies the power of reasoning ; 
or, at least» that intuition combined with memory explains 
reatonivg. Here his usual sagacity appears to have failed 
Stewart While the mind itself is perfectly simple, it 
has been, for the purpose of attaining accuracy of language 
and distinetnese of theory, supposed to be multiple ; and 
distinct faculties have been asoribed to it according as its 
several operations comprise more or fiiwer elements. Ao« 
cording therefore to bit own account, reason, which involves 
the element of time, must be kept distinct from intuition, 
which does not involve that element. 

The proper objects of intuitive certainty are identical 
propositions. This of course does not mean propositions 
verbally identical ; such as *a man is a man.' But while the 
object of thought is perfectly and always one, it may pre- 
sent itself to the thought under a variety of aspects, either 
dissolved into its elements or as combined into a whole. It 
is this identity under an apparent diversity that constitutes 
that original and primary evidence which makes certain 
propositions, as soon as the respective terms are understood, 
to be perceived intuitively. On the other hand, the appa- 
rent i<lentity of a real diversity is the ground of all sophis- 
tical argument. The ultimate form of legitimate argumen- 
tation is, a s ^, 6 =s c, . * . a s o. But every fallacy, when 
detected, will invariably be found to he a ^ b:kr, b " e, 
. * . a = c. Tlie sophistry consists in the suppression of the 
element r, either piositive or negative. 

In the philosophy of Kant the term intuition (anschauung) 
is used to denote the single act of the sense upon outward 
objects according to its own laws. It appears to be em- 
ployed in a like sense in the following extmot from Glan- 
vil— *Some say that the soul is not passive under the 
material phantasms ; but doth only intuitively view them 
by the necessity of its own nature, and so observes other 
things in these their representatives.' (Vanity qf Dogma- 
tieing, e. iv., p. 29.) 

I'NULA, a genus of composite plants, one of whose 
species, I. Helenium, is used medicinally. This plant is a 
native of various parts of Europe, in pastures and woods ; it 
has a thick bitter mucflaginous root, a stout stem three feet 
high, broad ovate- serrated leaves, and large yellow flower- 
heads, which are solitary at the end of the ramifications. 

TNULA HELENIUM (Elecampane), an indigenous 
perennial herbaceous plant, found in moist meadows, the 
root of which is used in medicine. This part is thick and 
branching, brown externally, white internally, with an aro- 
matic odour and a mucilaginous tAate, at first bitter, after- 
wards sharp and oamphor-like. In addition to mucilage 
and a large quantity of a variety of starch termed inulin, it 
contains a crystallised volatile oil (s^earopten), a bitter ex- 
tractive, an acrid resin, and some salts of lime, &c. 

These in^edients give it a tonic and stimulating pro- 
perty, and It is employed in debility of the stomach, and 
other diseases of mucous surfsoes uoatteoded with inflam- 
pution. It is however not much uswL 



! I N V 

INULIN, a peculiar vegetable substance which is spon 
taneously deposited from a decoction of the roots of the Inufa 
Helenium, It is a white powder, like starch, is insoluble ifi 
cold and soluble in hot water, from which it is depos»iic<i 
on cooling, and this distinguishes it from starch. With 
iodine it gives a greenish-yellow compound, which is not 
permanent. Inulin is distinguished from gum by its inso- 
lubility in cold water, and biy not giving saccholactic acid 
when digested in nitric acid. 

INVARIABLE (Mathematics), the same word in mean- 
ing as Constant, which see. There are however two sorts 
of constants, which it is desirable to treat under different 
names : the first, which we may call a constapt, or a com- 
mon constant, meaning a quantity which is absolutely in- 
variable ; the second meaning a function which may var\', 
but which does not vary in the processes required by a 
given equation. This we propose to call the invariable 
function of that equation, or its invariable. 

Thus, in a common differential equation, which is sup- 
posed to be true of y and x when ^ passes through all 
stages of magnitude whatsoever, the only invariable is on 
absolute invariable, or a common constant But in an 
equation of differeo<^s, in which x only passes from one 
whole number to another, the invariable function is any 
one which remains unaltered by changing x from one 
whole number to another. Thus, [Integration, Finitk] 
instead of saying that the solution of Ay = ^ + 1 is 
^ (jj" + a?) + C, where C is a constant, we may allow C to 
be any function of x, which is unaltered by changing x 
from one whole number to another. Such a function is 
^ (cos. 2xx), so that the solution is \ ia^-^x) -i- (cos. 2irjru 
and the last term is the invariable of the equation. 

Again, suppose it required to solve the frinctional equa- 
tion (31^) ss2 or. One solution of this ia <^ x = c\o^ jr, 
where e is any absolute constant But the equation ia 
solved if c he a function of x, provided it be one which does 
not change when x is changed into x^. Such a function is 

r log. log x\ 
COS. I 2t j^ :^ J or any function of it, 

J. . . - f log. losjari 

0T<px= any function of cos. | 2r — r — ^> X log t. 

General methods of finding invariable functions, as far a!< 
they have yet been given, will be found in the * Eucyclopfletjia 
Metropolitana,' article * Calculus of Functions.' 

INVENTION. This term, when used in the langungo 
of art, has a different signification from what it usually bears 
in common language. It does not mean discovery^ but 
combines conception, or the peculiar way in which an artist s 
mind takes cognizance of a subject to be represented, i*iili 
the mode of treatment, or choice of objects and manner <»f 
disposing them best adapted for producing a desired efiVct. 
Thu«, in painting and sculpture, it is the faculty by whuh 
the most perfect mode of illustration, by colour or by furtn. 
is suggested to the artist, and by which the mind of ilu> 
spectator is led to comprehend the truth, the intention, ani 
the whole purpose of the work before him ; but so distin.-t 
is it at the same time firpm perfect execution, that it isot'uu 
Ibund to exist independently of excellence in that particular, 
some of the finest inventions in art being manifestly defective 
in technical requirements. It is therefore the liighe>t 
quality in the constitution of the artist's mind; as Opto 
says, 'Destitute of invention, a poet is but a plagiary, and a 
painter a copier of others.' (l^ectures on Painting.) 

It is hardly necessary to enter itlto the question whether 
the power of invention be a primary and original law of the 
mino, or whether the effect of cultivation. Some have be- 
lieved it may be a result of acquirements begun in youth. 
and carried on till the power is developed and pcrfectcfl : 
others conceive that it is unatatinable by any human ellbrt, 
and is part of the original constitution of the mind. 

But even admitting invention to be a gift of nature, and woi 
reducible to rule, nor to be taught by any regular process, 
it still may be improved by stu^'. Whatever natural (h:^* 
position or original capacity may exist — and it will not, we 
suppose, be denied that some minds are more bountifully 
endowed than others— every power short of creation mu^t 
have groundwork and foundation on which and out *.j 
which to exercise itself; and even the inventive fucultC, 
which seems to approach nearest to creation, depends \\\\\\ 
knowledge, by whatever means acquired, for materials with 
which to duYolop and declare itself. Sir Joshua Re) uuldd 




I N V 

., a^ftflcieDt. The publie buildings consist ot three 
jt it churches, an Spiacopalian church, a court-house, 
aa^-^olbooth. The last is a handsome modem building 
.Qfth a fine tower terminated by a very elegant spire. The 
i^eiitral school-house, situated upon the Green of Muirtown, 
is also a fine building, and comprises a large public hall, with 
six spaciottt apartments for the accommodation of the differ- 
ent classes and for the library and philosophical apparatus. 
Inverness is the centre of the custom-house district, which 
extends from the mouUi of the Spey to Dornoch Frith on 
the east coast, and firom Assynt Point to Ardnamurchan on 
the west. * A striking alteration has of late taken place in 
the trade of grain ; within fifteen years about 8000 to 10,000 
bolls of oatmeal used to be imported annually into Inverness ; 
while now from 4000 to 5000 bolls of oats are exported from 
its piers The foreign annual imports into Inver- 
ness consist of from 400 to 600 tons of hemp, and three or 
four cargoes of timber or Archangel tar.* (New Statisiical 
Account qf Scotland.) There is no compulsory assessment 
for the support of the poor, who are provided for by 
special quarterly collections, by several charitable mortifica- 
tions at the disposal of the magistrates, and from other 
sources. A short account of schools, which are numerous and 
upon the whole well conducted, is given in the article 
InvrrnbsS'Shirb. The population of the burgh and parish 
of Inverness in 1831 was 14,324. The people in Inverness 
speak very good English : the tradition is that they 
learned it firom Crom well's soldiers. The climate of Inverness 
is much milder than might be supposed from its northern 
position in the island. Its mean annual temperature is 
about 47^ while that of the neighbourhood of Tendon is al)out 
48*5^ and that of London 60'5^ The mean annual quan- 
tity of rain which falls at Inverness is about 26*21 inches. 
This borough unites with Fortrose, Nairn, and Forres in 
returninffonb member to parliament 

INVERNESS-SHIRE, a maritime county of Scotland, 
bounded on the north by Ross-shire, on the south bv the 
shires of Perth and Argyle, on the east by those of Nairn, 
Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen, and on the west by the At- 
lantic Ocean ; thb mainland is comprised between b^"^ 40' 
and bT* 36' N. lat, and between 3* 50' and 5° 50' W. long, 
from Greenwich. Its greatest length from north-east to 
south-west is 88 miles, and its greatest width from north- 
west to south-east nearly 55 miles. According to Mr. 
M*Culloah.(S/a/i«/tca/ Account of the British Empire^ the 
entire county contains 4245 square miles, or 2, 7 1 6,800 acres, 
of which the mainland occupies 1,943,920, and its islands 
773,760; the former having 84,480, and the latter 37,760 
acres of water. It comprehends various districts, particu- 
larly that of Badenoch on the south-east, where it borders 
Yipon Perth and Aberdeenshire ; Lochaber on the south ad- 
joining Argyleshire ; Glenelg on the north-west bordering 
upon the ocean; besides many inferior districts, such as 
Glengary, Glen Morrison, Glenshiel, &c. It also compre- 
hends a considerable portion of the Hebrides, or Western 
Isles, including the Isles of Skye, Harris, Benbecula, North 
and South Uist, Barra, &c. [Hebrides.] This county, 
which is extremely mountainous, is intersected by innumer- 
able lakes and rivers, and is divided into two nearly equal 
parts by the deep vallev of Glenmore, which runs in a di- 
rection from Fort William on the south-west to the town 
of Inverness on the north-east This county forms a large 
part of the Highlands of Scotland, and the general descrip- 
tion of its geographical features cannot well be separated 
from that of the division of the island to which it belongs. 
[Great Britain, p. 402.] By far the greater part of 
the surface is covered with heath, but a good deal of the 
heathy ground is arable, and a considerable extent of it has 
been brought into cultivation during the present century. 
The population in 1831, according to the population ret\irns 
for that year, was 94,797, of which 44,510 were males, and 
#0,287 females. The valued rent at the same period was 
73,188/. Scotch, but the annual value of real property in 
1815 was 185,565/. The county sends one member to par- 
liament. [Inverness.] 

Geology and Mineralogy, — The prevailing rocks are of 
the primary class, having a highly ci^stalline structure, and 
being entirely destitute of organic remains. Gneiss is 
perhaps the most abundant, but huge masses of granite 
aod of the oldest trap or porphyritic rocks are met with in 
the Grampians and the mountains of Glencoe and Ben 
TCeris. Umestone is found in several districts, and ap- 
protehat to the naturo of marble, particularly near Balia- 



I N V 

chnlish and in the bed of the river three miles south of 
Fort William. Sandstone is also fteauently met with. 
The beds of the stratified rocks are usually highly inclined 
to Uie horizon, approaching almost to the vertical, but the 
dip varies. Their general dhrection is from south-west to 
north-east. The two principal mountains are Ben Nevis 
and Mealfourvounie. Tne former, which is separated from 
the Grampians by the desolate tract called the Moor of 
Rannoch, is composed of porphyry and granite, and risos 
4374 feet above the level of the sea, being the highest 
mountam m Great Britain. It is easily ascended on the 
western side; and at about the height of 1500 feet the 
prospect, till then confined, opens to the south-west and 
discovers the Paps of Jura and several of the Hebrides. 
Above the altitude of 2000 feet there is no vegetation, and 
on the north-east side of the mountain, near its summit, 
the snow hes throughout the year. Mealfourvounie, which 
rises 2730 feet above the sea-level, is composed of a con- 
glomerate rock and stratified sandstone, the latter of whicn 
is of so hard a texture as to be used for the pavements 
of the streets of Inverness. Some veins of lead and 
silver have been discovered in several parts of the county, 
and also iron ore in small quantities, but we are not awan» 
that mines ha/e hitherto been worked to any extent. The 
soil is for the most part light and sandy, with a subsoil of 
gravel or clay; but in the neighbourhood of the town of 
Inverness it is enriched bv a fine loam deposited by the 
waters of the adjoining firitn. 

Farms, Estates, and Agrictdture,— In 1808 the landed 
property of this county was divided among 83 proprietors, 
viz.7 estates of the valued rents of 3000/. jier annum (Scotch ); 
6 from 1000/. to 3000/.; 23 from 400/. to 1000/.; 33 from 
100/. to 400/.; and 14 under 100/. From that period to 
the present time we believe the above distribution has not 
undergone any material alteration. Formerly there wero 
a great number of small arable farms only a few acres '\i\ 
extent, but these have much decreased since the introduc- 
tion of sheep farming. What remain of them are usu- 
ally let from year to year, but the hirger farms are 
let on lease, varying from seven to nineteen years, Tlie 
ftirm -houses erected within the last forty years by thi5 
wealthier class of store farmers are for the most part well 
constructed, but the dwellings of the cottagers and poorer 
tenants are described as being in every respect comfortless 
and mean. (McCulloch*s British Empire, vol i., p. 310.) 
The attention of the farmers is chiefly directed to the 
rearing of sheep and cattle. The sheep are mostly of the 
Cheviot and Luiton breeds, and the stock at the present 
time is estimated at 120,000 ; the stock of cattle is supposed 
to amount to 40,000 or 45,000, and is chiefly of the Skye 
or Kyloe breed. In the month of July a fair for the sale of 
sheep is held annually at the town of Inverness, where, 
upon an average, 100,000 sheep and as many stones of 
wool are bought up for the southern markets. The labourers 
and farm-servants generally live on potatoes with milk, and 
oats and barleyme^ prepared in various ways, to which the 
wealthier tradesmen are able to add fish and butcher's 
meat. The usual rate of ploughmen's and farm-servants' 
wages is 8/. in money and six bolls of meal, with liberty to 
plant as much ground with potatoes as they can manure, 
and female labour is commonly reckoned at two-thirds that 
of men. The fields are frequently enclosed, and within the 
last twenty years a great deal of waste land has been 
drained and reclaimed, and much ground planted; but 
none of any consequence has been irrigated or embanked. 
The average rent of cultivated ground varies from ]/. Xo 
2/. \0s. the acre, but in the immediate vicinity of the town 
of Inverness it is as high as 5/. to 7/. the acre. 

Forests, — The fir woods in Glenmore and those of Strath- 
spey in the adjoining county of Elgin are supposed to be more 
extensive than all the other natural woods in Scotland 
together. Glen Morrison, which opens into Glenmore, also 
contains much fine timber. In the parish of Kilmalie 
alone, near Fort William, it is estimated that there are 
about 14,000 acres covered witlrtrees. Those which grow 
naturally are the oak, fir, birch, ash, mountain ash, holly, 
elm, hazel, and the Scotch poplar. Those which are 
planted are the larch, spruce, silver fir, beech, plane, 
and fruit trees. In these forests and the neighbour- 
ing mountains the herds of red and roe-deer roam in safety 
in recesses almost impenetrable to man. The alpine and 
common hare and other game are also abundant 

Manufactures, — Formerly a good deal of hemp, worsted. 



iMfotlawt. Find tbeiolutioiisoftbe 
X, aikd let them itoia,x,ViX, &c. 
le coDverUble inverse of ^ x, the re- 
r,^"'*, «i0~'«, &c Thusinthe 
~'xbemg the ooDvertibl*9 invene 



-, V (1-**), &c. Now if X 

x=x, and these functions vill 
ele just cited, as periodic functions of 

* X =x being underetood, snppose that 

1 aeoond operations m interpose the 

3have0o0'''x. This i* no longer 
1 function, the properties of which are 
b those of a X. For inslance, if a z 
to e«eh other, then ^ atp~'x».aA, 
verse to each other: forii^x=zaad 
ia0a0~'0(30" x,or0«/J0~'a;, 

hug knowing x + \ and x — 1 to be 
know immediately that log (('4- 1) 
averse functions j and also VCx*4-l) 
: more detail on thin subject see the 
Futtctions,' in the ' Encyclopadia 

Music, is a change in the relative 
I, or of the several notes of a chord, 
ral of a 2ad, becomes by inversion 



inversions, see Canon and Fuoub. 
in botany, is any collection of bracts 
3rs. Inumbelliferous plants itconsisis 
cts placed in a single whorl ; in many 
le organs are imbricated in several 
Mlong to a secondary series of the in- 
partiol umbels of an apiaceaus plutt, 
sof Echinops, they form an involucel. 
.te of th» inyolncrum is that which is 
^astanea, Fagua, Quercua, &k., where 
ed cover, remarkable in the European 
'a, but much more so in t)ie species of 

D EVOLUTE (the curve unrolled 
tkich it is unrolled), a name given to 

and placed, that suppoaingthe secortd 
id matter, the first can bo formed by 
I thread upon a point in the seoend, 
ihe other end, and moving the pencil 
ly either gradually unwra]> or ba un- 
ve to which it is fastened. Thus the 
is deiicribing the involute of a circle, 
I the circle is the evoluic. But the 
vidently a point. 




represents an ellipse wilh ill evoint 



I N V 

If the thiMd be IhatMied Itt b, vnppod over b% and con- 
tinued to A, It will, as it nnirnps from a b, deseribe the are 
AB; and B A' white it wnpa over £<■'. If fastened in a 
similar manner tt if, it Will by the tU&e proceM describe 
AB'A'. 




If the hoe p F be drawn tangent to the evolute at p. it 
one of the positions of the thread, and F T, the tangent 
the involute at P, i* perpendicular to p P. Also p P is t 
radius of eurvature of tbe involute at F ; diis is to say, 
circle can pass so near the curve at F, as the one which I 
pfor its centre and pP for its radius. [CuRVATuaii:.] Al».^ 
any aro of the evolute is the difference of two radii of ci 
vature of the involute ; thus the axe o^ is the differei: 
between a A and pp. Such are the principal geomeUi< 
connexions of the two curves. 

Every curve hae one evolute, and an infinite number ol 
involutes. For instance, fastening the thread at b, and c 
tinning it to M insteed of A, we may with the cheeks 
and £a' produi'e another involute from tiiem (represented 
hy a dotted line) ; and any number, however great, by vary 
in|£ tba position of M. But none of these involutes will bi 
ellipses, except the one from which the evolute was madc- 
thougb they will alt be ovals having remarkable analoKic^ 
Wilh the ellipse. The proper name for curves describ.i, 
from the same evolute is pafulUl eurvei, since they lm\'t.- 
the fundamental properly of parallel lines; for they iiev 
meet, though <if tney admit of it) ever so far produced ; 
straight line perpeudiculal to one is always perpendicul: 
to the other ; and tlie part of the perpendicular inlerccpli 
is always of the same length. When arcs of parallel curvr 
are required to belaid down, the most oommedious mi;tliiid 
of proceeding is to construct the evolute of one of the arcs 
approxitnalely, as followi. On the arc draw tangents at 
moderately small distances, and draw perpendiculars to 
those tangents. The parts of the tangents cut off froiti 
each by its neighbours wijl together give the arc of tin 
evolute near enough for all purposes. And it may be wcl 
to notice that it will be a sufficiently accurate method i> 
drawing the perpendicular to the tangent at a point P, i 
we take a small circle whose oentre is P, bisect the av 
A C B in C, and join and produce P C. 




The angulnr error thus committed Is only a small jiorliun 
of the angle made by the tangents at P and A. 



I N V 



aj< 



j( p^of answering the following question :— -Given a cer- 
ar oquation ifix =0; required the equation yf/x = 0, tho 
.^vits of which are each less hy a than those of 4^ = 0. 
i» If ^a came out =0, wo should then know that a is a root 
of the equation : and the method of approximating to a root 
is OS follows : — Suppose we have an equation of which the 
root (unknown to us) is 26*73. By trial, or otherwise, sup- 
pose we find that 20 is the highest denomination of the 
root, and we thereupon find another equation, each of 
whose roots is less by 20 than a root of the given equation : 
this is done by the preceding process, and one of the new 
roots (but unknown) is 6*73. If we can find that the 
highest denomination of this root is 6, we make another 
reduction of all the roots, and find a new equation, one of 
whose roots is '73. If we can then find * 7 to be the highest 
denomination, we repeat the process and find an equation 
one of whose roots is '03. In finding the highest denomina- 
tion of this root we find the root itself evidenced by the 0a 
of this final process being ^ 0. 

The first aenomination of the root must be found by trial, 
or by some of the methods referred to in Theory op Equa- 
tions. But the second and the remaining ones are found 
by oomparing the results ^a and 0'a. If a be nearly a root, 

0a —0a 

a — jTT or a + -if 
tp'a 4^'a 

is ttill nearer. Consequently, by dividing - 0a by 0'a, we 
may, after the second process, be sure of finding one figure 
of the remaining root correct. But after the first process 
we may be liable to an error of a unit (to be corrected by 
a new trial), as in extraction of the square rout. 

In order to obtain — 0a and not 0ia, let the last coefll- 
cient, F, have its sign changed, and let the process in the 
column which contains it always be subtraction, and not 
addition. In the preceding type of calculation, we should 
then have 

-F F 

Sa instead of 'Sa 

Subtr. - 0a 0a Add. 

In carrying on the process, the results 0a, 0'a, &c. come 
in a diagonal line ; before taknig the next step, the begin- 
ner should bring them down into one line, as in the typo 
preceding. In our example:!, asterisks or other symbolb 
will mark results of a process. 

We now apply this method to the solution of the cqu a 
tion — 

x^-^lx^-a^^X" 631064798 = 0. 

It will be found that a root lies between 100 and 200. 
1 



8 I N V 

the root, and tho quotient is between 8 and 9. Assuming 
8, the first step of the third process shows that 8 is a root 
of the last equation, and 58 of the preceding, and 158 of 
the given equation. 

We now give an example in which approximation is 
carried on. Let the equation be *■ — 6j:* -V 7a: -f 4 = 0, 
of which one root lies between 2 and 3. The first work- 
ing column is abbreviated. 

1-6 7 , -"4(2-4l42l3uG-2 

2 2-8 -2 



• • 



- 2 


-1 


-1 


631064798(158 


100 


10200 


1019900 


101989900 


10-2 


lOl'J'J 


1019699 


529074898: 


100 


20200 


3039900 


410987450 


202 


30399 


4059799 : 


118087448; 


100 


30200 


4159950 


118087448 


3U2 


60599 : 


8219749 





100 


22600 


5414950 




402: 


83199 


13G34G99 ; 




50 


25100 


112G->32 




452 


108299 


14760931 




50 


27600 






502 


135899; 






50 


4880 






552 


140779 






50 








602; 








8 








610 









Assuming 100 as a first approximation, we find that 
ac* -f 4023:* -f 60599x« + 4059799a- — 529074898 = is an 
equation havini; roots less by 100 than those of the given 
equation. And 529074898 contains 4059799 upwards of 
130 times; but if any number of tuns greater than 50 be 
taken, the accumulations of the next involution will give 
more than 5290, &c., as must be found by trial. Repeat- 
ing tho process, we find that 2.*« + 602x*+ 1356990?' -f 
13634699a:- 118087448=0 is an equation all whose roots 
are less by 50 than those of the last. We can now depend 
upon 118087448 divided by 13634099 giving one figure of 



•4 



•01 



004 



0002 



4 


-1 


-2 


• 
■ 


2 


-4 


-r 


'936 


2 


-5: 


-0' 


064; 


o 


016 


-0' 


045079 


0: 


-4-84 


-0*018921'^ 


0*4 


0-32 


-0" 


'017963056 


0-8 


-4*52; 


-0 


0009579443: 


1-2; 


0-0121 


-0' 


000897113 


r2i 


-4-507a 


-0*00006083111 


1*22 


0*0122 




44853 


r23t 


-4'4957t 




15978 


1-234 


0-004936 




13456 


1 • 238 


-4M90764 




2522 


1-242J 


0*004953 




2243 


1-2422 


-4'485812t 




279 


1-2424 


0*000248 




2G9 


1 '24261 


-4*485564 




10 




0*000248 




8 



t> 



-4*48531611 

The root of this equation is found to be 2*414213562, us 
follows. Beginning with the multiplier 2, one set of involu- 
tions brings us to the figures followed by colons, and x" -1- 
Oo?*— 5x4-2=0 is an equation on which the process is to 
be repeated. Dividing —2 by -r- 5 we find that *4 is most 
probably the next flgure, which is verified in the next trial, 
since the result of involution, 1*936, is less than 2. Wo 

Eroceed in this way until 2*4142, containing half the num- 
er of figures wanted, is found, and this being a, we huw* 
found -0*000060831 for -0a, and -4*485316 for f'a. The 
first divided by the second may be depended upon for 
doubling the number of figures, as commonly practised in 
the extraction of the square root [Approxiuation.] 
The figures 13562 are found by a contracted division sliow a 
in the example. 

But it is more convenient to avoid decimals in the procc\>s, 
which may be done as follows 1. If there be decimals in 
the coefficients of the equation, annex ciphers to every place 
in such manner that the number of decimals in the scvend 
places may be in increasing arithmetical progression. Then 
strike out the decimal points entirely, and proceed as with 
whole numbers, remembering that the root thus obtained 
will be 10 times too great if the progression increase by 
units, 100 times too great if it increase by twos, and so on. 
Thus l*81a:r'— -62:*-f33x-f 18*4 should be changed into 
l*81a:»--600a:*+33*0000a:-f 18*40000, and I81a:»-600x>-f 
330000x-f 1840000 will give ten times the required root. 
2. When all the whole figures of the root have been ob- 
tained, and the decimal part is about to enter the calcula- 
tion, before attempting to obtain the first decimal figure 
annex a cipher to the first working column on the left, two 
ciphers to the second* and so on to the end. Then proceed 
with the new figure as if it were a whole number, and make 
a new involution. When this is finished annex ciphers 
again as before. One additional advantage will be th 
the ciphers will serve to mark the places of completion 
the individual involutions. If in any case 0a should not 
contain 0'a, place a cipher in the root, annex ciphers again, 
and then proceed. In some of the older algebraists, Ough« 
tred for instance, the several vertical lines of figures are 
kept in their places by a set of ruled columns, the use of 
which is difficult. Mr. Horner has a similar contrivance ; 
but the employment of ciphers removes all the difficulty, 
as in common division and the extraction of the square root 
See the last example in this article. The method might 
easily be extended to the whole part of the root 
The following is an instance of the method: — 

a:*+x^-a:»-2a:-25s0. 



•rs 
of, 



r 



I N V 



10 



I N V 



j( 



*r 



.<• 



2 

4 

60 

63 

660 

661 

662 



10(2-31662479 

8 

200 

189 



1100 
661 



6626 )43900 
39756 



66326)414400 
897956 

66338)16444 
1 3266 

3178 
2653 

525 
•464 

61 
59 



00 
a 10 
A20 

c 30 
e/32 

fseo 

%362 



In the extraction of roots the method of pointing and 
bringing down the periods as they are wanted may be fol- 
lowed. The following is the process for the extraction of 
the cube root of 205692449327 ; it being remembered that 
the question is the solution of an equation of the form 
«' + 0«*-f 0ap = a. 









• ■ • • 


5 


25 


205692449327(5903 


10 


7500 


125 


150 


1431 


80692 


159 


8931 


80379 


168 

17700 

17703 


1512 


313449327 


104430000 


313449327 




53109 






t 3630 
j 3638 
A 3646 



/ 36540 
m 36542 
n 36544 



365460 
p 365463 
q 365466 

r 3654690 
s 3654699 
< 3654708 

u 3654717 
xwv 



000 
100a 

100 oa 
200 6 

3006 
64 d 

36i dd 
68 g 

432000 

361 g 

43561 gg 

362 K 

4392300 A 
29104 ^ 

4421 404 jt; 
29168 k 

445057200 k 
73084 m 

445130284 mm 
73088 n 

44520337200 n 
1096389 p 

44521433589 icp 
1096398^ 

4452252998700 9 
32892291 tf 

4452285890991 ss 
32892372 t 



1808<12' 18 23986 9 78395^002 
od'gjmpivwxyz abodef g 
1000 g gg 

808 
mddd 

80000 
43561 ggg 

36439000 
35371232^" 

1067768000 
890260568 mm m 

177507432000 
133564300767 ppp 

43943131233000 
40070573018919 «w 

38725582140811 
35618573657041 tTtn? 



310700846377 
267139491006 



43561367371 
40070925909 



3490431462 
3116627593 



373803869 
3561860101 



tvww 



JLJCjC 



17617859 
13356975 



104483109 

The opposite process is the extraction of the cube root of 
1 ' 808, and will serve as an example of the complete pro- 
cess, omitting only the first column, which, with the excep- 
tion of the unit at the head, is blank. And this is also the 
type of the solution of any cubic equation whatsoever ; the 
only difference being that the heads of the first and second 
working columns are ciphers in the extraction of the simple 
root, and significant in all other cases. 



4452318783363 / 
292377 V 



4260884 
4007093 



445232170713 W) 
292377 V 



253791 
222616 



445232463090 V 
2192 w 



31175 
31166 



44523248501 WW 
2192 V) 



yyy 



zzz 



aaa 



bbb 



ccc 



ddd 



?£:g 



44523250693 to 
32 X 



4452325101 XX 
31 X 



4452325133 
gfedcbazy 



The preparation for decimals makes the answer ten times 
too great ; so that the cube root of 1 ' 808 is r 218 . . . 002, of 
which only the last figure 2 cannot be depended upon. The 
preceding contains every figure which need be written down, 
all the connecting operations being those which are usually 
performed mentally, and one only is required for each 
figure. We do not think that any attempt to shorten the 
work, by leaving out the recurring figures, or employ- 
ing double mental operations, would save time ; and it would 
certainly very much augment the liability to error. The 
vertical lines in the example show that part of the opera- 
tion in which the contraction takes ptAce, and the point at 
which the contraction becomes simple contracted division is 
marked by a thick horizontal line. To enable the beginner 
to examine the process we have placed a letter in every line 
of the first working column, by which the parts of the se- 
cond column which are connected with it may be traced ; 
while a letter doubled in the second column shows a multi- 
plicand, the product of which by the root figure is found as 
marked in the third column. Tlio letters under the last 
line of the first column mark the figures cut off in the se- 
veral conti actions, and their results in the other columns 
are traced in the same way : the same for the letters under 
the second column. 

One simplification might be made after the learner has 
practised a number of examples conducted as above. In 
the second working column certain lines, namely, the second 
6, the second «, the second A, &c., are not used except to be 
added to the next line. Hence each of the lines on which 
a letter is doubled might be formed by addin<; the first, 
third, and fourth preceding lines, and the effect would be 
to omit some of the lines and some of the most simple addi- 
tions. The second column, beginning from pp inclusive, 
as a specimen, and changing the line in which ciphers are 



annexed (and the ciphers should always be annexed to 
mark the step) would be 

44521433589 pp 
109639800? 
32892291 • 

4452285890991 89 
32892372/ 
292377 V 

445232170713 w 
292377 V 
2192 w 

44523248501 tow 

But considering that the process is one which no person 
will very often perform, we doubt whether to recommend 
even this abridgment. All such simplifications tend to make 
the computer lose sight of the uniformity of method which 
runs through the whole ; and we have always found them, la 
rules which only occur now and then, afford greater assist- 
ance in forgetting the method than In abbreviating it. 

On evolution of algebraical quantities we do not think it 
necessary to speak, since either the binomial theorem [Bi- 
nomial Theorem], or some other method of development, 
is employed with more advantage than the usual modifica- 
tiop of the arithmetical process. We have also omitted the 
process of division, the most simple of all evolutions, since 
its connection with the preceding is sufficiently obvious. 

There is however a process of an evolutionary character 
which we take this opportunity of suggesting, and of which 
any one moderately conversant with algebra will easily arrive 
at the demonstration. In finding the highest common divisor 
of two algebraical integral expressions, and also in the pro- 
cess of Sturm's Theorem, it is required to divide ono ex* 




1 O D 



12 



I O D 



A 



U — This compound was first obtained by Davy 
^ ^lion of iodine upon what he called euchlorine gas. 
4tter process has however been proposed by Mr. Connell, 
\^ich consists in heating the iodine in the strongest nitric 
*licid. For this purpose the acid should be introduced with 
about a fifth of its weight of iodine into a tube about an inch 
wide and 1 5 inches long, and sealed at one end, and these 
materials are to be kept boiling for 12 hours ; the iodine which 
rises and condenses on the sides of the tube is to be returned 
to the acid either by a glass tube or by agitation ; when the 
iodine disappears, the excess of nitric acid is to be got rid 
of by evaporation. Iodic acid is a white semitransparent 
solid substance, which is inodorous, but has an astringent 
sour taste. It is so dense as to sink in sulphuric acid, and 
it deliquesces in a moist atmosphere. It is very soluble in 
water ; the solution reddens vegetable blue colours ; it de- 
tonates when mixed and heated with charcoal, sugar, and 
sulphur. It combines with metallic oxides to form salts, 
which are termed iodates, and these, like the chlorates, 
yield oxygen when heated ; and an iodide remains. 
Iodic acid is composed of 

Five equivalents of oxygen 8 x 5 x= 40 
One equivalent of iodine 126 

Equivalent 166 

Oxiodic or Periodic Acid. — ^When chlorine is added to 
;katuration to a solution of iodate of soda with excess of the 
alkali and concentrated by evaporation, a sparingly soluble 
white salt is obtained, which is oxiodate qf soda ; when 
this is dissolved in dilute nitric acid and mixed with nitrate 
of silver, a yellow precipitate falls, which, dissolved in hot 
nitric acid and evaporated, yields orange-coloured crystals 
of oxiodate of silver ; these are decomposed bv cold water, 
and an aqueous solution of pure oxiodic acid is formed ; 
this by cautious evaporation yields hydrated crystals, and 
these, when heated to 212^ are resolved into oxygen and 
iodic acid. It consists of 

Seven e(^uivalents of oxygen 8x7 = 56 
One equivalent of iodine 126 

Equivalent 182 

Azote and Iodine form iodide of azote. This compound 
cannot be obtained by direct action, on account of the weak- 
ness of the affinity existing between its elements. It is 
prepared by putting iodine into an aqueous solution of 
ammonia, which being decomposed, its hydrogen forms 
hydriodic acid with one portion of the iodine, whilst the 
azote combining with another portion of it, the result is 
iodide, or, correctly speaking, teriodidc of azote, which re- 
mains insoluble in the state of a dark brown powder. This 
compound is very explosive, especially when dry : the best 
method of exhibiting its power is that of allowing it to dry 
in small portions on bibulous paper, and then simply letting 
it fall on the ground or merely touching it, it detonates 
with a sharp noise, heat and light being emitted, and the 
vapour of iuiline and azotic gas are evolved. It is not dan- 
gerously explosive. It is composed of 

One equivalent of azote . . 14 

Three equivalents of iodine 126 x 3 = 378 

Equivalent 392 
Hydrogen and Jfxiine form hydriodic acid, which may 
Iwi prepared by the direct combination of its elements. 
Wlieii a mixture of iodine in vapour and hydrogen gas is 
]j;issed through a rod-hot porcelain tube, they combine to 
form this acid. It is however much more conveniently 
formed by heating in a retort one part of phosphorus and 
about 12 parts of iodine moistened with water; by the 
mutual action of these substances the water is decomposed, 
its oxygen combines with the phosphorus, forming phos- 
phoric acid, while the hydrogen unites with the iodine to 
form hydriodic acid, which passes over in the state of a 
colourless gas. This acid has a sour taste, reddens vege- 
table blues, and when mixed with atmospheric air forms 
dense white fumes with its moisture : its odour resembles 
that of hydrochloric acid gas. It is soluble in water. The 
salts which it forms are termed hydriodates ; but when it is 
acted upon by metals, hydrogen is evolved, and when by 
metallic oxides, water is formed, and in both cases iodides 
are the result 

It is decomposed by oxysen when they are heated to- 
gether; water is formed, ana iodine evolved. It is also im< 
mediately decomposed by chlorine, which unites with its 



hydrogen to form hydrochloric acid, and iodine is set free. 

It is composed of « 

One equivalent of hydrogen 1 

One equivalent of iodine 126 

Equivalent 127 

One volume of it consists of half a volume of hydrogen 
gas and half a volume of the vapour of iodine. 

Chlorine and Iodine appear to form three chlorides. 
The protochloride may be obtained by passing a current of 
chlorine gas into water in which chlorine is suspended ; a 
deep red&h solution is formed, which yields irritating 
fumes possessing the smell of both the elements ; it first 
reddens and then bleaches litmus paper. The terchloride 
may be formed by repeatedly distilling the protochloride. 
The perchloride when decomposed by water gives rise to 
hydrochloric and iodic acids. The opinions of chemists 
with respect to these compounds are yet somewhat at 
variance. 

Sulphur and Iodine is formed by beating ^ntly a mix- 
ture of 1 part of sulphur and 4 parts of iodine. The 
product is of a dark colour, and has a radiated structure ; 
it is easily decomposed by heat 

Iodine and Phoephorue combine readily without the ap- 
plication of heat ; and so much heat is evolved by their action 
that the phosphorus takes fire if the experiment be made 
in the open air; but in close vessels no light appears. The 
composition of iodides of phosphorus is rather uncertain ; 
that which is probably a protioclide is formed with one part 
of phosphorus and seven or eight parts of iodine ; it has an 
orange colour, f\ises at 212*, and when heated sublimes 
without changing; it is decomposed by and decomposes 
water, forming with its elements nydriodic and phosphorous 
acids, while phosphorus is set f^ee. It is probably com- 
posed of 

One equivalent of iodine 126 

One equivalent of phosphorus 16 

Equivalent 142 
The sesquiodide is formed by the action of 1 part of 
phosphorus and 12 parts of iodine. It is a dark grey crys- 
talline mass, which fuses at 84% and with water yields 
hydriodic and phosphorous acids. It is composed of 
One and a naif equivalent of iodine 189 
One equivalent of phosphorus 16 

Equivalent 205 
The periodide is prepared tiith 1 part of phosphorus and 
20 of iodine ; it is a black compound, fusible at 1 1 4% By 
the action of water it yields hyclriodic and phosphoric acids, 
and hence it is inferred to consist of 

Two and a half equivalents of iodine 315 
One equivalent of phosphorus 16 

Equivalent 331 

Iodine and Carbon unite to form two compounds, but nut 
by direct action. They are not important, and their com- 
position has not been ascertained. 

The compounds of iodine and metals are mentioned 
under each metal. 

IODINE, Medicinal Properhee qf. Iodine, though only 
obtained in an isolated state of late years, has been long 
employed as the efficient principle of other preparations and 
therapeutic agents, namely, burnt sponge and certain mine 
ral waters. It is only since it has been procured as a distinct 

frinciple that its action has been ascertained with precision, 
n the present day it is administered rather in some artifi 
cial compound than as pure iodine, owing to its very spar- 
ing aoluoility in water. Iodine in substance, however, 
when applied to the skin, stains it brown, and even the very 
small quantity which can be dissolved in water is sufficient 
to cause rubefoction, and in the form of baths produces de- 
cided action both on the surface of the body ana the general 
system. When applied to ulcers or any breach of the skin, 
it occasions heat and a sense of pricking and tingling ; it is 
also absorbed, and may be discovered in the blood and the 
secretions of the patient Taken internally, even in small 
doses, it causes a sense of heat in the mouth and throat ; if 
much diluted by the vehicle in which it is given, and the 
stomach be healthy, it appears to do little more than in- 
crease the digestive powers; but in larger and stronger 
doses it creates great heat in the region of the stomach, 
which 1 ccomes sensible to pressure, with a feehng uf 




I O N 



14 



I O N 



Carian inhabifants. [Ephbsus.] They likewise occupied 
Leoedos and Colophon, the latter of which towns was in- 
habited by Cretans, who appear to have amalgamated with 
the Ionian colonists. Further north Teos, which had been 
built by the iEolians, received also an Ionian colony, as 
well as Erythra on the coast fbcing the island of Chios. 
On the north coast of the aame peninsula Clazomense was 
founded afterwards by a colony nom Colophon, and later 
still Phocsea was colonized by adventurers from Phocis and 
lonians from Attica on a territory north of the Hermus, 
which belonged originally to the uumseans of iEolia. The 
above towns, with the two islands of Chios and Samos, 
which the lonians likewise cdonized, formed the confedera- 
tion of the twelve cities of Ionia. Smyrna being seized by 
Colophonian exiles (according to Herodotus), was in course 
of time added to the confedention. Other colonies from 
the twelve cities were built along the coast, such as Gerse, 
Myonnesus, Claros, &c. 

This confederation appears to hav^ been mainly united 
by a common religious wor^ip and the celebration of a 
periodical festival ; and it seem^ that the deputies of the 
several states only met in times of great ditnculty. The 
Tjhce of assembly was the Panionium, at the foot of Mount 
Mycale, where a temple, built on neutral ground, was dedi- 
cated to Poseidon. In the old loaia (afterwards called 
Achsa), Poseidon was also the national deity, and his 
temple continued at Helice till that city was destroyed by 
the great earthquake. That the settlers in Asia should 
retain their national worship is a circumstance perfectly in 
accordance with the history of colonization, and confirma* 
tory, if confirmation were wanted, of the European origin of 
the lonians of Asia. We have no materials for a history 
of these cities of Ionia as a political community, and no 
reason fbr supposing that their political union came near 
the exact notion of a federation, as some have conjectured. 

Asiatic Ionia extended from the Cumiean gulf on the 
north to Mount Grius and the gulf Basilicus south of 
Miletus, a length of not more than 100 miles in a straight 
line, but with a coast three times that length, owing to 
the many sinuosities and the form of the large Cherso- 
nesus opposite Chios. The Ionian territory did not extend 
inland above 40 miles from the coast as far as Mounts 
Sipylus and Tmolus. It bordered on the north upon the 
terntory of Pergamus, Cumc, and other iEolian cities 
which had been colonized several generations before the 
Ionian immigration, and on the south upon Caria, where 
the Porian colonies formed, some time later, a small con- 
federation. The principal rivers of Ionia were the Hermus, 
the Caystrus, and the Mseander, all three flowing from the 
interior with a western course into the^Egean. [Anatolia.] 

The Asiatic lonians early attained a high degree of com- 
mercial and maritime prosperity. Miletus alone is said to 
have founded 75 towns or colonies. They became wealthy, 
refined, and luxurious. The remains of their monuments 
prove their taste for the arts, and their temples and public 
buildings rivalled those of European Greece. The litera- 
ture of Greece may be said to have originated on the coast 
of Asia Minor. The historian Hecatrous was a native of 
Miletus; Thales, one of the earliest philosophers, was from 
the same country. Anacreon was a native of Teos ; and 
Herodotus, thouc^h a Dorian, adopted, in his History, the 
language of his Ionian neighbours. 

The Lydian kings, whose capital was at Sardis, made war 
against the Ionian states, who only obtained peace and 
preserved a kind of independence by paying tribute, but 
they were finally subdued by Croesus. They remained 
faithful to the Lydians, when attacked by Cyrus (b.c. 546), 
in consequence of which, that monarch having subdued the 
Lydians, sent his general Harpagus to reduce Ionia. Har- 
pegus tooH and destroyed Phoeiea, and the surviving inha- 
bitants fled by sea, and founded Massilia (Marseille) on 
the coast G^ Gaul. About the same time many of the 
Teians left their country and founded Abdera in Thrace. 
Priene was taken by Harpagus, and the inhabitants were 
sold as slaves. Miletus and the other cities obtained peace 
on the same conditions as they bad accepted under the 
kings of Lydia. In almost every town there were two parties, 
aristocratic and democratic, and the Persian kings or their 
aatraps generally Ikvoured the former, and thus it happenecl 
that moat of the Greek cities in Asia came to be ruled by 
tyrants, or individuals who possessed the sovereign power. 
Aristagoras, who was deputy tyrant of Miletus in the time 
ftf the first Parina^ having quarrelled with the Persian 



satrap, urged his fellow-countrymen the lonians to revolt, 
to expel their tyrants, and to establish democracy. He set 
the example by resigning his power. Hecat^us, who saw 
the danger of rousing the formidable power of Persia, u\ 
vain opposed this rash measure. Aristagoras proceeded to 
Athens, and obtained the assistance of a tle^t. The Athe- 
nians and lonians united marched to Sardis, and plundered 
and burnt the city, but the Persians coming in great force, 
the confederates were defeated, and the Athenians withdrew 
from the contest The Ionian fleet was strong at sea, but 
could not prevent the satrap Actaphemes ftoxa attacking 
and taking their cities by land. Clazomense was taken aiul 
destroyed, but the inhabitants some time after built a new 
town upon an island near the coast Miletus was captured 
after a gallant defence, most of the inhabitants were killed, 
and the rest were transplanted into Persia, where Darius 
gave them lands and a settlement Hie territory of Milctu^^ 
was given up to Persian or Lydian colonists. Thus ended, 
about 494 BtC, the Ionian revolt, which lasted six year». 
Miletus however seems to have recovered f^om its ruin afltr 
a time, and the Tictories of the Greeks over Xerxes had the 
efibct of restorine the fhgitives to their respective cities. 

After the battle of Mycale (b.c. 479), and the victories of 
Cimon, the Greeks became absolute masters of the sea, and 
the Persians did not venture near the coast The Athenians, 
who had taken the lead in the close of the Persian war, now 
obtained a kind of supremacy on the eastern coast of tlu* 
il^gean,aiid the Ionian cities acknowledged Athens as their 
leaner and the arbiter of their disputes. At the close and 
after the conclusion (b.c. 404) of the peloponnesian war, 
the Lacedflomonians gained the ascendency, and the towiv» 
of Asia changed protectors. Accordingly we find Agesilaus 
reconciling their intestine feuds, and professing, as the object 
of his expedition into Asia, to secure their mdependence. 
But by the peace of Antalctdas, 387 b.c., the towns on the 
continent of Asia were given up to the king of Persia, who 
however does not appear to have treated them harshly, for 
many of them were m a prosperous state at the time of Alex- 
ander's expedition. After the battle of the Granicus the 
democratic party at Ephesus and other towns resumed the 
upper hand, and Alexander gave them his countenance, at 
the same time forbidding them strictly fbom offering any 
further violence to the vanquished aristocracy. Miletus 
alone did not submit ; it sent proposals however to Alex- 
ander, offering to remain neutral, but the conqueror 
sternly repulsed the proposal: the town was taken by 
storm, and most of the inhabitants put to the sword. It 
does not seem to have ever after completely recovered from 
that blow; and the gradual deposits of theMieander, whicli 
have totally changed the appearance of the coast, contri- 
buted to its depression. Miletus, once a seaport town, 
is now eight miles Arom the sea, and the islana of Lade, 
which stood at the entrance of its harbour, is become pai t 
of the mainland. Miletus however was still a town of 
some consequence under the Romany and under the B} - 
zantine emperors, till the twelfth century, when it was 
ravaged by the Turks. There are now only a few huts 
amidst its ruins inhabited by some Turkish families, but 
the place retains the pompous name of Palatska, or ' the 
palaces.* Chandler found remains of a vast theatre, ami 
also of the fiimous temple of Apollo DidymsB us in its neigh- 
bourhood, with several of the columns still standing. Un- 
der the Roman empire several of the other cities of Ionia 
still maintained the rank of wealthy cities, such as Smyrna 
and Ephesus. The best account of the actual state of the 
remains of the Ionian cities is in Chandler's Travels in Asia 
Minor, and the Ionian Antiquities^ published by the Dilet- 
tanti Society, 2 vols, fol., with handsome plates. (Sec also 
Leakeys Map qf Asia Minor; Macfarlanes C<mstantinopft> 
in 1828; and ChishuU's Asiatic Antiquities; Herodotus, 
i. 141-151 ; Strabo, lib. xiv.; P^usanias, vii. 1-5.) 





Coin of ClasoBMDK. 
BrHkhMoMUB. AfltialSiM. GoU. Weigbt. » inms. 

IONIAN latANDS is the name given to the Seven 
islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca* 



ION 



16 



I P E 



The fiistriet and villaee schoolfl are under the immediate 
superintendence of the nead master of the central school 
in each inland, and there is an inspector-general of all these 
schools. The whole of the estahlishment for education is 
under the general direction of the commission for public in- 
struction. 

The only coinage of the states is a copper currency of 
farthings to the amount of 10,000/. The genpral circu- 
lating medium consists of Spanish dollars. Some British 
silver coin has also been put into circulation* but the 
greater part has been withdrawn for remittances to Malta 
and to England. 

The Troy pound of 5760 grains is the standard weight : 
24 of these grains make 1 calco ; 20 calchi 1 ounce ; and . 
12 ounces 1 libbra sottile, or pound light weight, equal to 
1 lb. Troy. The libbra grossa, or great pound, contains 7000 
grains, and is therefore equivalent to the pound avoirdu- 
pois; 100 lbs. (libbra grossa) are called a talento. The 
English imperial standard yard is the standard linear mea- 
sure, with the divisions into 3 feet and 36 inches : 5) yards 
are 1 camaco; 220 yards I stadio; and 1760 yards 1 mile. 
The imperial gallon is the measure of capacity : 1 gallon is 
equal to 8 diootoli. An Ionian barrel contains 16 gallons, 
or 128 dicotoli. 

IONIAN SCHOOL comprises several of the earliest 
philosophers of Greece, whose speculations were predo- 
minantly of a physiological character, and who, with one or 
two exceptions, were natives of the Ionian colonies in Asia 
Minor. From this purely external circumstance the school 
has derived its name, ana its members have been brought 
into an unbroken connexion of masters and disciples by the 
learned labours of the later Greeks, who strove to give to 
the first development of philosophy the same orderly trans- 
mission of doctrine which prevailed in the later schools. 
Accordingly Anaximander is made the scholar of Thales 
and the teacher of Anaximenes, who had two discinles, 
Diogenes of Apollonia in Crete, and Anaxagoras, whose 
disciple was Archelaus of Alliens, or Miletus, in whom the 
school closes. Now, not to mention that this purely artifi- 
cial arrangement omits Heraclitus, the chief of the lonians, 
it is also open to great difficulties both of doctrine and 
chronology. As regards the latter however, we shall only 
advert to the general difficulty, that between six and seven 
generations (212 years) are occupied by the lives of Thales, 
Anaximander, Anaximenes, and Anaxagoras. The incon- 
gruity of the received arrangements appears at once on 
the slightest consideration of the doctrinal systems of the 
philosophers of this schooL Agreeing in the hypothesis of 
a primeval state of things, they differed widely in the mode 
in which they accounted for the deduction of existing phe- 
nomena out of the primal substance. One theory enaued 
the universe with life, and considered the orderly procession 
of all things to be a spontaneous development of a pre- 
existent germ of life. A second accounted for all apparent 
alteration in the form and qualities of natural bodies by 
certain changes in the outward relations of space, and pro- 
ceeded on the supposition of certain permanent material 
elements which change place in obedience to motion, either 
originally inherent in or extrinsically impressed on the 
mass. The latter is the mechanical, the former the dyna- 
mical theory of nature. Of the dynamical theorists, Thales 
first of aU taught that all things are pregnant with life ; 
that the seed or germ of vitality, which is in all things, 
is water, because all seed is moist and humid. Of this 
potentially living entity Anaximenes advanced a still 
worthier representation, and taught that the primal sub- 
stance is infinite and sensuously imperceptible. This prin- 
ciple is analogous to the animal soul, and as the animal 
soul governs the body, so the universal soul rules and 
embraces all things. Diogenes made a still farther advance, 
and maintained that the narmony and design of the mun- 
dane fabric suggest the unity and intelligence of its first 
principle. This principle however he considered as simply 
physical, and only distinguished from natural phenomena 
in this, that while it is infinite, as the principle of all, they 
are finite. Still bolder was the flight of Heraclitus, who 
taught that the world is an overliving being, a rational 
fire, whose vitality involves a tendency to contraries, and is 
ever passing from want to satiety. 

The mechanical theory is first opened by Anaximander, 
who flourished not long after Thales, who conceived the 
ground both of production and motion to be an eternal sub- 
stance, which he called the infinite, and wherein the immu- 



table elements were indistinguishably combined. Out rf 
this chaos certain primarv contraries, as he conceived them. 
cold and warm, earth and heaven, were first evolved, and ii: 
the course of certain separations and combinations alter 
nately proceeding, more perfect forms are spontaneousl> 
developed, to be ultimately resolved into the nomogeneous 
primaiT. After a long interval of a century Anaxagoras 
revived the mechanical physiology, and distinctly advancei! 
the princinle on which it rests, that nothing is changcal)b\ 
but that me nature of every thing is permanent. Sciziiu- 
the contrariety of the moving and the moved, which ti)v 
mechanical theory is so well calculated to exhibit, he do 
fined the latter to be extended antitypous hulk, inert bodv, 
infinitely multiple both in qualities and parts. The moving: 
principle, on the contrary, is perfect, simple, and humeri - 
neous— soul or spirit, which, as moving the elements iin 
combinations of order and beauty, is endued with the facultx 
of knowing and surveying whatever was, and is, and shu'i' 
be. Archelaus rather abandoned than advanced the vlL•^^^ 
of his master Anaxagoras, and in him, as the teacher v>. 
Socrates, the Ionian school became extinct before the more 
extensive development of the Socratic philosophy. (Riiter 
Geschichte d. lonischen Philosophie ; and Brandes, Ge^- 
chichiajL Griech.'R'6m. Philos,) 

IONIAN SEA. [IONIA.J 

IONIC DIALECT, the softest of the four written 
varieties of the Greek language, was spoken in the lonn.n 
colonies of Asia Minor, and in several of the islands of tiu 
iEgean Sea. As the new Ionic, it is distinguished from a: 
older, which was the common origin of itself and the Attic. 
The old Ionic was widely diffused, and its use was co -ex- 
tensive with the Ionian settlements in the Peloponnesus 
and Northern Greece. (Thirlwall, History qf Greece, I, li23.i 
The language of epic poetry arose out of this original tongue, 
which after the Dorian conquest passed, on the one hand, 
with the fugitives into Asia Minor, while, on the other, it 
continued to be spoken, for awhile at least, by the conquercf i 
peasantry who remained in Greece Proper. This tradition, 
which however, like most of the earlier traditions of Greeco, 
is involved in great obscurity, may perhaps serve to explain 
(what in the common legends of Homer is otherwise inex- 
plicable) the similarity of the language employed by Homer 
and Hesiod, who, though near to each other in time, were 
widely separated in the supposed scenes of their poetical 
labours. (Ibid., ii. 120.) This first matured form of the 
Ionic has been called the epic, and was faithfully adhere<l 
to as the standard of Greek epic and elegiac composition by 
all subsequent writers of epos or elegy, which also owed its 
birth to lonians. 

On the formation of the new Ionic, t>r simply the Ionic, 
great influence was exercised by the commerce of the lonians, 
and especially by their intercourse with the soft and efiemi- 
nate Asiatics. Neglecting the combination of strength with 
softness which gave to the epic dialect its characteristic 
fulness of tone, the lonians attended only to mellowness 
and euphony, to attain which it softened the aspirates, ac- 
cumulated vowels, and laid aside every broader and harsliot 
sound. Herodotus (i. 142) distinguishes four varietie:> 
(xapaKTtjpiQ y\ti<r<rTiQ) of the new Ionic, in one of which he 
wrote, and, though a Dorian, has left us the best and roost 
complete specimen of it. [Herodotus; Hippocrates.] 

IONIC ORDER. [Civil Architecture; Column.] 

lONI'DIUM, a genus of violaceous plants, inhabiting 
the tropical parts of America. It resembles Viola itself in 
most respects, but its sepals are not prolonged at the base 
into appendages, and the lower petal is not spurred. Several 
species are used medicinally. I. Ipecacuanha and some 
others have emetic roots. 

lORA, or JORA, a genus of birds established by Dr. 
Horsfleld, and placed by Mr. Swainson among his Brachy- 
podiiue, or short-legged thrushes. [MERULiDiB.] 

lOS. [Archipklaoo, GrbcianJ 

IPECACUANHA is an emetic substance, the root of 
several plants growing in South America. All the kinds 
have nearly the same ingredients, but differ in the amount 
of the active principle which they respectively contain, 
termed emeta. The best is the annulated, yielaed by the 
Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, a small shrubby plant, native of 
Brazil and of New Granada. Of this sort there are threo 
varieties, namely, the brown, red, and grey, or grey-white, 
called also greater annulated ipecacuan. As this is the 
only sort sent from Rio Janeiro, it is sometimes called Brazi- 
lian or Lisbon ipecacuan. It is sent in bales and barrels 



IPS 



18 



IRE 



boldt was however well aware that * the true Purga de 
Xalapa delights only in a temperate climate, or rather an 
almost cold one, in shaded valleys, and on the slope of 
mountains ' {New Spain, vol. iii.) ; and the fitct is import* 
ant as showing that a temperate and not a hot olimate is 
required for its cultivation elsewhere. Dr. Coxe, of Penn- 
sylvania, received in 1827 directly from Xalapa several 
small Jalap plants, one of which he succeeded in growing 
to maturity, and which was ascertained hy Dr. Nuttal to he 
aii Ipomo^a, and named hy him /. Jalapa. Specimens and 
seeds, of which the latter have produced plants, were suh- 
sequently procured hy Dr. Schiede from Chioonquiera, on 
the eastern declivity of the Mexican Andes, at an elevation 
of 6000 feet. This plant, it is now ascertained, was also 
knuwn to Miller from seeds sent hy Dr. Houston from 
Mexico, as in the < Gardener s Dictionary ' a plant agreeing 
in description with the true Jalap plant, ana with smooth 
leaves, is descrihed. The root of this plant is a roundish 
somewhat pear-shaped tuher, externally hlackish, internally 
white, with long fibres proceeding from its lower parts. The 
stem is much disposed to twist, and rises to a considerable 
height upon surrounding objects. The leaves are heart- 
shaped and pointed, delply sinuated at the base, entire, 
smooth, prominently veined upon their under surface, and 
supported upon long footstalks. The flowers are of a lively 
purple colour, and stand upon peduncles as long as the pe- 
tioles. [Convolvulus Jalapa.] 

IPSAMBUL. [Abousambul.] 

IPSUS, BATTLE OF. [Antigonus, p. 103.] 

IPSWICH, a parliamentary borough and corporate town, 
capital of the county of SufPolk, and distant 69 miles north- 
east from London, is agreeably situated on the side of a hill 
near the junction of the rivers Orwell and Gipping. Ac- 
cording to Camden, this town was antiently called Gippes- 
wich, which name was derived from that of the neighbour- 
ing river Gippen, or Gipping, and thence gradually became 
changed into Yppyswyche and Ipswich. The town does 
not appear to be mentioned before the invasion of the Danes 
in 991, by whom it was pillaged, and the fortifications de- 
stroyed. In the Confessor's time, according to Domesday 
Book, ' Queen Ediva had two parts here, and earl Gwert a 
third, and there were 800 burgesses paying custom to the 
king.' The earliest charter oonferrea upon the town was 
granted by king John in the first year of his reign, and by 
it numerous privileges were acquired by the burgesses, of 
which privileges th« chief were, that they should have 
a merchant's guild, with ib«ir own hanse ; that no person 
should be lodged within the borough without the consent 
of the burgesses ; that they should hold their lands and 
tenures according to the customs of free boroughs, &c. 
Henry III. increased the privileges of the burgesses, but in 
the reign of Edward I. the borough was seized by that 
monarch, on account of certain offences committed by the 
inhabitants, though it was afterwards restored to them with 
all its liberties. In the reign of Edward III. the municipal 
government appears to have been again taken away from 
Uie corporation, and committed to the sheriff of the county, 
by whom a keeper of the town was appointed, but the cor- 
porate government was soon restored, and the burghal 
privileges confirmed and extended by the subsequent char- 
ters of Richard II., Henry VI., Edward IV., Richard HI., 
Henry VU. and VlII., Edward VI., Elizabeth, James I., 
and Charles I. In the leign of Charles II. this corporation, 
like many others, surrendered its charters and franchises 
to the king, but in the 36th year of his reign the borough 
was re-inoorporated, with a new constitution, and by a 
charter of James II. the corporate officers were released 
from the oaths. The charters of John, Edward IV., Henry 
VIII., and 1 7 Charles II., as restored by the proclamation 
of James, are all considered as governing charters. By the 
5 and 6 William IV., cap. 76, the council of the borough 
consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors. 
Ipswich has returned two members to parliament since 
the 25th year of Henry VL 

The revenue of the corporation, consisting of water rental, 
rents of lands, houses, miUs, and other tenements, exceeds 
2000/. per annum. The expenditure in 1828 amounted to 
1529/. 10c idL, and the corporation property is charged 
with a debt of 14,300/^ 

The streets of Ipswich, though well paved, and lighted 
with gas, are narrow and irregular, which is attributable to 
the remarkable circumstance that the town is not known 
ever to have suffered firom fire, or even from the civil com- 



motions which convulsed so many parts of the kingdom 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. There are 
many good buildings, and many extremely old, decorated 
with a profusion of curiously oarved images. Most of the 
houses, even in the heart of the city, have convenient ^r- 
dens adjoining them, which render it at once agreeable, 
airy, and salubrious. The water for the supply of the tovm 
rises from springs in certain lands which the corporation 
hold under long leases, and it is conveyed into the town by 
pipes laid down at their expense* The water rental, which 
forms a considerable part of the revenue of the corporation, 
has been the source of much discontent among the inhabi- 
tants, as the former claim a monopoly of the supply, and 
the latter complain that they are ill supplied. In the 
Report of the Commissioners on Munici)Mil Corporations* 
1835, the police of the town is described as being particu- 
larly inefficient 

The manufactures of the town consist chiefly in the 
spinning of woollen yarn, ship-building, sail-making, &c. 
Its commerce arises from the exportation of corn, malt, and 
other produce of the surrounding country. There is a har- 
bour for light vessels formed by the aestuary of the Orwell, 
which is navigable at high water up to the bridge, except 
for vessels of large burthen, which lie at Downham Reach. 

The principal public buildings are the churches of Saints 
Clement, Helen, Laurence, Margaret, Mary at Elms, Mary 
at Kay, Mary at Stoke, Mary at Tower, Matthew, Nicholas, 
Peter, and Stephen. To the northward of the churcli of 
St Mary at Kay was formerly a house of Black Friars, 
called the Priory of St Peter's. The extensive site of this 
convent was purchased by the corporation, and confirmed 
to them in 1572 by the appellation of Christ's Hospital. 
Part of this edifice is now occupied as an hospital for poor 
boys, in which they are maintained, clothed, and educated, 
but the number during the five years preceding 1835 had 
never exceeded sixteen. The revenue of the hospital is 
estimated at 400/. a year. In another part of the monastery 
is a spacious room wherein is deposited the town library, 
the keys of which are kept by the master of the grammar- 
school, and out of which every freeman is privilegea to take 
away any book upon giving a proper receipt. In the spa- 
cious refectory of the same building, and on the south side, 
is now held the Free Grammar-school, the date of the first 
establishment of which is not known, though it was cer- 
tainly prior to the year 1477. But in 1524 Cardinal Wolsey 
having intimated to the university of Oxford his design of 
founding a college (now Christ Church), the priorv of St. 
Peter's was surrendered to him in 1527, whereon he founded 
a school as a nursery for his intended college at Oxford, 
and this school is said for a time to have rivalled those of 
Eton and , Winchester. Queen Elizabeth, in the second 
and third years of her reign, granted two charters for the 
regulation of the Grammar-school and of Christ's Hospital, 
At the present time the master has a salary of 150/. a year; 
he is provided with a dwelling-house, and the appointment 
is for hfe. Since the Report of the Commissioners on 
Charities a committee has oeen appointed to investigate 
the endowments of the Grammar-school. They state tha 1 1 he 
original endowment under the charter of Queen Elizabeth 
was 38/. 13«. Ad. per annum, which with some subsequent 
bequests makes an aggregate annual income of 66/. 6^. 8^. ; 
but it does not appear from what source the additional 
funds are derived in order to liquidate the master's salary 
of 150/. and to defray the other expenses of the establish- 
ment Ipswich is in the diocese or Norwich. The livings 
are three rectories, of the respective annual net values o. 
320/., 337/., and 82/., and seven paid curacies of the net 
value of 175/., 115/., 80/., 103/., 150/., 138/., and 103/. The 
borough is divided into fourteen parishes, the aggregate 
population of which in 1831 was 20,201 persons. (Gough's 
Camden'g Britannia ; Carlisle's Endowed Schools ; Beauties 
qf England and Wales ; Parliamentary Papers, &c.) 

IRAKAJEMI. [Pbrsia.] 

IRAK ARABI. [Bagdad.] 

IRAPUATO. [Mkxico.] 

IRELAND, the second in size of the British islands, 
and the second largest island of Europe, lies west of Great 
Britain, in the Atlantic Ocean. The general maps of Ire- 
land at present published are too imper&ct to give the means 
of stating its position more accurately than that it lies be- 
tween 5r 25' and 55" 22' N. lat and 5* 27' and 10" 35' W. 
long. The arm of the Atlantic which separates Ireland from 
Great Britain, and bounds it on the north-east| east and 



IRE 



20 



I Rfi 



west; and theMonaghan and Tyrone districts, on the north 
there is also a coal district of small extent in the north- 
eastern extremity of the county of Antrim. The coal raised 
in the southern districts is anthracite, or hlind-coal ; that 
raised in the districts north of Duhlin is bituminous. 

In addition to these the central district of Ireland contains 
upwards of one million of acres of bog, comprehended for 
the most part within that portion which would be embraced 
by lines drawn from Wicklow to Gal way, and from Howth- 
head to Sligo. The greater portion of these bogs lies west 
of the Shannon in the counties of Galway, Roscommon, 
and Mayo; the remainder, extending in various tracts 
through King's County, Longford, Westmeath, and Kildare, 
is known collectively as the Bog of Allen. Numerous 
ridges of limestone-gravel, called Eskers, surrounding these 
several divisions, offer an unlimited supply of the material 
best adapted for their improvement. It is calculated that an 
expense of 1/. 5s. per acre would be sufficient for the drain- 
age of these bogs, which are at present inaccessible and 
useless for the purposes of turbary. 

Besides these encumbrances the lower carboniferous lime- 
stone, which constitutes the central plain, is overlaid in 
many tmcts towards the borders of the district by the upper 
or splintery limestone, and this is generally accompanied by 
a craggy and rough surface : such is the case in the vicinity 
of each of the coal districts and throughout the counties of 
Sligo, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Leitrira. These districts 
contain numerous caverns, and streams sinking into sub- 
terranean channels are hero of frequent occurrence. 

By much the greater part of the central plain however is 
unincumbered, and has the pure carboniferous limestone 
for its substratum. Throughout these districts the soil is 
rich and sweet, and the surface gently undulating. The 
mountain groups and waste lands on the whole occupy a 
comparatively small portion of the entire island, and many 
of the districts lying without the central plain rival the 
richest limestone lands in easiness of access and fertility. 

Rivers and Lakes. — From the arrangement of the moun- 
tain groups round the borders of the centrid plain the 
courses of the greater number of the rivers of Ireland are 
necessarily short. Of those which drain the external dis- 
tricts the chief are the Blackwater and Lee in Cork, the 
Foyle in Donegal and Derry, the Bann and Lagan in 
Antrim and Down, and the Slaney in Wexford. The rivers 
of the centra district have longer courses and a much 
j?reater body of wat«r. The chain of Slieve Bloom and the 
low range of the Eskers divide the central plain longitudi- 
nally into two unequal portions, of which the western 
division is by much the greater. The eastern or smaller 
division is again subdivide by the summit-level of the bog 
of Allen into a northern district, the waters of which dis- 
charge themselves into the Irish Sea by the Boyne, and a 
southern district, which sends its drainage in an opposite 
direction into the Atlantic by the united streams of the 
Barrow, Nore, and Suir, all navigable rivers. The western 
division, which much exceeds the united basins of these 
several rivers, is drained solely by the Shannon, which, 
fiom its great body of water and course through a flat 
country, possesses the extraordinary advantage of being 
navigable from its source to its mouth, a distance of neaiiy 
240 miles. Those portions of the central plain which lie 
beyond the basins of the Shannon and Boyne discharge 
their chief drainage into a series of lakes which skirt the 
limits of the limestone country on the west and north. The 
lakes of Galway and Mayo fonn such a series, separating 
the primitive district of Connaught from the plain on the 
west; the extended line of Loch Erne in like manner 
drains that portion of the central plain which stretches 
towards the primitive district of Donegal and the high 
lands of Tyrone on the north ; and Loch Neagh collects 
the waters of the remainder by the Blackwater River on 
the north-east. The other principal lakes of Ireland lie 
within the basin of the Shannon, those of most consequence 
being merely expansions of that river. The water-power 
afforded by the different rivers and natural dams of Ireland 
u greater than in any equal extent of accessible country in 
Europo. The surface of all the lakes in Ireland is esti- 
mated at 2 15,252 statute acres, or 336 square miles. 

C/i'ma/ff.— There is but a small portion of Ireland which 
is more than fifty miles distant from the sea-coast, and on 
three sides of the island the Atlantic Ocean extends unin- 
terrupted: hence the climate is more moist and less liable 
to severe coM than in any of the neighbouring countries. ' 



On an average of five years ending with 1829 the annual 
quantity of rain which fell at Cork in the southern extre- 
mity of the island was 35 inches, and in a like calculation 
for Derry, at its northern extremity, the average annual 
quantity was 31 inches; being in both cases considerably 
above the average quantity for most parts of Great Britain, 
though much below the average at Kendal, Keswick, and a 
few other places. Frosts are rarely severe in Ireland, and 
snow does not lie so long as in England ; neither are thun- 
der-storms of so frequent occurrence or of so formidable 
a character. The extension of tillage has contributed in a 
considerable degree to lessen the extreme moisture com- 
plained of by early historians ; and to the quantity of dark- 
colourod earth now annually turned up intelligent writers 
attribute a fact often remarked by old persons, that the 
winters have latterly become much milder. The prevalent 
winds are from the west and south, and these are usually 
accompanied by a mild state of the atmosphere. Easterly 
winds are keen, and much dreaded by invalids. Instances 
of longevity are numerous, and the population generally 
healthy. 

The chief characteristics of the scenery of Ireland are 
freshness and verdure * the surface is less rugged than that 
of Scotland, and more varied and undulating than that of 
England ; it is however generally deficient in timber. The 
works of various tourists have latterly attracted much 
attention to the natural beauties of the southern and west- 
ern districts. 

History and Antiquities. — In the vanous names of Ire- 
land, as known to the classic writers. Iris, lemis, luverniss 
Hibernia, &c., the radical Ir or EH, by which it is still 
known to its own natives, is plainly traceable. It is custo- 
mary among the Irish to indicate a country by the affix Hy 
or Hua, sometimes written 0, as in the case of proper 
names, signifying literally * the (dwelling of the) sons or 
family of,' such as Hy-Mania, Hy-Tuirtre, Hy-Brazil, &c. I n 
adding this affix to names beginning with a vowel it is 
optional to insert a consonant to prevent the concurrence 
of open sounds, thus Hy-v-Each, meaning the country of 
the descendants of Each or i£acus. Again, this aflix 
requires the genitive, which in Eri is Erin, and thus all 
variations of the name, from the Itis of Diodorus Siculus, 
and the Ir-land and Ireland of modern times, to the lemis 
(Hy-Ernis) of the Orphic poems, and the Hibernia {Hy- 
b'Ernia) of Latin writers, would seem to be accounted for. 

The name Scotia does not appear to have been applied to 
Ireland till about the end of the third century, from which 
time to the beginning of the eleventh it continued to indicate 
that country exclusively. 

The Scoti, who were in possession of the island at the time 
of the introduction of Christianity, appear to have been to 
a great extent the successors of a people whose name aud 
monuments indicate a close affinity with the Belgae of 
Southern Britain. A people also called Cruithne by the Irish 
annalists, who are identifiable with the Picts of Northern 
Britain, continued to inhabit a portion of the island distiuct 
from the Scoti until after the Christian mission ; and it is 
observable that the names of mountains and remarkable 
places in that district still strikingly resemble the topogra- 

I)hical nomenclature of those parts of North Britain which 
lave not been affected by the Scotic conquest. The monu- 
ments and relics which attest the presence of a people 
considerably advanced in civilization at some period in 
Ireland, such as Cyclopean buildings, sepulchral mounds 
containing stone cKambers, mines, bronze instruments and 
weapons of classic form and elegant workmanship, M^ould 
appear to be referrible to some of the predecessors of the 
Scoti, and indicate a close affinity between the earliest inha- 
bitants of Ireland and that antient people, by some referred 
to a Phcnnician origin, whose vestiges of a similar kind 
abound throughout the south and south-west of Europe. 

The Scoti were not builders in stone, at least in their 
civil edifices, nor did they use bronze implements. Their 
own tradition is that they came originally from Scylhia, by 
which is meant the north-eastern part of central Europe, 
which appears to be confirmed by the fact that the antient 
topography of the country, in districts where the Scotic 
invasion has not wholly obliterated it. points at the Welsh 
language as the nearest representative of that spoken by 
the predecessors of the Scoti, and that the chief distinctions 
which at present exist between the Irish and Welsh lan- 
guages are referrible to a Gothic or Northern Eurppean 
source. 



1791 
1792 
1805 
1821 
1831 

1834 
1837 



IRE 

Heaitb-money oolleoton • t" 
Estimated by Dr. Beaufort • 
Mr. Nevenham's estimate • 
Under Act 55 Geo. III., c. 120 
Under Act 1 Will. IV., c. 19 
(Estimated by the Commissioners on 
I Public Instruction . • • 
(Estimated by Irish Railway Oom- 
t missioners • 



22 



IRE 



4,206,612 
4,088,226 
5,395,456 
6,801,827 
7,767,401 

}7,954,100 
} 8,523,750 



The distribution of this very large population is chiefly 
towards the eastern side of the island ; the west and north- 
west are comparatively thinly inhabited. The general con- 
dition of the people is considerably improved of late years, 
but still there is a very numerous class of peasantry in the 
west and north-west whose state is extremely wretched. 
The average rate of wages for agricultural labourers through- 
out the entire country is about 8^. per day, and the average 
employment about twenty-two weeks of six working days 
eacTi in the year. The classes into which the population 
was divided in 1831 appear in the census of that year as 
follows :— Families chiefly employed in agriculture, 884,339 ; 
ditto chiefly employed in trade, manufactures, and handi- 
craft, 249,869 ; ditto not comprised in the preceding 
classes, 251,368; males 3,794,880; females 3,972,521 ; total 
7,767,401 persons* forming 1,385,066 families^ inhabiting 
1,249,816 houses. 

In the same year the number of agricultural occupiers 
employing labourers was 95,339 *, of occupiers not emplo)r- 
ing labourers, 564,274 ; of male labourers employed in agri- 
culture, 567,441 ; of males, 20 years of age, employed in 
manufactures, 25,746 ; employed in retail trade or in nandi- 
oraft as masters or workmen, 298,838 ; of capitalists; bankers, 
professional and other educated men, 61,514; of labourers 
employed in labour not agricultural, 89,876 ; of other males 
20 years of age, except servants, 1 10,595 ; of male servants 
20 years of age, 54,142 ; of ditto under 20 years, 44,600 ; of 
female servants, 253,155. 

BeHgiofLr^ln 1834, according to the returns of the Com- 
missioners of Public Instruction, there were in Ireland 
6,431,008 Roman Catholics; 852,676 members of the Es- 
tabhshed church ; 642,356 Presbyterians; 21,808 other Pro- 
testant dissenters : and 6254 whose religion could not be 
ascertained ; being in the proportion of 4f Roman Catho- 
lics nearly to one Protestant of whatever denomination. 

Educaiton.— In, 1834 there were in Ireland 9657 daily 
schools, being in the proportion of one school to each 824 
of the entire population, educating 633,946 young per- 
sons, being in tne proportion of 7*97 per cent of the entire 
population under daily instruction. Of these schools 5653 
were supported wholly by payments fix)m the children, and 
4004 were supported wholly or in part by endowment or 
subscription : of the latter class there were in the above 
year 892 in connection with the National Board of Educa- 
tion ; 203 in connection with the Society for Discountenanc- 
ing Vice; 115 in conneetbn with Erasmus Smith's fund; 
235 in connection with the Kildare^street Society, and 618 
in connection with the London Hibernian Society. There 
is a University at Dublin, a Roman Catholic College at 
Maynooth, and various superior establishments for eauca- 
tion in other towns. [Belfast ; Dublin ; &c.] 
. Cnm^.-^During the year 1836 there were 23,891 persons 
committed for trial or bailed, of whom 7769 were charged 
with (fences against the person ; 671 with offences against 
property committed with violence; 6593 with offences 
against property committed without violence; 500 with 
malicious offences against property; 214 with forgery and 
offences against the currency ; and 8144 with other offences 
not included in the above classes. The proportion of the 
offenders to the entire population was 1 in 325, and the 
male offenders were to the female as 0*82 to 0* 18. Of the 
total number of offenders 6744 males and 490 females could 
read and write; 3898 males and 912 females oould.read 
only; 7435 males and 2595 females could neither read nor 
write; and of 1542 males and 275 females the instruction 
could not be ascertained. The total number of convictions 
in that year was 18,1 10. 

Productivk Economy. — Affrictdiure.^-The agricultural 
produce of Ireland was estimated, in the year 1832, at 
36.000,000/. per annum, raised off 14,603,473 acres. This 
falls short, by nearly one half, of the amount of produce 
yielded by an equal area in Great Britain ; and yet in the 



latter eountry Uiere iu!e only Hto agricultural labourors 
for every Jhe for the same quantity of land in Irelar.d. 
Henoe it appears that the productive powers of the so.: 
of Ireland, as compared with those of the soil of Great 
Britain, are little more than half developed. The cause- 
of this deficiency are to be sought in a bad ssrstem < : 
agriculture, small fturms, and want of capital. A market! 
improvement is however observable both in the quant it ]• 
and quality of Irish agricultural produce within the last te'. 
years. The increase m quantity will be apparent fk-om th^- 
following table of the comparative exports of some of tbt 
principal articles of such produce in the years 1825 aui 
1835:— 

Exports qf IrUh Produce in 1825 €Utd 1835. 



T 



Commocl&iat.' 



Cowi and Ozeti, unmber 

Hone* , • a da 

Sheep • • • do. 

Swino ... do. 

Grain, tIs.s Wheat, qn. 

M Barley, do. . 

„ Oats, da . 

„ Other Grain . 

Wheatmeal* FUnur, and 

Oatmeal • • cwta. . 

Potatoes ... do. . 

ProTiskmi: Baeon and 

Hams da • 

g. Beef and l 

.1 Bork do. • 

«,' Butter do. . 

ft Lard • do. • 

f number • • ■ 

Ess* { crates . • . • 

I boxes • • • • 

Feathers . . . ewts. . 

Hides and Calf Skins, 

number • 

Wool. Sheep and ( bales • 

Lambs' • .libs. . 

Flax and Tow • cwts. . 

Spirits* • • galloos 



Qnantily. 



1825 



63.524 

8.140 

72,191 

65,919 

2S3.340 

164. 82S 

1,503,204 

23,832. 

599,124 



a09>S78 

604,253 

474.161 

35,261 



1835. 



Increase 

between 

these 

Periods. 



Beer 



do. 






54.898 
029,529 



• • 



98,150 

4.655 

125,452 

376,191 

420.5fti 

168,946 

1,575.984 

39,637 

1,984,480 
823.398 

379,111 

370,172 

8S27.009 

70.867 

52,244,800 

2.275 

10,695 

6,432 

57,^ 

764,184 

163.949 

439.473 

2.686»689 



Estimate*! 

Value* for 

1835. 



34,626 

1,515] 

63,261 

810,272 

137.18!! 

14,124 

79.780 

15,805 

1,390,856 



16»838 



352.848 
35,006 

• • 

109.051 
decrease. 



705,337 
65,4.>3 
199.i>HC ' 
893.S31I 
819.441 
210,756 ' 
1,661 ,»53 
75,149 .. 

1,441 .««6 
17.537 

828.158 « 



733,935 
8,316, S06 
18^.013 
87.ai2 
87.66<; 
31.<K>7 
32,636 



p 

I 

u 



45,fl3i 

l.i?-i<> 

17.3X'2 Ir- 

40«,77J 1*1 

75,505 1 

138.981 



The earnings of the agricultural labouring classes, inclurl- 
ing occupiers labouring on their own land, in 1836, are es- 
timated at 6,844,500^ 

The value of the peat annually raised from the bogs for 
fuel is very considerable. At 35 kishesor loads per family, 
which is the estimate of Mr. Wakefield, averaging 9rf. ptT 
kish, the value of the quantity required for fuel in 1831, 
calculating only on the families employed in agriculture, 
would be 1,160,694/. ; but this is probably too low an 
estimate, as it only exceeds by about 200,000/. the value of 
the imported and native coal consumed in the same time. 

Mining, — The annual average produce of the mines 
worked by the Mining Company of Ireland in 1836 was 
about 150,000/., and of the mines worked by other parties 
about 220,000/. Tbe export of lead and copper ore in 1 83 j 
amounted to 477,660 cwts., of an estimated value of 
179,388/. The mines and quarries at present onen are not 
however worked to their flill extent ; this branon of indus- 
try is indeed still in its infancy in Ireland. 

Fisheries, — In the general coast fishery in the year 1836 
there were employed^ decked vessels 215, tonnage 7099 
tons; half-decked ditto 870, tonnage 10,292 tons; open 
sail-boats 1812, tonnage 9178 tons; and row-boats 7864 
total number of fishermen 54,1 19 ; showing a considerable 
decrease since 1830, when the number of fishermen em- 
ployed was 64,77 1 . The earnings of each fisherman having 
a share in the produce being estimated at from 3«. 6</. to 4;. 
per week on an average through the year woaldeive the 
nett profits of the produce for 1836 at 527,650/. The gross 
annual produce of the coast and river salmon fisheries does 
not amount in all to 10,000/. 

Mant^actures, — ^The value of the unbleached linens sold 
in the several counties of Ulster in the year 1824 was 
2,109,305/., and in all Ireland for the same year 2,580,697/. 
Since that time there is no authentic return ; but the intro- 
duction of linen-yarn spinning-machinery has latterly 
given the linen trade an extraordinary impetus in the 
northern counties of Ulster. The exports of linen in the 
year 1835 amounted to 70,209,572 yards, of an estimated 
value of 3,725,054/., being an increase on the linen export 
of 1825 of 15,095,057 yards. 

The cotton trade is cairied on to a considerable extent in 



ii.Din)/.; and t!ie Ikrinel Irndu of Wicklow and Wexford, 
iliirli ill 1822 was estimated at 36.000/. for the annual 
ihii! of its ptoduoe, may now bo considered as extinct. 
I'lio nianufaclure of worsted and stuff articles is the only 
i:i[ich of this trade which has incieaiK^ within the last 
:xli-i-ii years: it is now carried on to a considerable extent 
it Miiuiit Mellick and AbbeyleU in the Queen's Coumy. 
Siii'ii ul' the general trade as remains is however considered 
■> lio at jiiescnt iu a healthy slate, and reasonable hopes 
■ri- eiilcriained of a progressive improvement. The value 
J' ihu dill'erent woollen manufactures exported in 1835 was 
III, I '_'>/. : a considerable portion of this export was to the 
, .iitli of England, which is now more accessible to the 
:i^li timn to the northern English manufacturer. The 
< ik iLianuracture IB also much decayed: the export of Bilk 
. .hrie.s ill 1835 amounted to 21,74U/. 

In grinding, malting, hrewini;, and distilling, a i;rcat 
I'haiice has been maau in Ireland within the last fin ecn 
■ ^■■xis. The number of com-mills in Ireland in 1835 
rt.is MiS'i; of corn-kilns, 2296 ; of distilleries, 95; ofrecli- 
luiiij di:>lillenes, 19; of breweries. 236; of paper manufac- 
I'liiti, 37; of (rlass-wocks, 6 ; and of tobacco factories, 291. 
1 iiu export of oatmea), Hour, and wheatmeal, which now 
-iiiiiiunis to nearly one million and a half sterling annually, 
h:<> i;ru\vn up almost wholly of late years; soaUo the valu- 
.ilili; ux|Kirt trade in potter. 

N'.'.iHi/^irer.-Thcrewere, in 1835, 151 steam-engines 
I'f Irnin 1 to lOO horse-power each, employed in various 
I iiiiiiLl'iicluiini; operations in the towns and neighbourhoods 
'i' Ik'lt'toU Clunmcl, Cork, Dublin, Galway, Kilkenny, 
Liniciii'k. Londonderry, Walerford, and Portlaw. Of these 
Uli' Ui'st v.as erected iti Belfast in the year ISOS. 

Ill iKldiUon to these there are upwards of 90 steam- 
V c5-i4s with engines of ftum 20 to 300 horsc-power engaged 
ill ibc lii'iiish coast and canal traffic. Cork is now et station 
1 'I' steamers sailing to North America, and astcnmcom- 
iiiiiniiniiun is kept up during the summer months between 
li'u'li^iiiix and Dublin, and Havre and BellUst. 

eiiMutiitK.— in/a/u/ TVn/w.— The inland traffic of Ire- 
l.iuil is almost wholly carried on either by high road or 



la addition there is now in progress IheTJlsterl 
canal, joiiiinc; the waters of Lough Ncneh and / 24 
and Lough Erne, of which there ate coniploted) 



IJeing in all about one-fourth of the similar r 
Internal traffic existing in 1835 in an equal 4rea . 



I Great 



The general direction of the traffic of Ireland is eastward 
of the external tratlic almost wholly so. With tho ex- 
ception of the transverse lines of the Royal and Grand 
Canal, the great bulk of the inland trafSc lies towards and 
along the eastorn coast from Liondonderry to Cork inclu' 

Carryhis Trnjfis.— Tho means of external traffic pos- 
sessed by Ireland amount to less than one- fourteenth of 
those of England, and to rather more than a tliird of those 
of Scotland. The following table exhibits tho number of 
vessels, with the amount of their tonnage, and the number 
of men and boys usually employed in navigating the same 
that belonged to the several ports of Ireland iu the years 

VqMpl,. TonnJSB, Men. 

OntheSlstDecember, 1834 1336 119.338 B73I 
„ „ 1833 -lea? 131,735 9282 

„ „ 1836 -1635 128,469 9189 

Here tlio proportion of seamen to tonnage is about 1 to 
14; in the mere b ant-service of England the proportion is 
OS I to 18 nearly This diSeronce is to be accounted fur by 
the superior size and belter management of the English 
vessels, which require less manual labour. The general 
navigation of Ireland and its progress appear from the 
subjoined table, sho«ing the number of vessels, with tho 
amount of their tonnage and men (including their repeated 
voyages), that enterut inwards and cleared iiutwafds at Ibo 
several ports of Ireland, from and to all parts of the woild, 
during each of the years below :— 







Shipping entered inwa 


rds in Ireland, flrom all parU of the World 






V..,r.u.lin* 


Brhi.h aud Iriili VmmI.. 


Foreign Vciielt. 


Tout. 


Jill J..i.iiBr(. 


VeHiili. 


Toi... 


iUo. 


v,....i. 


Tmn. Mm. 


VbmpIi. 


Ton.. 


MfH. 


H3i , 
1-36 . 

la37 . 


15.691 

15,413 
15,363 


1,6^1,419 
1,621,603 
1,662,264 


94,706 
97,164 
102,324 


139 
163 
149 


32,188 1192 
26.274 1366 
21,714 1223 


15,830 
13,381 
13,714 


1,643,598 
1,647,877 
1,683,978 


9i,y93 
98,530 
103,552 




Shipping cleared outwards from Ireland, to all parts of the World. 


y..i^„.jiug 


Brilljh ani< liiih VmrU 


Fortinn VoB,.!.. 




Tulnl. 






V««l.. 


Tom. 


Men. 


V«,«l,. 


Turn. 


K.:n. 


V...01.. 


T„a.. 


"■■"■ 


1'..75 , 

1&:I6 . 


10,354 

10,254 
10,148 


1,180.135 
1,210,327 
1,251,833 


71 .90(1 
70,8-12 
60,289 


100 
131 

123 


10,386 
21,743 
19,029 


1120 
1032 


10, .154 

lo,:>t!3 

10,276 


1,270,861 


72,7S1 
Blja-ll 



I R B 



24 



I R £ 



Import* and ^irpor/*.— Summary of the Imports and 
Exports of Ireland for the year 1835, including the coasting 
trade. 



NamM of Ports. 



ArdRlfttt and Killongh 
Arklow' • • • • 
balbriggaa • • • 

Itallina • • • • 

Ballyrane Creek • 

Ballycaatie Creak • 

BalWsliannon • • 

Baltimore. See. • • 

Bantiy Creek . • 

BereliaTen Creek • 

Helmullet Creek • 

Bclfkat . . • . 

Clare Creek • . • 

Coleiaine and Fortnuh 

Cork 

Doaagliedee Creek . 
Donegal Creek , • 
DrtMheda • • . 
DuMin • • • • 
Dundalk • • • . 
Dungarvau • • • 
Oalway • • • • 
KUUlla . . . • 
Kilrtuh • > • • 
Kinsale Creek . . 
Larue Creek ... 
Limerick . • • • 
Londonderry • • 
Newcastle Cfreek . 
Newport Creek • • 

Newry • • • • i 

Roae 

Strangfbrd • • • 

Sligo 

xnuee • • • • 
Wnterford • • • 
Wexford • • • • 
We^Twrt • • • 
'Wicklow . • • • 
YoughaU., a • • 

Total . • . 



Coontiea. 



Down • 
Wicklow , 
Dublin 
Sligo and < 

Mayo 
Donegal 
Antrim 
Donegal , 
Cork . . 
Do. . . 
Do. • . 
Mayo • • 
Antrim , 
Clare . , 
I Derry and 
• Antrim • 
Cork . . 
Down • « 
Donegal . 
Cy. oiftown 
Dublin . 
Lowth . 
Waterford 
Galway . 
Mayo • • 
Clare • • 
Cork • • 
Antrim • 
Limerick 
Londonderry 
Down . . 
Mayo • . 

{Down and 
Armagh 
Wexford . 
Down • 
Sligo . . 
Kerry . • 
Waterford 
Wexford . 
Mayo , . 
Wicklow . 
Cork . . 



Ezporta. 183S. 



Value. 



35.161 
3 
6, 



!:8? 



$. d. 





10 



70.668 
20.R3i 

1.791 
11.130 
37.144 

6,218 
77.36S 

S.940 

4,341,794 

16.617 

I05.6S5 

9,909.864 

69.484 

11,363 

766.0S7 

9,528,643 

462,813 

69.486 

951,864 

26.396 

36,158 

13.479 

60.309 

796.430 

1,040.913 

3,681 

9.269 











3 






















616,836 

59,074 

79.6^ 6 

369.490 

49.315 

1,831.245 

312,136 

87,805 

86,565 18 

215,316 












I 





















4 










Imports, 1835. 



Yalna. 



£ i, d. 

2,970 

6,769 10 
11,391 19 2 



13.539 

5.770 

2.U30 13 

9,524 

17.767 

17.993 8 

80,081 





3 







17,394,813 7 11 



8,695.437 11 10 
1.672 



65.900 

2,751,684 

7,670 

11.331 

959.854 

4,430,321 

107.953 

16.319 

88.268 

3.188 

2,768 

18.262 

7»255 

323.740 

708.054 

3,156 










15 














19 8 






6 


.0 






7 







668,711 

28,007 

20,498 

194.699 

7.270 

1,274. 1&4 

621,417 

28.517 

15.671 

28.310 





8 










0>0 
0"0 









15,337.097 4 6 



Exclusive of the coasting trade, so as to exhibit the true 
excels of exports over imports, these totals for the year 1835 



Exports 
Imports 



£16,693,685 6 1 
10,918,459 4 4 



Excess of Exports over Imports 5,775*226 1 9 

The increase exhibited by the returns of this year over 
those of 1825 is very remarkable, showing an mcreased 
value on exports of 7,450,475/. 6s, Id^ and on imports of 
2,321,674/. 4s. Ad. 

The principal article of import into Ireland is cotton 
goods, which in 1835 were imported to the amount of 
1,419,364/.; in the same year, notwithstanding the active 
manufacture of linen yam in Ulster, that article was im« 
ported to the amount of 1,217,900/. The next most im- 
portant articles of import in that year were — tea, to the 
amount of 972,554/. \\s.%d.\ coal, 802,749/. 5«. 2d.\ sugar, 
774,930/.; tobacco, 743, 11 5/. Ts. lOd; woollen goods, 685,423/ ; 
haberdashery and apparel, 487,630/. ; wool, 304,337/. ; iron, 
208,830/.; cast-iroui 89,130/.; wrought-iron and hard- 
wares, 198,806/.; glass and earthenware, 128,709/.; wines 
160,343/. \s, 3</.; herrings, 124,084/. ; hides, 163,221/.; tal- 
low, 129,149/.; hops, 92,657/.; flax-seed, 84,329/.; salt, 
65,718/. 14«.; leather, 30,840/., &c. 

Currency. — ^There are in Ireland seventeen banks and 
hanking companies, with numerous branch establishments: 
the following is an estimate of the proportions in which 
their notes circulate in each of the four provinces, the total 
amount of notes being about 5,000,000/ *— 



The province of Leinster • 

Ulster • 

Munster • 

J_ Connaught 



M 



»9 



£1,700,000 

1,400,000 

1,300,000 

600,000 

£5,000,000 



Between the years 1824 and 1831 there appears to have 
oeen an amount of government stock of the value of 
14,181,100A transferred to the credit of Irish fundholders. 



QovjsxmnLvn.'-^Representaiion. — ^Ireland is representet 
in the imperial parliament by 105 members of the Hoi:^' 
of Commons, and 28 temporal and 4 spiritual peers in thr 
House of Lords. The temporal peers are elective repre- 
sentatives for life; the spiritual peers take the office i: 
rotation. 

Civil Divisions. — ^Ireland is divided into four provincei 
and thirty-two counties. Connaught contains 5 countH«. 
Munster 6 counties, Ulster 9 counties, and Leinster 1: 
counties. The counties are divided into baronies, and tbt 
baronies into townlands. 

The following is a list of the counties of Ireland, witli 
the population according to the last census, and the area 1:. 
square miles: — 



Antrim (Ulster) 
Armagh (Ulster) 
Carlow (Leinster) 
Cavan (Ulster) 
Clare (Munster) 
Cork (Munster) 
Donegal (Ulster) 
Down (Ulster) . 
Dublin (Leinster) 
Fermanagh (Ulster) 
Gralway (Connaught) 
Kerry (Munster) 
Kildare (Leinster) 
Kilkenny (Leinster) ' 
King's (Jounty (Leinster) 
Leitrim (Connaught) 
Limerick (Munster) 
Londonderry (Ulster) 
Longford (Leinster) 
Louth (Leinster) 
Mayo (Connaught) 
Meath (Leinster) 
Meath, West (Leinster) 
Monaghan (Ulster) 
Queen's County (Leinster) 
Roscommon (Connaught) 
Sligo (Connaught) 
Tipperary (Munster) 
Tyrone (Ulster) 
Waterford (Munster) 
Wexford (Leinster) 
Wicklow (Leinster) 



Popnlatioa* 
325,615 
220,135 
81,988 
227,933 
258,320 
810,732 
289,150 
352,010 
380,167 
149,763 
414,684 
263,126 
108,424 
193,685 
144,225 
141,524 
315,355 
222,010 
112,558 
1 24,846 
366,328 
176,826 
142,280 
195,536 
145,850 
244,207 
171,765 
402,564 
304,468 
177,055 
182,713 
121,558 



Sq.Mnea 
1,107 
485 
330 
711 
1,141 
2.659 
1,829 
951 
294 
640 
2,033 
1,670 
697 
733 
714 
576 
750 
794 
357 
322 
1,599 
899 
578 
493 
744 
870 
638 
1,305 
1,210 
618 
627 
607 



Ulster', • . 
Leinster 
Munster ^ • 
Connaught 


7,767,400 

Sq. MOee. 
8,220 
6,802 
8,143 
5,716 


28,881 

rPopolation. 
2,286,620 
1,915,120 
2,227.152 
1,338,508 



28,881 7,767,400 

Each of the 32 counties returns 2 members to the House 
of Commons, and the University of Dublin 2 members. 

List of the cities and boroughs which return members to 
the House of Commons : — 



Armagh • 1 1 

Atblone . 1 

Bandon • 1 

Belfast . 2 

Carlow . 1 

Carrickfergus 1 

Cashel . 1 

Clonmel . 1 

C^leraine . 1 

Cork ' , 2 

Downpatrick 1 

Drogheda 1 



14 

Dublin . 2 

Dundalk ' . 1 

Dungannon • 1 

Dungarvan . 1 

Ennis . 1 

Enniskillen . 1 

Galway , 2 

Kilkenny . 1 

Kinsale • 1 

Limerick . 2 

Lisburn . 1 



London derrj- 

Mallow 

New Ross . 

Newry 

Portarlington 

Sligo 

Tralee 

Waterford . 

Wexford 

Youghall 



I 
I 

39 
14 28 

In the Population Returns the number of parishes in 
each county is not stated; but it appears from some 
Diocesan Returns made in 1834 that the total number of 
parishes in the four provinces is 9348; that is, for the 

Srovince of Armagh, 658; Dublin, 624; Cashel, 791 ; and 
'nam, 275. 

Ecclesiastical Divisions.'^lTehxid is divided into four 
ecclesiastical provinces and thirty-two dioceses. These di- 



I R E 



26 



1 R I 



tutlior of evil; and concerning the number eight' Euse- 
bios aUo mentiong (v. 26) ' a discourse of IreneDus against 
the Gentiles, entitled. Concerning Knowledge; another, 
inscribed to a brother named Marcianus, being a demon- 
■tration of the apostolical preaching ; and a little book of 
divers disputations.* Irensus also wrote a letter to Victor, 
bishop of Rome, concerning the controversy about the time 
of holding Easter ; and also ' Five Books against Heresies/ 
The last work is still extant ; but all the rest have perished, 
with the exception of a few fragments. The original Greek 
of the ' Five Books against Heresies' has also been lost; we 
possess only a latin translation of it, written in an uncouth 
style, which was made, according to Dodwell's computation 
(Diisert Iren, v. 9, 10), about a.d. 385. This circumstance 
renders the work of little value in ascertaining the readings 
of the Greek Testament in the time of Irennus, since the 
Latin translator appears to have quoted the text of Scrip- 
ture according to the Latin version then in use 



ing up declarations, petitions, and ordinances. His anra 
gonists allowed him to be an able but not a virtuous atafj>- 
man; indeed, he appears to have been the most aiuu, 
designing, and deliberate man of his party. He refu» <1 i 
grant of 2000/. a year, which was offered to him out of t. 
confiscated estate of the duke of Buckingham ; and ui <. 
his death the parliament, out of gratitude for his servK •• 
settled it upon his widow and cfaildren. (Noble's Memn: 
qfthe Cromwell Family, vol. ii., No. 27.) 

IRIARTE. [YaiARTE.] 

IRlDA'CEiE, a natural order of endogenous planN. 
usually with equitant leaves, and a rhizoma or cormus lu^ 
their stem, but more particularly characterized by haYin: 
three stamens, the anthers of which are turned out^^ai <«>. 
and an inferior ovary. The genera are numerous, and s()i.i>. 
not well defined ; they inhabit the temperate parts of \h 
world in preference to the hottest, where they are comi i- 
ratively rare. The Iris and Crocus are representati\f^ ." 



It is difficult to determine at what period the ' Five Books the predominant northern form of the order, as Glad 



lulu* 



against Heresies* were written, but they all appear to have 
been composed after Irenieus became bishop of Lyon, and 
to have been published at different times. Irenseus was 
well acquainted with heathen literature and the doctrines 
of the heretics of his time. His work is very valuable in an 
historical point of view, and has been highly commended by 
most of the fathers; though Photius {BibL c. 120) gives 
rather a different opinion of it, thinking ' that the purity of 
the faith with respect to ecclesiastical doctrines is adulterated 
by the false and spurious reasoning of IrensDus.' 

IreniDus was a most diligent collector of apostolical tradi- 
tions. He informs us, in many parts of his work, that he 
was well acquainted with several persons who had been 
intimate with the apostles. Many of his traditions are of a 
very curious kind. He affirms that Christ was at least 50 
years old at the time of his crucifixion, and he asserts the 
most extravagant opinions with regard to the Millennium. 
Middleton, in his ' Free Inquiry* (p. 45-52), has given an 
interesting account of many of the opinions of this father. 

The life of IrensDus has been written by Gervaise, Paris, 
1723. His works have been published by Erasmus, 152C ; 
by Feuardent, 1596; by Grabe, 1702; by Massuet, 1710; 
and by Pfaff, 1 734. Some of the fragments published for 
the first time by Pfaff are supposed by Lardner( Credi6iVi7y 
of the Gospel Hutory, Works, il, ^. 189-191, ed. of 183 1) 
to be spurious. 

IRETON, HENRY, the eldest son of German Ireton, 
of Attenton, in Nottinghamshire, was born in 1610. He 
was entered at Trinity College, Oxford, in 1626, and having 
taken the degree of bachelor of arts, became a student of 
the Middle Temple. His legal studies were interrupted by 
the outbreak of the civil war ; he entered the parliamentary 
army, and soon made such a proficiency in the military art, 
that it has been asserted that Oliver Cromwell learned its 
rudiments from him. In 1646 he married Bridget, Crom- 
well*s eldest daughter, by which connexion and his own 
merit he gained a commission, first of captain of horse, 
and almost immediately afterwards that of colonel. He 
distinguished himself in the battle of Noseby, was taken 
prisoner by the royalists, but made his escape. Ireton was 
perhaps more than any other roan the cause of king 
Charles's death ; by intercepting a letter, he is said to have 
discovered that it was the king's intention to destroy him 
and Cromwell, and from that time he rejected any accom- 
modation : he attended must of the sittings of the regicido 
court, and signed the warrant for Charles's execution. On 
the establishment of the Commonwealth he was appointed 
to go to Ireland, next in ctjmmand to Cromwell. He was 



and Ijna are of the genera prevalent in the southern hem 
sphere. All the species are sufileiently ornamental to un- 
serve cultivation, and many are of striking beauty. 




LeavM anil nowcra ofSiByrinchmm striatum. 1, the uUimt-us; 2, the iii>o fi,,, 

IRIDI'NA. [CoNCHACEA, vol. vii., p. 426.] 
IRI'DIUM, a metal discovered in lb03 by Mr. Tennai.i 
(P/iil. Trans., 1804), and also about the same time by L)e>- 
cotiU in France. Its name was suggested from Iris, ti:c 



made president of Munster, and afterwards lord-deputy of rainbow, on account of the various colours assumed by li..- 



Irelana. The greater part of the country submitted to him 
from fear of his cruelty, without striking a blow. While in 
the height of his successes he was seized, before Limerick, 
with the plague, of which he died on the 15th of November, 
1651. His body was landed at Bristol, and lay in state at 
Somerset House. On an atchievement over the gate of 
Somerset House was the motto, ' Dulce et decorum est pro 
patria mori/ which was readily translated ' It is good for his 
country that he is dead.' He was buried in Henry the 
Seventh*B chftpel in Westminster Abbey ; but the corpse 
was exhumed after the Restoration, gibbeted, and burnt at 
Tyburn. 

He left one son, Henry, and four daughters. Ireton was 
revered by the republicans as a soldier, a statesman, and 



saint. He waa called the ' scribe/ from hit skill in draw- [ it acquires a deep red tint. 



solution obtained with hydrochloric acid. When the 
grains of native platinum are digested in nascent chlorii.e 
(aqua regia), a black powder is left after the platinum ha^ 
been dissolved, which consists chiefly of iridium and 
another peculiar metal, osmium [Osmium]; some ore v' 
titanium and chromate of iron also occur in it. The in- 
dium is obtained by fusing this black residue for at least a,, 
hour with twice its weight of hydrate of potash in a siUcr 
crucible; the residual matter is to be washed to Teuu»\e 
the oxide of osmium, and the insoluble portion remain im:: 
is iridium, which has been oxidized during fusion, nii\L-.^ 
with any insoluble impurity. This is to be digested in lu- 
drochloric acid, and if free from iron the solution is bhu. ; 
but it ailerwards becomes of an olive green* and eventuai ; > 



i K o 



28 



I R O 



hisU^ and origin of which nothing very accurate is 
known ; out they are regarded as heing of meteoric origin, 
for it is inTariahly found that, like the iron which occurs in 
meteoric stones, this metallic iron contains nickel, and no 
fuch compound or mixture is found in the earth in veins 
or heds : and in point of &ct two masses of such iron were 
seen to &U at Hradschina, near Agram in Croatia, in 1751. 
It contained 3*5 per cent of nickel. Similar masses have 
been found in Africa, America, and Siberia; that in the 
last-mentioned part of the world was discovered by Pro- 
fessor Pallas: it weighed 1600 lbs., had a cellular struc- 
ture, and contained crystals and grains of a green substance 
of a vitreous appearance, which have been stated to be 
olivine. This iron contains only I * 5 per cent of nickel. 
One of the largest masses is that found in Peru by Don 
Rubin de Celts; it weighed 15 tons, and contained nickel. 
This was also the case with the knives which Captain Parry 
obtained from the Esquimaux. The largest quantity of 
nickel contained in any specimen was about 10 per cent 

Meteoric iron sometimes occurs crystallized; theurimary 
form is the cube, and it is stated to have been found in 
regular octohedrons. It has no apparent cleavage. Frac- 
ture hackly; hardness 4*5; specific gravity 6*48 to 7*768; 
(^>aque ; lustre metallic ; colour pale steel grey. 

(huDxs OF Isoxf. — ^The protoxide of iron does not occur 
m nature, except in combination, and usually with carbonic 
acid : that which most nearly approaches it is / 

Magnetic Iron^ sometimes called oxydulout iron and 
odoh^iral iron. This ore is found cnrstalline, massive, 
and arenaceous. The crystals occur attached and imbedded. 
The primary form is a cube, but it is generally met with in 
the form of tiie regular octohedron. Cleavage parallel to 
the planes of the octohedron, but not obtainable in some 
varieties. Fracture uneven or conchoidal; hardness 5' 5 
to 6*5; scratches fluor-spar, and is scratched by quartz; 
specific gravity variously stated from 4*4 to 5' 094 ; opaque ; 
lustre metallic, occasionally bright; colour iron or steel 
grey ; streak black ; obeys the magnet 

Massive Varieties amorphous; structure granular to 
compact It is of this variety of iron ore that native load- 
stones consist This ore occurs in various parts of the 
world, especially in the North of Europe, and it is of it that 
the best Swedish iron is made, and so also is the iron which 
yields the wootz steel of the East Indies. It is generally 
found in primitive countries. This ore frequently contains 
titanium ; but the varieties have not been well distin- 
guished. By the blowpipe it becomes brown, and loses its 
magnetic propoiy, but does not fuse. 

It consists of 28 * 4 of oxygen and 7 1 * 6 of iron, which are 
equal to 

Two equivalents of sesquioxide of iron • 80 
One equivalent of protoxide of iron . 36 

There are several ores, which possess very different ap- 
pearances, that are altogether composed of the sesquioxide 
or peroxide of iron, and which are principally the oligiste 
iron ore and the hematite, 

Oligiste Iron; Specular or Micaceous Iron, — This occurs 
crystallized and massive. The crystals are attached; the 
primary form is a rhomlK)id. Cleavage parallel to the pri- 
mary planes and perpendicular to the axis in some varieties ; 
fracture uneven, conchoidal ; hardness 5*5 to 6*5 ; scratches 
phosphate of lime ; is scratched by quartz ; specific gravity 
5*0 to 5*25; lustre metallic; colour steel and iron grey; 
the surface frequently iridescent ; obeys the magnet 
slightly ; streak red and reddish-brown. 

It is found in the island of Elba and in many other parts 
of Europe. It also occurs in the lava of Auvergne in 
France, and in that of Vesuvius. 

Croethite, Pyrosiderite. — Occurs in very thin transparent 
ciystalline plates in the cavities of black hematite. Colour 
brownish red, by reflexion yellowish, in a strong light of a 
brilliant red ; lustre adamantine. It occurs in England and 
in Germany. The former yielded by analysis 

Peroxide of iron . . .89*2 
Water 10*8 



100- 



Iron Froth consists of very thin brownish red scaly pai^ 
tides, which have a greasy feel, and stain the fingers. It is 
found plentifully in Devonshire and Lancashire, and was 
ascertained by Dr. Henry to be pure peroxide of iron. The 
massive varieties are amorphous; structure foliated. 
^ Red Hematite occurs in globular and botryoidal masses. 



Structure fibrous, radiating, opacjue. Specific gravity 4 * 7 
to 5. Lustre externally, sometimes metallic, sometnii • 
dull ; internally, nearly dull. Colour externally red : ^re\ > 
red, &C., internally, and streak red. It occurs in Ia:_ 
quantity at Ulverstone in Lancashire, and id other part« : 
Great Britain and Europe. According to D*Aubui>s4.'ii .; 
consists of 

Peroxide of iron • • .94 

Silica 2 

Lime 1 

Water 3 



100 



Brown Hematite ; Hydrous Oxide of Iron ; Brown Ir v 
Ore. — Occurs in attached crystals and massive priMn^^ 
Primary form aright rhombic prism. Cleavage para no, 
to the short diagonal ; fracture uncertain. Hardness v i> 
to 5*5. Specific gravity 3*93; lustre adamantine; near.;. 
opaque; translucent. Colour brown of various shado 
Streak yellowish brown. Occurs in Cornwall. 

Massive FanWief.-- Globular, reniform, and some of xhr 
varieties of brown and yellow clay iron-stone. Stalactiu . 
structure fibrous, or fibro-laminar. Sometimes occurb !!i 
pseudomorphous crystals. It occurs in most parts of lU 
world. Analysis by D'Aubuisson : — 

FSbraot. Com|McL 

Peroxide of iron • 82 • 84 

Water ... 14 . 1 

Oxide of manganese • 2 . 2 

SiUca . • . 1 . 2 

99 89 

Carbonate qf Iron ; Brown Soar; Spathose Iron Ore, — 
This occurs in attached crystals and massive. Prima r> 
form a rhomboid. Cleavage parallel to the primar>' plaiu^. 
distinct Fracture imperfect conchoidal; hardness 3'j. 
4*5; specific gravity 3 * 6 to 3 * 829 ; transparent, transliiccni. 
opaque; lustre vitreous, inclining to pearly; colour whit.-, 
yellow, red, and brown of dififerent shades. 

Massive Varieties : tabular, structure fibrous ; botryoi'l \\ 
and globular (these being called sphcerosiderit)^ struct urt 
fibrous, diverging ; amorphous, structure foliated, granu la:, 
compact. Found in Cornwall, Scotland, and Ireland, nvA 
in other parts of Europe ; and also in America. 

Before the blowpipe it blackens and becomes magnetic, liut 
does not fuse; in the reducing flame it colours borax bottle- 
green, and in the oxidating yellow ; dissolves in acids with 
effervescence. Analysis, by BeudEUit, of the hexahedral 
variety : — 

Carbonic acid • • .38*72 

Protoxide of iron *. . 59*97 

Oxide of manganese "* • 0'39 
Lime • • . • • 0*92 



100* 
Clay Iron-Stone^ or Argillaceous Iron Ore, consists esson- 
tiallv of carbonate of iron mixed with various proportions oi 
earthy matter ; on an average carbonate of iron forms nbuiK 
one-third of the abundant clay iron-stone of England, Walo . 
and Scotland. It occurs in beds and in coal deposits ; it i» 
found sometimes in globular masses, and also columnar. 

Although various other minerals occur containing larco 
quantities of iron, yet the above-described contain ahuvi-t 
all the ores which are extensively used in the manufactuu* 
of iron. Other ferruginous compounds have been al reads 
described under arbitrary names, and others still remain to 
be noticed in alphabetical order. 
Carburet of Iron ; Graphite. [Anthracite.] 
Sulphur and Iron exist in combination in enormous 
quantities; the compounds which it forms are called mt/^- 
netic iron pyrites, iron pyrites, and white iron pyrites. 

Magnettc Iron Pyrites, Protosulphuret of Iron, occurs in 
embedded hexagonal crystals and massive ; primary form a 
rhomboid; cleavage parallel to all the planes of a rc^u1:\r 
hexagonal prism; fracture uneven, sometimes conchoKiuI: 
hardness 3*5 to 4*5; scratches calcareous s]iar, and is 
scratched by felspar; specific gravity 4*63; opaque; lu>tro 
metallic; colour bronze yellow mixed with red; streak 
greyish black; obeys the magnet but feebly; soluble m 
dilute sulphuric acid; when exposed to the blowpipe ou 
charcoal is converted into oxide of iron ; occurs at Kones- 
berg in Norway and Andreasberg in the Hortx. Analysis 
by Hatchett : — 



I R O 



30 



I RO 



reddish solution is formed, which, by evaporation till it he- 
comes of the consistence of a syrup, yields reddish-brown 
crystals, which are very deliquescent and soluble. The 
aqueous solution of sesquichlonde of iron is decomposdd by 
the alkalis, yielding a precipitate of hydrated sesquioxide 
of iron. The carbonates produce the same effect, for ses- 
quioxide of iron does not unite with carbonic acid. Tinc- 
ture of galls gives, with the solution of this salt, a deep 
black precipitate, and ferrocyanide of potassium a deep blue 
precipitate, which is Prussian blue. It is sometimes called 
permuriate of iron. 

Sesquichloride of iron is composed of-* 

One and a half equivalent of chlorine • 54 
One equivalent of iron • . • . • 28 

Equivalent 82 
Azote and hydrogen do not form any compound with 
iron, or at aay rate no permanent compound, though it 
seems probable that nascent hydrogen volatilizes, if it does 
not unite with, a small portion of this metal, when used for 
preparing the gas by solution in an acid. 

Fluorine and Iron. — ^The protofluoride may be formed by 
dissolving iron in a solution of hydrofluoric acid; small 
colourless square crystals are obtained, which are sparingly 
soluble in water, and become of a pale yellow colour by tiie 
action of the air. When heated they lose water, and may 
then be heated to redness without expelling the fluorine. 
It is composed of — 

One equivalent of fluorine • « • 18 
One equivalent of iron . • • • 28 

Equivalent 46 
The perfluoride, or sesquifluoride, of iron is procured by 
dissolving recently precipitated sesquioxide in iiydrofluoric 
acid; the solution is colourless, fiy evaporation a pale 
flesh-coloured substance is left, which has a somewhat as- 
tringent taste and is but sparingly dissolved by water. 
It consists of — 

One and a half eauivalent of fluorine 27 
One equivalent or iron • • • .28 

Equivalent 55 
Bromine and Iron, — When the vapour of bromine is 
passed over red-hot iron wire, a yellow fusible bromide is 
lormed, which is readily soluble in water. When also 
bromine mixed with water is made to act upon iron, a solu- 
tion of the protobromide, of a greenish colour, is obtained. 
It consists of — 

One equivalent of bromine • • « 78 
One equivalent of iron . • • • 28 

Equivalent 106 

A perbromide may also be formed. But these compounds 
are not important. 

Carbon and Iron combine, and the resulting compound 
is steel, or perhaps it may be stated that steel contains car' 
buret of iron. [SteklJ By the long fusion of steel with 
charcoal, Stodart and Faraday obtained a highly crystalline 
compound, containing from 5 to 6 per cent, of carbon, 
whereas steel usually contains only from 1*3 to 1*78 per 
cent When Prussian blue is decomposed without the 
access of air at a red heat, a carburet of iron remains, com- 
posed of one and a half equivalent of carbon and one of 
iron ; it is a black pulverulent substance, which at a low 
heat takes fire in the air, when carbonic acid is given out, 
and sesquioxide of iron left. 

The substances called graphite, plumbago, or black-lead, 
have been regarded as carourets of iron ; it is however more 
than questionable whether the small and uncertain portion 
of iron which they contain is not in a state of mixture rather 
than combination. 

SiUphur and Iron readily unite, and the native compounds 
have Deen already mentioned. Protosulphuret of iron, 
having much the appearance of the native mineral, may be 
formed by heating iron to whiteness and rubbing a mass of 
sulphur upon it. The sulphuret formed readily fuses, and 
should be dropped into water, removed from it, and dried. 
It may also be formed bv other processes, as by adding a 
hydrosulphate to protochloride or protosulphate of iron. 
Hiat made by tbo first process is of a bronze colour, mo- 
derately hard and brittle ; that formed by the last is dark 
and pulverulent When put into diluted sulphuric or 
hydrochloric acid» sulphuretted hydrogen gas is evolved. 



and a protosulphate or protochloride of iron formed. It is 
a very useful substance for the preparation of hydrosul* 
phuric acid gas, by the action of these acids. 
It is composed of— 

One equivalent of sulphur • • ■ 16 
One equivalent of iron « • # • 28 

Equivalent 44 
' Bintiphuret, or Perntlphuret, of Iron has been occasion- 
ally formed, both in the moist and dry way, artificially ; fmc 
yellow and well defined cubic crystals have been accidentally 
obtained during the preparation of hydrochlorate of ammo- 
nia from ammoniacal gas liquor. According to Berzelius, it 
may also be formed by cautiouslv heating the artificial i)ro- 
tosulphuret with as much sulpnur as it already contains; 
by this there is formed a bulky powder of a yellow colour 
and metallic appearance ; it is not attracted by the magnet, 
nor does hydrochloric or sulphuric acid act upon it. 
It is composed of— 

Two equivalents of sulphur * » • 32 
One equivalent of iron • i « • 28 

Equivalent 60 
Some other sulphurets of iron may be also artificially 
formed, but they are not of any great importance. 

Phosphorus and /ron,— Dinhosphuret of iron may bo 
formed by several processes ; {he diigect one is that of drop- 
ping phosphorus into a crucible containing red-hot iron 
wire ; it is also obtained where the protophosphate of iron is 
heated with a charcoal-lined crucible; phosphorus and 
oxygen being expelled. It is a fused granular mass, havin? 
the colour and lustre of iron, is very brittle, and not acted 
upon by hydrochloric acid. It is said that what is called 
cold-short iron owes its brittle property to the presence o{ 
this compound. 
It is composed of — 

One equivalent of phosphorus • • 16 
Two equivalents of iron • • « • 56 

Equivalent 72 
The perphosphuret of iron is obtained by the action of 
phosphorus on persulphuret of iron at a moderate heat, it 
resembles the diphosphurct in its properties. 
It consists of — 

Four equivalents of phosphorus 9564 
Three equivalents of iron • • • 84 

Equivalent 148 
Iodine and Iron, — ^When iron-filings are digested in a 
mixture of water aud iodine, the metal is dissolved, and a 
green solution is .obtained, which by evaporation yields 
green tabular crystals of protiodide of iron ; these when 
fused leave an iron-grey coloured opaque mass, which is 
very deliquescent, and soluble both in water and in alcohol. 
The solution rapidly absorbs oxygen, and peroxide of iron is 
precipitated, unless an iron wire be kept in it. It is used in 
medicine. 
It is formed of— 

One equivalent of iodine • • • 126 
One m» iron • • • • 28 



•» 



Equivalent 154 
Periodide, or sesquiodide, of irou is formed by digesting 
iron with excess of iodine, and sublimuig the product, h 
is a red volatile compound deliquescent, and soluble in water 
and in alcohol. 
It is composed of— 

One and a half equivalent of iodine 1 89 
One equivalent of iron • • • 28 

■ Equivalent 217 
Boron and Iron are made to combine with difficulty in 
any notable proportion. When hydrogen gas is passed over 
borate of iron heated to redness in a porcelain tube, there was 
obtained, according to Lassaigne, a boruret of iron consist- 
ins; of 22*57 boron and 77*43 iron. It was of a silver-white 
colour and very brilliant ; it was with difficulty acted upon 
by sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, because the boron set 
free enveloped the metal and prevented their action. 

Selenium and Iron may be made to combine by heating 
filings of the metal with selenium. The seleniuret has s 
greyish colour with a tint of yellow; it is hard, brittle 
and when heated by the blowpipe loses selenium; it is 



I R O 



32 



I R O 



prepared, but by exposure to the air, and the partial per- 
oxialzemeat of the iron, it becomes first green and even- 
tually yellowish. like the other salts of iron, it has a dis- 
agreeable styptic taste ; two parts of cold water, and three- 
fourths of a part of boiling water, dissolve one part of this 
salt ; when moderately heated it loses the greater part of 
its water and becomes white, and when subjected to a red 
heat it is partly converted iuto persulphate and partly into 
peroxide of iron ; and when the heat is long continued, 
totally into peroxide ; but when subjected to distillation 
without the free contact of air, it yields a peculiar kind of 
sulphuric acid. This salt is insoluble in alcohol; the 
aqueous solution is decomposed by the alkalis, which preci- 
pitate hydrated protoxide of iron ; by the alkaline carbonates, 
which throw down protocarbouate of iron ; and by ferrocy- 
anide of potassium, which, when the solution is quite free 
from peroxide, gives a white precipitate, but if any peroxide 
be present, which is generally the case, then the colour of 
the precipitate is more or less blue, dependent upon its 
quantity; tincture of galls also gives no precipitate in a 
solution of perfect protosulphate of iron, but, for the reason 
already stated, it generally gives more or less of a dark* 
coloured precipitate. The aqueous solution, when exposed to 
the air, owing to the peroxidizement of the iron, gradually 
lets fall a precipitate which is asubpersulphate of iron. The 
solution also absorbs nitric oxide, and hence is used in eudio- 
mctrical processes. [Eudiometek.] 
Sulphate of iron is composed of — 

One equivalent of sulphuric acid • 40 
One equivalent of protoxide of iron 36 
Seven equivalents of water • .63 

Equivalent 139 
Wo have given a rather detailed account of the proper- 
ties of this salt, because it may be considered as a type of 
the soluble salts of protoxide of iron, and will save useless 
repetition. 

Sulphate of Peroxide of Iron, or Sesoidperntlphate qf 
Iron, may be considered as representing the soluble salts of 
peroxide of this metal. It may be prepared by dissolving 
the moist peroxide, obtained bv decomposing the solution of 
the perchloride with an alkali, in dilute sulphuric acid ; 
but it is generally formed by heating a solution of the pro- 
tosulphate with nitric acid, which being decomposed yields 
oxygen to the protoxide and converts it into peroxide. This 
solution is of a reddish colour when concentrated, and yel- 
lowish when diluted. No crystals are obtained by evapora- 
tion, but there remains a brown deliquescent mass ; its taste 
is very astringent, and it is soluble in alcohol; when con- 
centrated sulphuric acid is added to a strong solution of this 
salt, it is precipitated in the state of a white anhydrous 
powder. The solution, like that of the other persalts of iron, 
gives a yellow precipitate of hydrated peroxide with the al- 
kalis, an intense olue one with ferrocyanide of potas- 
sium, and a very dark one with tincture of galls. It is de- 
composcHl by heat, which expels the sulphuric acid, and 
leaves peroxide of iron. This salt exists in \ihat are termed 
the mother waters of the copperas-makers, and it is also 
formed, though very slowly, by the action of the air upon a 
solution of the protosulphate of iron* a subpersulphate 
being precipitated. 
It is a sesquisalt, composed of — 
One equivalent and a half of sulphuric acid . 60 
One equivalent of sesquioxide, or peroxide • 40 

Equivalent ] 00 
Nitrates qflron. Of these, as of the sulphates, there are 
two. When iron is acted upon by very dilute nitric acid, a 
protonitrate of a pale green colour is obtained ; but when 
the acid is moderately diluted pernitrate of iron is formed : 
this resembles the persulphate in its more important pro- 
perties, and is, like it, a sesquisalt. 

Carbonate o/Iron, It is only the protoxide of iron which 
combines with carbonic acid to form a solid compound. It 
has already been mentioned that carbonate of iron exists in 
nature, and is the basis of what is termed the argillaceous 
iron ore; it sometimes also occurs pure in transparent 
rhombic crystals, much resembling calcareous spar in ap- 
pearance. The crystals are however more commonly yel- 
lowish-brown, and constituting what is called spathose iron 
are. Carbonate of iron is precipitated from the solution ot 
the protosulphate by the alkaline carbonates; but on ac- 
count of the facility with which the protoxide absorbs 



oxygen, it is almost impossible to obtain it perfect, in a 'Iry 
state. Carbonate of iron is decomposed by heat and by 
acids, which expel the carbonic acid. Carbonate of iron, 
held in solution by excess of carbonic acid, exists in cbaly- 
beate waters. 
It is composed of — 

One equivalent of carbonic acid • 22 
One equivalent of protoxide of iron 36 

Equivalent 58 
Phosphates qflron. The protopbosphate occurs in Corn- 
wall, America, &c. It is sometimes called Vivianite, Tbc 
primary form of the crystal is an oblique rhombic prism 
Cleavaire parallel to the oblique diagonal ; fracture indis- 
tinct ; hardness 1*5 to 2*0; colour various shades of blut 
and green; streak lighter than colour; lustre vitreous: 
translucent; transparent; specific gravity 2*6 to 2' 7. So- 
luble in dilute sulphuric ana nitric acids without efierves- 
cence. Before the blowpipe on charcoal in tumesces, reddens 
and melts into a steel-grey globule with metallic lustre. 
Massive varieties, aggregations of crystalline particles, or 
globular and amorphous earthy masses. 

Analysis of the crystallized (No. 1) by Stromeyer, and of 
the earthy (No. 2) by Klaproth :— 



■> ^ 


No. I. 


NO.S. 


Phosphoric acid 


. 31-18 


47-5 


Protoxide of iron 


. 41-23 


32- 


Water . 


. 27-49 


20- 



99-90 99-5 

This compound may be formed artificially by adding a 
solution of phosphate of soda to one of protosulphate of 
iron ; the precipitate is at first blue, but by attracting oxygen 
from the air it is converted into perphosphate, and then be- 
comes white. It is soluble in most acids, and may be pre- 
cipitated from them by ammonia without being decom- 
posed. 

Perphosphate qf Iron is white; it is obtained by add in g 
phospnate of soda to persulphate of iron. Like the proto- 
pbosphate, it is insoluble in water, but dissolved by acids, 
and may be precipitated fh)m them unaltered. < 

Arseniates of Iron, [Arskn i cal M i n erals.] The pro t o - 
arseniate of iron is obtained by adding arseniate of pota2»li 
to a solution of protosulphate of iron ; a greyish precipitate 
of protoarseniate is obtained, which by exposure to the air 
absorbs oxygen and becomes darker. The perarseniate ot 
iron is obtained by precipitating a solution of the persul- 
phate by arseniate of potash. It is a yellowish-white in- 
soluble powder. 

Chromate qflron. [Chromium.] 

Tungstaie of Iron, [Tungsten.] 

Percyanide qflron, Prussian Blue. [Blue.] 

We shall conclude this part of the subject with a brief 
account of the 

General properties qf the Salts qf Iron, Those sails 
which contain or yield the protoxide are distinguished by 
the following properties: — They give no precipitate with 
tincture of galls or hydrosulphuric acid ; a white one, wliirh 
becomes speedily blue on exposure to the air, with ferroc.*>'- 
anide of potassium, and a blue one with the sesquiferrory- 
anide. Solution of chloride of gold, and especially of the 
sodium chloride, gives a dark-coloure<l precipitate, and 
when nitrate of silver is added to protosulphate of iron me- 
tallic silver is precipitated. The alkalis throw down a 
colourless hydrate, and the alkaline carbonates precipitate 
protocarbouate of iron. The salts of iron which contain the 
peroxide, or sesquioxide, are distinguished from those of the 
protoxide by giving a deep blue or black precipitate with 
tincture of galls ; the ferrocyanide of potassium also gives a 
deep blue, out the sesquirerrocyanide gives none at all. 
Hyarosulphuric acid reduces them to the state of protoxide, 
sulphur being precipitated. Ammonia, and the solutions of 
potash and s^a, give a yellowish hydrate. 

There are however some exceptions to the production of 
these effects : thus the tartrate of potash and peroxide of 
iron, the ferri potassio-tartras of the Pharmacopcsia, gives 
no blue precipitate with ferrocyanide of potassium, nor is it 
precipitated by ammonia or the alkaline carbonates ; but 
potasn, when the mixture is heated, throws down hydrated 
peroxide of iron. 

Iron Manufacture and Trade. — ^The art of smelting 
iron was practised in this country during the time of the Roman 
occupation and in maiv onfient beds of cindexs» the refuse 



I R O 



3A 



I R O 



metal to a sow and her litter of pigs: this is iron m its 
crudest state. The weight of materials lost in its produc- 
tion is somewhat greater than that of the fuel used ; taking 
into account the refuse cinder and ashes with the metal, the 
whole does not weii^h quite so much as the ore and lime 
that have been put mto the furnace. Large heaps of cinder 
are gradually accumulated In the neighbourhood of iron- 
works, and give a dreary aspect to the country. 

Tlie quality of pig-iron varies according to the purposes 
for which it Is intended, and depends not only upon the 
qdality of the ore, but also upon that of the fuel. The 
principal' division is into foundry-iron and forge-iron, the 
former being used for castings, the latter for conversion 
into mallcabte iron. Foundry-iron is fUrther divided into 
three qualities, distinguished by the numbers I, 2, and 3. 
No. 1 contains a large proportion of carbon, which it has 
acquired from the coko used in smelting, and the quality 
of which has been chosen with a view to the production of 
this kind of iron, which is soft and very fluid when melted, 
so that it will run into the finest and most delicate forms 
the moulder can produce. No. 2 contains a smaller pro- 
portion of carbon; it is harder than No. 1, closer grained, 
and of more regular fracture ; it is more refractory in the 
iiirnace, and does not run so fteely when melted as No. 1, 
but as it is harder and stronger it is preferred for purposes 
where strength and durability are required in preference to 
delicacy of form : these two kinds are unfit for conversion 
into bar-iron. No. 3 varies in the same direction as No. 2, 
but in a greater degree, from the qualities of No. 1 ; it is 
used for many kinds of hca\'y work where it has to bear 
great strains and is exposed to constant wear. Forge-iron 
IS divided also into three qualities, and is distinguished as 
bright iron, mottled iron, and white irort, which names are 
indicative of the appearance which each (juality presents to 
the eye ; they allot* them contain some rarhon, but less 
than foundry-iron, and in pn. port ions dinilnisliiiig in the 
order in which they are here mentioned, white iron liannj; 
the smallest proportion of any, and hviuvr exceedingly hard ; 
its fluidity too is so hniall that it runs with difliculty into 
the channels provided to receive it at the first snieliin;::, and 
it is altogether incapable of being afterwards used for 
foundry purposes. 

Forge or bar iron is pii^-iron freed from carbon and oxy- 
geh. The first operation for jin^dncinfij this chan<je is called 
refining, and is performed in small low furnaces about three 
feet square at the base, having the botiom, or hearth, of fire- 
bricks, and the sides of ca.st-iron, made hollow to allow a 
stream of water to pass constantly through, which prevents 
their being quickly burnt away ; near the top are holes for 
the insertion of blast-pipes. These refineries have iron 
doors at the back, but are open in front ; the whole is sur- 
mounted bv a chimney of brick-work carried to the height 
of 20 feefirom the ground. At the level of the hearth in 
ffont is a hole similar to that in the smeltin*:j-furnace for 
funning out the melted metal. This communicates with a 
flat mould of cast-iron 20 feet long and two feet wide, placed 
over a cistern of water with which its under surface is in 
contact, and which serves to cast the metal rapidly as it 
Tuns' into the mould. The iron is kept in a state of fusion 
ih the refinery for some time exposed to an intense heat 
produced by a strong blast. From the sudden cooling to 
which it is exposed, the plate when run into the mould is 
very brittle: when broken the fracture presents a bright 
sUVoiy appearance. Tlie operation of refmmg requires about 
two hours for its performance, and as the wei«xht of each 
plate when run out is about one ton, each refinery is capa- 
ble of being made to yield about 70 tons weekly. From 
22 to 23 hundred-weii^lit of pig-iron are required to produce 
one ton of refined iron, and from 10 to 12 cwt. of coke is 
used for the purpose. 

The first process employed for making bai-s is called 
puddling, and is performed in a reverberatory furnace, 
thence called a puddling-furnace : the structure of this fur- 
nace will be explained by the following dia2;rara : — In this 
diagram a is the grate, which is supplied with coal through 
a door in the side. The refined metal broken in small frag- 
ments is placed in the body of the furnace 6, over which the 
flame is made to play in its passage to the chimney c. 

The degree of the draft is regulated by a damper on the 
top of the chimney, which is about 30 feet high. Such is 
the intenseness oiT the heat in these furnaces, that when 
the damper is raised the flame is sometimes carried to tlie 
top of tne cliiiiiuey. The qaantity of lefined metal put 



rt^ 



T 

-T 



ni 



cr. 



r.>'M 









r — r 






\xh0^^^7^^i 



.•^r>'v'Vf 



»s • 






' '■ ' HI' 



• t '• ». 






.— .^-.' -«< 






■' -'Jill — ■ _i 



into this puddling-fumace at each charge is from 3| to . 
cwt In about half an hour from the charging of the fu' 
nace the metal begins to melt. The puddler then obsen« - 
through a small hole provided for that purpose and for il 
introduction of his toojs, the progress of the work. Ti.t 
business of the puddler is so to dispose of the pieces 
metal, moving them by means of his tools, as to ensure a 
equable application of heat to the mass. When the wh- 
quantity is fully melted, the puddler stire the metal aboi 
briskly, changing his tools continually that they may not 1. 
melted. By means of this agitation the metal gives off zi 
elastic fluid, and after a time becomes thick, and grows i: 
creasingly so, until it loses all fluidity and forniJ* ii.i 
lumps. The contents of the furnace are then divided ini- 
five or six portions by the puddler, and each is made up i' 
means of his tools into a snherical form. These balls a' 
technically called blooms. Being taken from the puddliiu- 
furnace they aie subjected each to iO or 20 blows from 
hea\7 hammer (called shingling), which makes them nj. r 
compact and gives ihem a blia|)e more convenient fur iZ'^r . 
through the rollers. The form and construction of tht-- 
rollers are shown in the following diagram. The bloom i 




passed in succession through the holes in a, beginninj; w'v 
the largest an^ proceeding to the smallest ; it is then i^i-v, 
through the grooves in the second roller ^, and is ih 
reduced to the requisite width and thickness, bavin-/ ^ 
these several processes been converted from a fusible, Imr 
and brittle sub'^tance, to a tough and elastic bar whi/-l. . 
hardly fusible, and which from its property of )ieldin«4 a*, 
altering its form under the hammer has aciquired the lifu:. 
of malleable in)n. 

The quantity of refined metal required to make one t- 
of these rough burs is about 22 cwt., and the quantity of < • 
consumed in the process is about 17 cwt. The bai~^. wl. 
they have been passed throni^h thc.^^e rollers, and whili* > 
hot, are cut into convenient lengths and taken to the Ir. 
ing-furnace, the sliapo and construction of which resem 
those of the puddl ing-furnace. In this balling-furnacf : 
bars aro piled evenly, so that one bar does not ])rojecl Ihv« ■: 
another. Several of these piles, each of which is conijiwv. 
of five or six bars, are placed at once in the furnace, ni 
when sulficientiy heated, so that they will weld to-cil .• 
the piles are taken out separately and are passed a: :<. 
through rollers similar in construction to those di'sci il . . 
above, but differing from eiich other in the form of lii. • 
orifices and grooves, so that either round or flat or stji.:-' 
rods and bars may lie produced at the pleasure ot t 
maker, and these when weighed and put up into buiid:.- 
are readv for sale. 

There are no means of ascertaining correctly the quant::^ 
of iron made in this country. Estimates have been fovuM 
at difi'erent periods, but these are at best but approxim.i 
tions to the truth : these estimates aro as under: — 

1740 .. . 17,000 Tons. 

1788 .. . 68.000 „ 

1796 . . . 125.000 „ 

1806 .. . 250.000 ,, 

1820 . . . 400,000 ^ 

1827 • • • 690,000 » 



I R R 



36 



I R R 



' irrational.' This explanation is very important, since the 
student might otherwise be led to suppose that irrational 
meant unreasonable, or absurd. Suppose for example that 
we have a geometrical problem which we solve by the 
application of arithmetic, taking a certain line to be one, 
and applying the fundamental principles explained in 
Rectanolb. Suppose the problem thus reducible to the 
solution oi a^ = 2, or the quantity sought is such a fraction 
as multiplied by itself will give 2. The arithmetical answer 
is very simple ; there is no such fraction. But is the prob- 
lem therefore impossible? By no means; for the line 
required must be the diagonal of a square whose side is the 
linear unit. AVhat then is the reason for our not being 
able to produce an arithmetical solution ? Because the 
raiio of the line sought to the linear unit given is not to be 
expressed arithmetically, or is in the preceding sense irra- 
tional. The student has now arrived at the point where he 
must be taught (if he have not learnt it before) that arith- 
metic is not the science of all ratios or relative magnitudes, 
but only of the ratios or relative magnitudes of those quan- 
tities which are made by putting together quantities which 
are all equal to one another. The senses alone would never 
make this distinction, and those who desire nothing more 
than sensible evidence in their mathematical studies need 
not attend to it: unfortunately the present bent of such 
pursuits tends to mexactness, not explicitly avowed, but 
wearing the appearance of absolute rigor. 

The student who begins to extract the square root of 
numbers is allowed to place the symbol of that process over 
numbers which do not admit of its performance, as ^^ 2, 

V 3, &c. These symbols are reasoned on as if they repre- 
sented fractions, and arithmetical deductions are drawn; 
but when it is required to reduce them to practice, then the 
possibility of determining their arithmetical values is denied, 
and it is implied that they have an existence which can only 
bo approximately represented. Thus, since 1*4 142 multi- 
plied by itself gives 2 very nearly; it is said that 1*4142 is 
very nearly the square root of 2. This method, which is 
indispensably necessary in practice, should not be allowed 
in perfectly strict reasoning. It cannot be just to say that 
2 has no square root, but that since fractions very near to 
2 have square roots, therefore these square roots are very 
near to the non-existent square root of 2. It is only in a 
properly extended arithmetic, which by express agreement 
admits of extended symbols of ratio, that it can be lawful to 
speak of the square root of 2. [Ratio.] Waiving this point 
for the present, we proceed to further considerations, confining 
ourselves to those irrational quantities which arise from taking 
the square roots of numbers, but premising that similar 
remarks might be made on cube, fourth, &c. roots. If we take 
the scries of numbers 1, 2, 3, &c., and extract the square root 
of each, we thereby obtain (1.) the original scries 1, 2, 3, &c., 
by means of V 1 , V 4, V 9, &c. ; (2.) a series of multiples of 

V 2, namely, a/ 2, VS, Vl8, &c., which arc V 2. 2V2, 
3V2, &c. ; (3.) a similar series of multiples of V3; and 
so on ad infinitum. The primitive numbers are either 
prime numbers or products of different prime numbers. 
Thus we have a series of multiples of V(7x 5), but not of 
a/ (7 X 7 X 5), since this last is 7 V 5, and, with its multi- 
ples, is included in those of V5. Any two quantities in the 
same scries are commensurables ; thus 7 V lU and 12 V 10 
are in the proportion of 7 to 10, and have V 10 for a com- 
mon measure: but any two which are in different series 
are incommensurables ; thus V 1 and V 1 1 have no com- 
mon measure whateoever. And the sum or difference of 
any two incommensurable quantities is incommensurable 
with either; thus we can form infinite sets of binomials, 
such as V2-f V3, V 10-h Vll, V 19 - V5, &c., no 
one of which shall be commensurable with any other. 

The s(]uare root of any arithmetical fraction is commen- 
surable with that of the profluct of its numerator and de- 
nominator: thus a/H) is i Vl5. And the reciprocal of 
any square root is commensurable with that square root : 
thus 1 -J- V 7 is j V 7. Also the fraction made by any two 
of the binomials just described is commensurable with the 
product of some similar pair: thus 



V3-f- \^5 

'JY^^r^^ 1CV3+ V5)(VlO+2). 

If we take the square root of one of the preceding bino- 
mials as V ( ^^3 -|- Vd) we have a new quantity, not com- 
%iensurabte with any of those just mentioned, except only 



in certain cases pointed out by the following theorem. "Let 
a and b be two numbers, of which a is the greater - 

If a and a — 6 be both square numbers, let a = /^. a ~ ^ 
= (/', and we have 

V (Va± V6) = 1 V(2jo.|-27) ± i V(2p- 2 q). 
Though Euclid was not acauainted with any direct alire- 
braical process, yet he carrieci the distinction of incommen- 
surable quantities to the length of a complete subdivision 
of all the possible cases which can be contained, in tlie f<»r- 
mula tj {,tj a^ »/ b)» We are induced to give an account 
of his tenth book, because there does not, to our knowledii^c. 
exist any such thing in a form accessible to the student. 
Indeed, we do not know where to find a descriplioa of it^ 
details in any form whatsoever. In old geometrical writini^^ 
references to the classification of this book are not un frc- 
Guently met with. If we take any given line to represent 
tne unit of length, and if a, 6, c, &c., represent lines com- 
mensurable with this unit, arithmetically expressed, it i^ 
well known that the most common geometry shows how tu 
find the lines expressed by Vo, V^i &c. All such lin*^- 
Euclid terms rational, all others irrational (pirrocand aXoyog } : 
and any area which being formed into a square has a ra- 
tional side, he calls a rational area ; that is in fact any area 
which is commensurable itrvfifitrpog) with the square unit. 
is rational. The term for the square on a line is its potcrr 
Wvaiit/Q) and from this comes the algebraical m^q of ihc 
word power. Thus when he says that two lines are only 
commensurable in power, he means that the squares vi\ 
them are commensurable, but not the lines themselves. A 
mean, or medial line (/Ae^oc), is the mean proportional be- 
tween two incommensurable rational lines, and is such ar 
can be represented in algebra by Vo, where a is commeii 
surable with the unit: and a medial area is the mean pm- 
portional between two rational areas, and its number c! 
square units maybe represented by Va- 

A line which is maae by putting together {vvvQmiq) two 
incommensurable rational lines is called a line of two iiame^ 
{Ik Ho 6voftdTutv), or a binomial line ; while one which i* 
made by taking away (a^at^cri^) the lesser of two inroiii- 
mensurable rational lines from the greater, is called av. 
apotom6 iairoTOftri) literally, off-cut The binomial there- 
fore has one of the forms a -h V^ and Va + V&, whil 
the apotome has one of the forms Va~ V6, a~ /s//;. 
V b ~a. Six distinct species of each sort of line are found 
and in connection with each set of six is another similar sei. 
which a modern mathematician would describe ns compostM 
of the 2^<luare roots of the first set. But Euclid describes tlu 
square roots, as we should ciill them, previously to the Um • 
themselves, and in order to render this article more avail 
able to those who look through the tenth book, we shall d . 
the same. The whole amounts to this, that taking a givt:i 
line as the unit and standard, Euclid separates the lines re- 
presented by V ( Va i V6), where a and b are commen- 
surable with the standard unit, into twenty-five di^tin^: 
classes, no one of which contains any lines commensurabi' 
with those of any other class. The following enumeratioi. 
contains the order in which they make their appearance : n, 
b, &c., representing lines commensurable with the standui ; 
unit; A, B, C, D, E, F, the six binomial lines ; V A, ^^ R 
&c., those connected with them; U, V, W, X, Y, Z. tin 
six apotoma) ; V U, V V, &c., those connected with them. 

It is however to be noticed that Euclid does not use tliL 
terra unit, but supposes a rational line, to*which he uiak» - 
reference. Thus when he mentions in one place a ratioiK;! 
hne and a fourth binomial, he means that the Iburlh binoui m 
shall be related to that rational line in the same manner u> 
our following definition will connect it with the modi-ni 
phrase, the standard unit. 

(1). a, b, &c., lines commensurable with the unit. 

(2). Va. V^, &c., lines commensurable in power with 
the unit. These two heads include the rational lines. 

(3). V^ V^f &c., medial lines, described by Euclid as 
lines equal in power to the rectangle of incommensurable 
rational lines. 

( ). VA has the form Va+ V^. A binomial hne gen oral I v. 
This case contains all-lhe six hereafter described and num- 
bered, for which reason the numbering is hero left blank. 
There is a proposition which we should now enunciate by 
saying that the square root of a binomial of the first species 



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38 



I R R 



and in showing the identity of the forms, Euclid arrives at 
the manner of deriving one from the other. He also shows, 
in two propositions, that the form J (0+ Jh) gives either 
a binomial line, or (4), (6), or (7) of the preceding enume- 
ration, and that J ( Va-f- V6) gives either (6) or (8). In 
three more he shows that ij {a— ijb) gives either an 
apotomd or (17) of the enumeration, that v {fjb—a) gives 
either (15) or (18), and that V ( Va— >Jb) gives either (16) 
or (19). He further shows the equivalent of the following 
algebraical proposition * — 

1 _ Va-i-V& 

The preceding enumeration points to one of the most re- 
markable pages in the history of geometry. The question 
immediately arises, had Euclid any substitute for algebra? 
If not, how did he contrive to pick out, from among an 
infinite number of orders of incommensurable lines, the 
whole, and no more than the whole, of those which were 
necessary to a complete discussion of all lines represented 
by V ( Va ^ V^). without one omission or one redundancy ? 
He had the power of selection, for he himself has shown 
how to construct an infinite number of other species, and an 
algebraist could easily point out many more ways of adding 
to the subject, which could not have been beyond £ucli(l. 
If it be said that a particular class of geometriccal questions, 
involving the preceding formula and that one only, pointed 
out the various cases, it may be answered that no such com- 
pleteness appears in the thirteenth book, in which KuclVl 
applies his theory of incommensurables. It is there proved 
that each of the segments of a line divided in extreme ami 
mean ratio is an apotom^ — that the side of an equilatenl 
pentagon inscribed in a circle is, relatively to the radius, 
the irrational line called a lesser line, as is also the side of 
an icosahedron inscribed in a sphere — and that the side o \ 
a dodecahedron is an apotom6. The apotome then and the 
lesser line are the onlv ones applied. 

It seems probable that the distinction of commensurable 
and incommensurable, and even a notion of dilferent species 
of incommensurables, was familiar to the geometer buCore 
Euclid wrote. Had it been otherwise, we must suppose 
that the definitions of the fifth book would have been ac- 
Qompanicd by some little account of their necessity, and 
also that the absolute determination of two incommen- 
surable magnitudes would not have been postponed till the 
last proposition of the tenth book. But it is impassible to 
draw any very positive conclusion on this subject. Owing to 
the loss of Euclid's book on Fallacies [Geometry, p. 1G2], 
we are probably left without those notions which he in- 
tended to be preliminary to the elements. 

The most conspicuous propositions of elementary geo- 
metry which are applied in the tenth book are the 27th, 
2Sth, and 29th of the sixth book, of which it may be 
useful to give the algebraical signification. The first of 
these (the '27th) amounts to showing that 2^:— ^ has its 
greatest value when x= I, and contains a limitation neces- 
sary to the conditions of the two which follow. The 28th 
proposition is a solution of the equation aa?— a::*=6, upon a 
condition derived fi-om the preceding proposition, namely, 
that ^* shall exceed b. It might appear more correct to 
say that the solution of this equation is one particular case 
of the proposition, namely, where the given parallelognim 
is a square; but nevertheless the assertion applies equally 
to all oases. Euclid however did not detect the two solu- 
tions of the question; though if the diagonal of a paral- 
lelogram in his construction be produced to meet the pro- 
duction of a line which it does not cut, tlio second 
solution may be readily obtained. This is a strong pre- 
sumption against his having anything like algebra ; since 
it is almost impossible to imagine that the propositions of 
the tenth book, deduced from any algebra, however imper- 
fect, could have been put together without the discovery of 
the second root. The remaining proposition (the 29th) is 
equivalent to a solution of ax-^-a^^bi but the case of 
a^—ax^b IS wanting, which is another argument against 
Euclid having known any algebraical reasonmg 

IRRAWADDI. [BiRMAN Empire.] 

IRREDUCIBLE CASE (that is, of cubic equations), 
the common name of a particular class of cubic equations, 
to which C'ardun did not sucoocl in applying his celebrated 
rule. BonibeUi however showed that the reason of this 
Wiia the reality uf all the taliree rootb. The following is the 



sketch both of the method and the difficulty. [Boubklli 
Cardan; Tart ale a; Theory of Equations ; Nboati; 
AND Impossible Quantities.] 

Unity has three cube roots, 1, — J (1 — V — 3K j 

— i (1+ V — 3), of which the product of the second :i' 
third is possible and eaual to unitv. (falling these t. 
and r', it is next shown that cfi has three cube roots, naiu- 
a, ra, and r'cu Now, let there be a cubic equation (A, 
and C being possible quantities) 

x''^Ax* + Bx + C=0; 

and, by the method explamed in Involution and Evoi v 
TiON, find another equation which has e^h root greaU: 
than a root of the preceding by 3 A. We have then 

X +Vx -f Q = . . ; ry 

P = B-JA- Q =: C-iAB +iA'. 

Let X be v + w: then a>» = r^ -f oj' -f Svirx, and ( : 
becomes 

t;*-f tr^-f {3vw + F)x 4-Q = . . (2). 

Determine v and w so that 

3vw+P=:0 r»4-tt^ + Q = 0; 

by which means (2), and therefore (1), is satisfied. T. j 
gives 

t7»(ortr')= -iQ+ V(iQ»+AP^) 
tf> (or tr*) = -i Q - V(* Q* + ,V P'>. 
from which v and w can be found. But as each of the t\w«, • 
and e^, has three cube roots ; and as no reason yet &j-f ^ 
for choosing one rather than another, it should seem a» u <. 
possible combinations by which v-ftr might be made >\,r. 
be nine in number. But on looking back we find the « 
dition Srw = — P ; so that the product of o and tp iuu>i :• 
a possible quantity. If then we signify by v and 1/? the r^ 
cube rdbts of r' and u?*, the others are rv aod r't', rtv a 
r'w ; and the only combinations which satisfy the Inst-iULi. 
tioned condition are 

t; -f fp, rv-^ r'w, r't? -t- rwi 
which pre the three roots of the equation (i), to tho exci 
sion of V + f^^\ rV'\-tP,v-{- r'w, r't? -f tP, ro -|r no, r'v-^-rt: 
So far all is right, and the algebraical solution is com p Id. 
and may be represented thus : let p stand for any cube r« . 
of unity ; then the three solutions of (I) are contained la 

P V(-iQ+V(iQ*+AP*)) 
+ ~V(-4Q-V(iQ* + AP»)), 

where ^ signifies the real cube root* 

This is perfectly intelligible when iQ' + ^P* is a pit^ 
tive quantity: for if we call the real cube root^i above nic'i 
tioned K and L, we find for the three roots of the cquativ>'.. 
firsty the possible root, K4- L ; next, the pair of impoa.^.- 
ble roots contained in the formula 

-4(K4-L)±J(K-L) J^. 

If we applv this to the equation ar*— 9a?— 28 = 0, wIut- 
P= -9,and'Q= - 28 , we s hall find K=_3^L= 1, a: 1 

the roots are 4, —2 4" V — 3, and — 2 — V--3. But if .: 
should happen that }Q* -f^P^ is negative (which rcquirt> 
that P should be negative and ^V^ numerically greau: 
th;iniQ='), we return to the orii^inal form of the solulio:. 
and find thai the roots of the equation arc contained in iLi- 
formula 

{V+W V^=n}*+'{v-WV^P . . .(3) 

where \ }' means any cube root, there being a tacit q%m\- 
dition that the product of the t?»j) cube roots must be p*-- 
sible. V stands for — ^iQ, and W for the j o^sible (thouu-i 
perhaps irrational) quantity V (- iQ*- iP'). Nov.-, if';> 
shown in books of algebra that every cube root i>f 

V -I- W V - 1 is of the same form, say F -f G ^ — i. 

and that t he co rresponding cube root of V — W tj l ib 

F — G V — 1. If then we assume 

{v+wv^=i}| = F-fG v~=n", 

{v-W V^P= F-G V- 1. 
we find by multiplication 

{v«4.\Vp=P-f G«; 
and by addition of their cubes, and division by 2, 

V=F»-3FG-, 
between which the elimination of G gives 



I ^R 



40 



I R R 



of the channels are regulated by the nature of the surface 
and other circumstances, which vary in almost every situa- 
tion. A few examples will give to those who are not ac- 
quainted with the best modes of irrigating land a pretty 
accurate notion of the system. 

We shall suppose a river to run with a rapid current 
between high banks. At some point of its course a portion 
ot* the water is diverted into a canal dug along the bank, 
with a very small declivity. The water in this canal will 
flow with less rapidity than the river, but will keep the 
same level as that part of the river where it has its origin. 
Thus the water may be carried over lands which are situated 
considerably above tlie bed of the river farther down. All 
the lands between this canal and the river may be irrigated 
if there is a sutticienc supply of water. The canal may be 
carried to a considerable distance from the river. The size 
of the canal and its declivity depend on the quantity of water 
which may be made to How into it. A dam is often constructed 
across a river, in order that as much of its water as is pos- 
sible may be diverted, and the original channel is often laid 
quite dry, to take advantage of all the water at the time 
when it is advantageous to irrigate the land. To have an 
entire command of the water there are flood-gates on the 
main channel and on the lesser branches. By opening or 
shutting these the water may be stopped or made to flow as 
may be required. It must be remembered, that to carry 
water to a considerable distance, and in great quantity, a 
larger channel and more rapid declivity are required ; and it 
is a matter of calculation whether it is most advantageous 
to bring a smaller quantity to a higher point, or a greater 
abundance somewhat lower. Having a certain command 
of water, it may be carried from the main channel by smaller 
branches to dilTerent points, so as to irrigate the whole 
equally. These branches should be nearly horizontal, that the 
water may overflow the sides of them, and be equally dis- 
tributed over the land immediately below. Every branch 
which brings water over the land should have a correspond- 
ing cliaiinel below to carry it off; for the water must never 
be allowed to stop and stagnate. When it has run 15 or 20 
feet, according to the declivity, over the land situated below 
the feeder, or the channel which brings the water, it should 
be collected into a drain to be carried off, unless it can be 
u^cd to irrigate lands which lie still lower. Finally it runs 
bactk into the river from which it was taken, at a lower 
point of its course. 

When there is a considerable fall and a sufficient supply 
of water, a series of channels may be made, so situated be- 
low each other, that the second collects the water which the 
first has supplied, and in its turn becomes a feeder to irri- 
gate the lower parts of the declivity : a third channel re- 
ceives the water and distributes it lower down, until the 
last ])ours it into the river. This is called catch ujork, he- 
cause the water is caught from one channel to another. 
This method is only applicable where there is a considerable 
fall of water and a gentle declivity towards the river. But 
it must be borne in mind that the water is deteriorated for the 
purpose of irrigation, when it has passed over the land, and 
that it is not advantageous to let it flow over a great extent 
when a fresh supply can be obtained : but where only a 
small ])ortion of water can be commanded, that must be 
made the most of; and it will irrigate three or four portions 
of laud in succession without there being any very marked 
difference in the effect : beyond this it rapidly loses its fer- 
tilizing qualities. This is not owin^ to the water having 
deposited the fcrtihzing substances which it held in solution, 
or wluch were diffused through it, but it is owing to its having 
taken up some which are detrimental to vegetation, and being 
saturated with them: at least this is the most probable 
opinion when all circumstances are taken into the account. 

The general principle of irrigation may be described as 
the supplying every portion of the surface with an abun- 
dance of water, and taking it off again rapidly. In many 
situations the great ditiiculty iu irrigation arises from the 
want of a supply of water; but even then a partial irriga- 
tion may be eflected,which. although not perfect, will have its 
advantages. A small rill which is often quite dry in summer 
may still, by judicious manai^ement, be made to improve a 
consiflerable portion of land : its waters may be collected 
and allowed to accumulate in a pond or reservoir, and let 
out occis^ijiKilly, so that none be lost or run to waste. 
If there is but a small quantity it must be husbanded and 
made to flow over as gi'cat a surface as ))ossible. If there is 
water only at particular seasons of the year, and at a time 



when it would not be of much use to the land, it max U 
kept in ponds, and it will lose none of its qualities by bux.:. 
exposed to the air. If animal or vegetable matter ii. . 
partial state of decomposition is added to this water, it w 
much improve its quality, and by a judicious distributit. 
of it over the land a great benefit may be obtained. 

If there is not a want of water, there may be a want of *' 
clivity to enable it to flow off, which, it should alway5 I. 
remembered, is an essential part of irrigation. Art nii 
in this case assist nature by forming a passage for the waic 
either in its course towards the land to be irrigated, ur 14- 
it afler it has effected its purpose. Where there is no iiat u:. 
exit, and it might lead to too great an expense to make l 
artificial one, the water may sometimes be led into sball • 
ponds, where a great part is evaporated; or porous stru 
may be found by boring, into which it can be made to run ai. 
be dispersed. Along rivers where the fall is very inapercv : 
tible a channel brought from a considerable distance n\ 
give such a command as to throw the water over a gi\ 
extent of surface ; and to cany it off another channel m.. 
be cut, emptying itself at some distance below: so th 
lands which lie along the banks of a river may be irrig-ato 
although they are actually below the level of the river, ai. 
require banks to protect them from inundation. 

When the surface to be irrigated is very flat and nea*^ 
level, it is necessary to form artificial slop^ for the water 
run over. The whole of the ground is laid in broad boi^ 
undulating like the waves of the sea. The upper part • 
these beds is quite letel from end to end, and here t! t 
channel or float which brings the water on is cut. Fro 
the edge of this channel the ground is made to slope a fu 
or two on both sides, and a ditch is cut at the bott to- 
parallel to the float. The whole of the ground is laid out 
these beds. All the floats are supplied by a main chaiin< 
at right angles to the beds, and somewhat above them, at. 
all the ditches or drains run into a main ditch parallel 
the main float, and below the lowest drain. The course l 
the water is very regular. As soon as the flood-gates vr 
opened it flows into all the upper channels, which it 11 :^ 
till they overflow in their whole length. The sloping si<:> 
are covered with a thin sheet of running water, which ti. 
lower drains collect and carry into the main ditch. 

Experience has shown that there are particular sea>o. < 
when the water has the best effect ; a perfect command <. 
it is therefore indispensable, and also a regular supph 
During frost, when all dry meadows are in a state of toi jji : 
and the vegetation is suspended, the water-meadows, ha\ il, 
a current of water continually flowing over them, ai*e pr^ 
tected from the effect of frost, and the grass will continue t 
grow as long as the water flows over it. Too much moist ur. 
however would be injurious, and the meadows are tlicrelur 
laid dry by shutting the flood gates, whenever the tempi i;> 
ture of the air is above freezing. By this management ;1 
grass grows rapidly at the first sign of spring. Before 1 he <1 1 
upland meadows have recovered the efi'ects of frost ai.< 
begun to vegetate, the herbage of the water-meadows i- 
already luxuriant. As soon as they are fed off or cut for ti:t 
first crop of hay, the water is immediately put on again, b..' 
for a shorter time; for the warmer the air, the less time wi 
the grass bear to be covered with water. A renewed gro\M: 
soon appears, and the grass is ready to be cut a secu:.- 
time when the dry meadows only give their first cr^>; 
Thus, by judicious management, three or four cix)p> i 
grass are obtained in each season, or only one abundai. 
crop is made into hay» and the sheep and cattle feed off ih. 
others. The usual way in which the grass of water- m^u 
dows is made profitable is by feeding ewes which have earl) 
lambs till the middle of April. A short flooding soon repn> 
duces a crop, which is mown for hay in June ; another floo<l- 
ing gives an abundant aftermath, which is either mown f r 
hay, or fed off by cows, bullocks, and horses ; for at this tinu 
the sheep, if pastured in water-meadows, are very subjtt i 
to the rot. The value of good water-meadows rouM 
scarcely be believed by those who are not familiar wiU 
them. Where the water is suited to irrigation they novrr 
require manuring. Their fertility is kept up continually, 
and the only attention required is to weed out coarse atpia 
tic plants, which are neither nutritious nor wholesome m 
hay or pasture. 

The best sod for a water-meadow is a good gravel. The 
finest water-meadows on the Avon in Wiltshire, where Uw 
richest herbage is found, have scarcely any soil at all, but 
are on a bed of shingle and pebbles matted together by the 



R V 



42 



I S A 



"banks. In this caM the grass, which has not yet sprung 
up, is protected from the cold, and if there is a deposit from 
the water there is a considerable advantage. But when it 
subsides, it must be made to run off entirely, without 
leaving small pools, by which the grass would invariably be 
injured. Small ditches or channels are usually dug, by 
which all the water may run off, unless where the subsoil 
is very porous, or the land is well under-drained, which is 
seldom the case in these low meadows, for the drains woui 1 
l>e apt to be cboaked by the earthy deposit from the water . 
These inundations pan sometimes be regulated by means oi' 
tlykes and flood-gates, in which case they partake of the 
advantages of irrigation, and also of that deposition oi 
fertilizing mud which is called warping. [Warping.] 

Thu preceding plan iji^. I) will explain what has beeti 
brioiiy said lespecting the different modes of irrigating land. 
A A is V river which has a considerable fall, and then flows 
through a level plain. A considerable channel is cut at B, 
H'hcre there is a rapid £iil over a natural or artificial dam. 
This channel is carried round a hi^l and supplies a ^^es oi 
channels, C,C,G, placed below each other, forming catch- 
work along a declivity. A portion of the water goes on \o p^ 
where it supplies the feeders of a regular set of ridges, or 
beds, made as before described, irom which the water 
returns into the river by a main trpnch, iptp which all the 
drains run. 

Ou the other side of the river, where the slopes lie some- 
what difl'mently, there are several examples of catch- ^ork^ 
the bluck lilies leprescntiug the drains which receive the 
water utter it lia:i Uowed over the surface and carry it into 
the river below, it is evidpnt that all the feeders are 
nearly horizontal, to aUo\y the water to flow over their 
Bides. 

Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3 is tho si*cUoo of catch- work, a, a. are the fpMiers; ft, the dx»tii; 
t, e, c, c, iatermediate efaannela which act as feeders and diaiaa. 

Fig. 3. 




Kid|^e-work. 
FiK 3is Ui4 seetioD of tmo adjoiuing ridges. a,a. the(iB«d0ni; h,ltb,lb» 

drains. 



Fig. 4. 



T 



h. 



^^ 



Fir. 4 is a sluice to itfuiale the Quw of water 

1 RRIT ABILITY. [H m^lkh.] 

IRTISCH. [Siberia.] 

IRVINE, a royal borough and seaport town in the dis- 
trict of Cunnini^liam and county of Ayr, 68 miles south- 
west by west from Edinburgh. It is situated on a rising 
ground to the north of the river Irvine, and about half a 
mile distant from the harbour, which lies to the south-west 
of it. The town is dry and well aired, and consists of one 
hi-oad street, which communicates with the southern suburb 
by means of a narrow stone bridge of four arches, rebuilt in 
the )ear 18*2G. The princijpal public buildings are the 
church and town-house. The harbour is commodious, 
having from nine to eleven feet water on the bar at 
spring-tides ; though during violent gales fVom the south 
it rises to sixteen ieet. The rapid growth of Kilmarnock 
has tended greatly to increase the trade of Irvine, which 
IS the nearest seaport to that town. The dues levied at 
the port during the five years preceding 1832 averaged 450/. 
per annum. Ship-building is carried on upon a small sc^le. I 



Irvme, m unipn with Rothsay, Inven^, Campbglltowr. 
and Ayr^ returns one member to parliament The sch*. 
wherein Greek, Latin, French, and the mathematics ?.r 
taught, is ^bly conducted by the rector and an En;:! 
assistant. The population 6f the burgh and parish 
Irvine in 1831 was 5200. (Carlisle's pic/ionarsf ; Beau::- 
of Scotland ; Population Returns^ &c.) 

ISABELLA of CASTItE. [Columbus; FbbdinandV 

IS^US, one of the ten Athenian orators, was a native 
Chefios, or, according to other accounts, of Athens. I> 
nysius could not ascertain tbe tiine of bis birth or dei'.i 
So much as this appears certain : the vigour of his tn^ 
belonged to the period after the Peloponnesian war, an<: . 
lived to see the time of king t^h^lip. Hermippus, r 
wrote the lives of tLe pupils of ^socrates, has recor^. 
nothing moreof Isseus than that he was a pupil of Isorn 
instructed Demosthenes, and enjoyed ^e Society of *. 
chief philosophers of his time. 

The author of tb^ Life of Issdus, s^ttributed to Plutar : 
mentions sixty-ibur orations of Isoeu^ filly of which vr 
allowed to be genuine. At present there are only elv 
extant, all ot Which are of the fbrei^sic class (Xoyoi A- 
viKoi)^ and ail treat of matters relating to wills and : 
succession to the property of testators, or persons inte^•.. 
or to disputes originating in such matters. These onit. 
are valuable for the insight which they give us into t 
laws of Athpns as to the disposition of pro|)terty by will, u 
in cases of intestacy, and also as to many of the forrn> * 
procedure. Dionysiu^, in his laboured comparison bet^i^ 
Lysias and Isscus, sums up as follows: — *In reading L)- . 
one would not suppose that any thing is said either iii : 
artificial manner or without perfect sincerity, but ev^r. 
thin^ appears natural and trud ; thus forgettfng that it 
the height of art to imitate nature. In reading Iss-- 
one has just the contrary feeling ; nothing appears to ' 
spoken naturally and without an efibrt, not even what re,i 
is so spoken ; bilt everythine seems of set purpose, fran 
to deceive, or for some btper sinister end. ' One wii^ 
believe Lysias, though he were stating what was faU 
one cannot, without some feeling of distrust, assent to Isa* > 
even when he speaks the truth.' Again : — ' Lysias set., 
to aim at truth^ butlscDus to fellow art : the one strives « 
please, the other to produce effect.' 

Dionysius add^that, in his opinion, with Issbus originau 
that vigour and energy of style (^«v5rijc) which his \*m\ 
Demosthenes carried to perfection. So far as the extant «:- 
cimens of Issdus enable us to form an opinion, Uiis judgm<* 
appears to he just. The perspicuity and the arUess sn: 
plicity of the style of Lysias are admirable; but on readi . 
Isseus we feel that we have to do with a 'subtle dispuu 
and a close reasoner, whose arguments are strong a! . 
pointed, but have too much the appearance of studied effei . 
and for that reason often ihil to convince. 

The best edition of the text of IsfiDus is by Bekker. Tt 
oration on the 'Inheritance of Meneeles' wi£s first publibh* 
by Tyrwhitt, London, 1785 j and that on the • Inherits: 
of Cleonymus' first appeared in its oomnlete form at Mi] i 
1815, by Ang. Mai. The translation or Isesus by Sir W 
liam Jones (1779, 4to.) will give an English reaaer a sur' 
cient notion of this orator ; but the translation is some wl 
deficient in critical accuracy, and also wanting in force. 

ISAIAH Onyi^. LXX. 'Hiralac), one of the most ctl 

bratcd of the Hebrew prophe^, lived during the reigns ' 
tJzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hesekiah {Is. i. 1 ; vii. 1 ; xn 
28 ; xxii. ; xxxvi.— xxxviii.),aad was eontemporary with t.t 
prophets Amos, Hosea, Joel, and Uicah. We possess i> 
particulars in the Old Testament respecting the place of ii < 
birth or his history ; but we learn iroBi the inscription ^ . 
the book tliat he was the son of Amoz, who was, accord t. :: 
to one Jewish tradition, the brother of Amaztah, king ^ 
Judah; but according to another was considered to be ih. 
same person as the prophet Anaos. T^e latter traditii . 
is evidently wrong ; smce the name of the prophet is Dta> . 

T 

while the name of tl)e father of Isaiah is Y^DM* It is piv 

bable, from the 6th chapter of the book, that Isaiah entert 
upon his prophetical oroce in the last year of the reign m 
king iJzzinh, b c. 759. He continued to prophesy at lea< 
till the fouitcinth year of the reign of HezeLiali, b.c. ri.> 
(2 Kings, xix. '2-7 ; /*. xxxvi. — xxxviii.), a period of fort)- 
six years. According to an anticnt Jewish tradition, whici. 
is also given in the apocryphal book of the 'Ascension J 



I S E 



44 



I S E 



action having taken place in this island; and Tima^us 
mentions a violent eruption of Epomeo a little before his 
time. The soil of Ischia is very fertile, and produces corn, 
abundance of vines, and all sorts of fruit. The hills are 
covered with chesnut trees. The island is about twenty 
miles in circuit, and contains 24,000 inhabitants, who 
have a reputation for good behaviour much above that of 
their neighbours of the mainland. Robbery and murder 
are very rare in the island, and the houses are frequently 
lefY by the owners with the door merely on the latch without 
any suspicion or fear. The people are industrious, very 
frugal, and good tempered. Ischia forms part of the pro- 
vince of Naples; it contains four' small towns or villages: 
I. Ischia, which is a bishop's see and has a castle ; 2. Foria, 
which is the most commercial place on the island ; 3. Ca- 
samicciola, the neighbourhood of which contains excellent 
clay, of which a great quantity of pottery is made and sent 
to Naples ; 4. Lacco : besides seveml hamlets. The island 
abounds with mineral springs, which are much frequented 
by invalids from Naples, and are found efficacious for cur- 
ing several distempers. Ischia is altogether one of the 
finest islands near the coast of Italy. (D^ Quintis, Inarime, 
seu de Balneis Pithecusarum^ libri vi., 8vo., Naples, 1 726 ; 
G. Poulett Scrope, On the Volcanic District (}f Naples, 
in Geolog, Trans., second series, vol. ii. ; Strabo, CasauL^ 
p. 248; PI in., Nat. Hist,, ii. 88, iii. 6.) 

ISEGHEM, a market-town in the province of West 
Flandera. The population of the town is 2100, and that of 
the parish about 7000 inhabitants. The inhabitants manu- 
facture considerable quantities of linen and tape It is 
nine miles north by Mcst of Courtray, and twenty miles 
south of Bruges. 

ISER. [Bavaria.] 

ISE^RE, a river in the south-eastern part of France, be- 
longing to the system of the Rhdne. It has its source near 
Mont Iscran (13,262 feet high), in the chain of the Pennine 
Alps in Savoy. It Hows 20 miles north-west to St. Maurice, 
and then 1 5 miles south-west to Moutiers or Meatier ; from 
Moutiers it turns again to the north-west and flows 12 miles 
to ConHans, the most northern point of its course: and 
aeain tui'ning south-west, flows 22 miles to Montmeillan, 
where its navis^ation commences. In the upper part of its 
course it receives some small tributaries, the combined 
streams of the Darou and the St. Jean at Moutiers ; the 
combined streams of the Arli and Doron at Conflans ; and 
lietwecn Conflans and Montmeillan, the Arc, an alpine 
stream 68 miles long, which passes St. Jean de Maurienne. 
Just below Montmeillan the Isbrc turns to the south, 
crosses the French frontier, gradually bends to the south- 
west and west, passes Grenoble, dividing that town into two 
parts, and unites with the Drac, its most important tribu- 
tary. From the junction of the Drac the Istire Hows north- 
west for a short distance, and then turning to the south- 
west, flows past St. Marcellin and Romans into the Rhone, 
which it joins between Tournon and Valence. The length 
of the navigiible part of the Isdre below Montmeillan is 
about 90 miles : its whole course is about 160 miles. 

The Drac rises in the department of Hautcs Alpes, and 
has a course of 72 or 73 miles. ,It receives the Sevrayes, 
the Bonne, the Romanche, and other streams. 

The lj»(ire is of moderate breadth, but of great depth. Its 
waters are of a blackish colour, which is attributed by some 
to the debris of the slate rocks of the Tarentaise, a district 
in Savoy, through which it flows. The stream is liable to 
inundations, which cause tlu; most disastrous efi*ects. It is 
used for floatinjir timber from Moutiers, 34 miles above 
Montmeillan. Between the last-mentioned town and Gre- 
noble the navigation is very difficult, on account of the 
great number of islets in the bed of the river. Iron, hemp, 
linen and woollen cloth, and wood are carried down the 
stream. Barges laden with salt and other merchandise 
ascend it from the Rhone to Grenoble and Montmeillan. 

ISE^RE, a department of France, taking its name from 
the river above mentioned. It is bounded on the north by 
the department of Ain, from which it is separated by the 
Rh6ne; on the west by the departments of Rhone, Haute 
Loire, and Arddche, from which also it is separated by the 
Rh6ne ; on the south-west and south by the department of 
Dr5me ; and on the south-east by that of Hautes Alpes : 
on the east and north-east it is bounded by the duchy of 
Savoy, part of the dominions of the king; of Sardinia. Its 
form, though irregular, approximates to that of a parallelo- 
gram; having its sides facing the north-east, south-east. 



south-west, and north-west respectively. Its greatest ler». :: 
is from the .nortb->vest, on the banks of the Rhone, ti 
Lyon, to the south-east, not far from Brianoon. in tin* • 
partmentof Hautes Alpes, 92 miles; its greatest brcu'ii 
at right angles to the length is from near the little to^» l . 
Allevard, amid the Alps, to the bank of the Isdre, below S 
Marcellin, 55 miles. Its area is 3205 square miles, ^hi. . 
is considerably above the average area of the French depx 
ments, and above the area of any English county exv^- 
Yorkshire; it is about equal to the conjoint areas of Shn r 
shire, Staflbrdshire, and Worcestershire. The populat: 
by the census of 1831 was 550,258; by that of 1836, 573,0^. 
showing an increase in five years of above 23,000 in a p^v . 
lation of more than half a million. The census of I ^ 
gives 179 inhabitants to a square mile, which is above t 
average density of population in France, but very far b*\ 
that of the above-mentioned English counties. Grenol 
the capital, is on the bjinks of the Is^re, in 45^ 1 1' N. I*.' 
and 5** 43' E. long. 

Nearly the whole of this department is covered wu' 
mountains. A branch of the Alps, which joins the prtin 
pal chain between Mont Gencvre and Mont Cenis, and c , 
tfinds to the Rhone, forms the boundary between ti 
department and the Sardinian dominions. In this bniri<: 
or in iiS subordinate ramifications are the summits, M- 
Trois Ellions, 12,737 feet high; Col de Saix. 10,971 U- 
Pic de Belladone, 10,229 feet; La Roche Grenico, '.♦ ' 
feet: Sept Laux (upper summit), 9743 feet; and thu L 
du Galibier, 9154 feet. Some of the summits of this uitu.: 
tainous ti'act are covered with perpetual snow, and one . • 
j^laciers. The mountains are traversed by narrow pa-- 
and the slopes and precipices are covered with <).. 
forests. Mountain streams tumble from rock to r^ 
or pass rapidly through deep gleus. Grottos with ^ 
lactite.(% are common in the mountains: that of La Bali 
was counted among the wonders of Dauphin^. [Hal^' 
La.] Some of the valleys are of tolerable width .i 
of great beauty, as that of Grcsivaudan, watered b} i. 
Is^re ; but there are no plains except in the northern a 
western parts towards the banks of the Rhdne. Tlic \vh< 
department is comprehenderl in the basin of the Rhone. 

The chief rivers are the Rh6ne, which borders tho <; 
partment on the north and west. The Guiers, formt^l 
the junction of two streams, the Guiers Vif and the Gu:c 
Mort, skirts the north-eastern boundary, and joins \\ 
Rhone on its left bank at the point where the latter tl 
touches the department. A number of small streams, w i . .< < 
successively fall into the Rhone on its left bank, water t.^ 
more level districts of the north-west. The Isdre cro>w. 
die department in the direction of its breadth, watering; tl 
valley of Grcsivaudan : its junction with the Rhone is : 
the adjacent department of DrOme. The Drac has tl 
greater part of its course in this department. 

In the alpine country are many lakes; the principal . 
that of Paladru, near the head of the Fure, which ru.. 
through the lake. There are also several marshes. 

The mountains east of the junction of the Isere and \' 
Di-ac consist of granitic and other primitive rockd. To n 
north and west of this district, extending to the bank^ • 
the Bourbre and the junction of that river with the Rhi- ^ 
and to the lower part of the valley of the Isere, are foii: 
the rocks intervening between the chalk and the new n 
or saliferous sanristone. Still more to the west, extend; n 
to the banks of the Rhone below the junction of the Boui bi • . 
are found the supercretaceous strata. 

The high road from Paris by Lyon, Chambfiry, and Mo 
Cenis to Turin, passes through this depai tment, also \\ 
road from Paris by Lyon to Aix, Marseilles. Toulon, Nn. . 
and Genoa. The former enters the department just iit:> 
it leaves Lyon, and passes by Bourgoin and La Tour <I 
Pin to Pont de Beauvoisin, where it crosses the Guiers iu 
Savoy. The road to Aix also entera the department jt. : 
after leaving Lyon, and runs south by Vienne. alon^r (i, 
valley of the Rhone, into the department of DrOme. ' Tli^ 
road from Paris Co Gr6noble branches frc m that to Cham- 
bcry and Turin at Bourgoins, and passes by Moimns aiul 
Voreppe, and along the valley of Gr6sivaudan to Grenolilf. 
from this city two roads lead, one by the valley of the Lst'.\ 
into the Turin road at Montmeillan, the other by the vallt^r 
of the Romanche to Brian9on (Hautes Alpes) and by M..';» 
Gencvre to Turin, with a branch by the valley of the l)i..- 
to Gai) in the department of Hautes Alpes. The aggrcir;..o 
length of the Routes Royales \& 336 miles, about two-third» 



I S I 



46 



ISM 



ISIDORE, SAINT, bishop of Sevillel, in Spairt, from 
A.D 595 or 596 to a.d. 636, one of the most celebrated of the 
Spanish bishops, was born at Carthagena. He was well 
acquainted with Greek and Hebrew, and was considered by 
the Ck)uncii of Toledo (a.d. 650) as the most learned man 
of his age. The style of his worlss is however riot very 
clear, and his judgment appears to have been very defective. 

The most important of his works are : 'A Chronicle 
from the Beginning of the World to a.d. 626 ;' 'A Book of 
Ecclesiastical Writers,' in 33 chapters; 'Three Books of 
Opinions, selected from the writings of the fathers, and 
especially from St. Gregorv;' 'Commentaries upon the 
historical books of the Old Testament;* 'Allegories on the 
Old and New Testaments ;' ' Two Books of Ecclesiastical 
Duties,' printed in the 'De divinis CatholicsB Ecclesiae 
Officiis ac Ministeriis,' Cologne, 1568; * A Book of Prole- 
gomena to the Old and New Testaments;* 'Twenty Books 
of Origines or Etymologies,' which were left unfinished and 
were published after his death by Braulio, bishop of Sara- 
goza ; the first edition of this work was published at Augs- 
burg, 1472. 

The works of Isidore have been published by Du Breul, 
Paris, 1601, and Cologne, 1617; at Madrid, 1778; and by 
Arevali, Rome, 1797, 1803. 

ISIDORE of Charax *, lived probably in the first cen- 
tury of our sera. It appears from Athen®U8 (Deip. iii.) 
that he wrote an account of the Parthian empire, of which 
there is only a small part extant* entitled ^TaOfiol flapducot, 
or the ' Parthian Halting-places.' This work gives a list of 
the eighteen provinces into which the Parthian empire was 
divided, with the principal places in each province, and the 
distances between each town. This list was probably taken 
from ofificial records, such as appear, from the list of pro- 
vinces, &C. in Herodotus* to have been kept in the antient 
Persian empire. 

This work has been printed in the second volume of Hud- 
son's * GeographisB veteris Scriptores GrsBci Minores,* with 
a Dissertation by Dodwell. There is also a M6moire on 
Isidore by Sainte-Croix in the 50th volume of the * Academic 
dcs Belles-lettres;' and some remarks on the ' Parthian 
Halting-places' in the 'Journal of Education,' vol ii., p. 305, 
where the question of the site of Ecbatana is discussed aud 
determined. 

. ISINGLASS IS animal jelly, or gelatin, nearly pure. 
The best isinglass is prepared in Russia from the mem- 
branes of the sturgeon, especially from its air-bladder and 
sounds, which are remarkably large. These, when removed 
from the fish, are washed with cold water, and exposed a 
litlle to the air, in order that they may stiffen ; the outer 
skin is then taken off and rejected, and the remainder cut 
out, and loosely twisted into rolls, according to the intended 
size of (he pieces, which are called staples, and are known 
in commerce by the names of long and short staple, and of 
these the first is the best : these are dried in the air. The 
best sort of isinglass is used for the table and in confec- 
tionary ; it is also largely employed in refining wine and 
beer. 

Isinglass is nearly colourless, has but little taste or smell, 
is translucent in thin pieces, and is soluble in water ; one 
part of it dissolved in 100 parts of hot water give a solution 
which completely stiffens in cooUng. 

Isinglass is also dissolved by most acids readily, and also 
m solution of potash and soda, but not in alcohol. Several 
metallic salts and oxides have the property of precipitating 
a solution of isinglass, but corrosive sublimate noes not pro- 
duce this effect, which serves to distinguish it from albu- 
men ; but it resembles this substance in being precipitated 
by infusion of galls or of oak-bark. Isinglass is extremely 
nutritious. 

According to Gay-Lussac and Thenard it consists nearly 
of— 

Seven equivalents of hydrogen « 7 
Seven „ carbon • 42 

Three „ oxygen . 24 



One equivalent of azote 



14 



Equivalent . 87 

ISIS, one of the chief deities of the Egyptians, the sister 
of Osiris, was represented as the Groddcss of Fecundity, 
and the cow was therefore sacred to her. She was said to 

* There were teveral towxa of IIiIa name ; one in Media, another in 
iPurthia. and a third at the mottili of the Tigrie, it u doubtful at which of 



have first taught men the art of cultivating corn. T. 
annual festival of Isis in Eg3rpt lasted eight days, di.r. . 
which a eeneral purification took place. The pric^i- 
Isis were bound to observe perpetual chastity, their htr. 
were shaved, and they went barefooted. The godde«>& '» 
often represented as a woman with the horns of a cow. s 
also appears with the lotus on her head and the sistruin . 
her hand ; and her head in some instances is seen cove 
with a hood. Heads of Isis are a frequent omanient 
Egyptian capitals on the pillars of the temples. [L>l-> 
OBRAH ; Egyptian Architecture.] 

As the worship of Isis passed into foreign lands, it r. 
sumed a foreign character, and many foreign attribute^, 
we see from the Greek and Roman writers. SomeTi*. 
she is represented like Diana of Ephesus, the univer^. 
mother, with a number of breasts. The mysterious r. > 
of Isis were probably in their origin symbolical : on hm' 
her statues wad the inscription, ' I am all that has he 
that shall be ; no mortal has hitherto taken off my v< . 
But the Isiac rites, transplanted to Italy, became a cloak : 
licentiousness ; and they were repeatedly forbidden ut R n 
Tiberias had the images of Isis thrown into the Tiber. : 
the worship revived, and Juvenal speaks of it in an it. . 
nant strain. The Isiac table in the Turin Museum, wh. 
is supposed to represent the mysteries of Isis, has I • 
judged by Champollion to be the work of an uninit... ■ 
artist, little acquainted with the true worship of the go<l<ii >. 
and probably of the age of Hadrian. (Plutarch's Tretjt 
on Isis and Osiris, Wyttcnbach's ed., ii. 441 ; Herod., ii. ... 
42, 123, &c. ; Pausan., ii. 13, 7, and particularly x. 32, i 

ISLA, or ISLAY, the most southern of the Hebn.K 
belongs to the shire of Argyle, and is 28 miles long a... 
about 18 in breadth. This island, which was once the ki; v- 
domof the Norwegian Lords of the Isles, retains but f. - 
vestiges of the manners of its early inhabitants. Though u- 
nerally of a mountairious character, especially towar£» 1 1 
north, there is much low and cultivated land. Many of t! . 
fkrmers are comparativelv opulent, and practise the lowlai. . 
S3r8tem of agriculture. The houses are good, and the roa :. 
are kept in good repair. There are several lakes, and tu. 
island is well watered by numerous streams and rtvukt^ 
which abound with trout and salmon. Isla appears also to <- 
rich in minerals. A copper-mine has been worked here 1 
many vears, but the ore is much mixed with lead, which re;; 
ders the separation expensive and troublesome. The dUin. . 
of Islay comprises six parishes, besides the island of Cailwi. 
say, the united population of which in 1831 was 19,78U. 

(M*Culloch*s Higkhnds and Western Isles of ScoiUiv I . 
Population Returns, &c.) 

ISLAM. [Mohammed.] 

ISLE of BOURBON. [Bourbon.] 

ISMAELITES, or ISMAELIANS, were originally - 
branch of the Shlites, or followers of An Ben Ali Tal: :< 
Djaiar Madeck, the sixth Imaum in a direct line from Ai. 
having lost his elder son Ismael, appointed his younger v • 
Mousato be his successor. This caused a schism an> •r. 
the Shiites in the second century of the Hegira. Th<>-. 
who contended that the office of Imauiti ought to ha \ 
descended to the posterity of Ismael, and not to his youii:j> 
brother, were called Ismaelites, and also Karmnthi ;i:.i 
Batenis; in Persia they were called Talimis, from li . 
word Talimiy Which means ' learning,* because they ran .- 
tained, contrary to the orthodox Mussulmans, that man <i.:i 
learn the truth only by studying. They established tw > 
powerful dynasties* on© in Egypt [Fatimides], and aiioil. .- 
in the Irak Aj^mi, a part of Persia, the capital of wlucu 
was Casbin. The Assassins of Persia and Syria were » 
fanatical sect of Ismaelites. [Assassins.] The Ismael lUs 
of Persia, Syria, and Arabia had frequent wars against \uy 
Abbaside caliphs and the other Sunnee Mussulmans until 
the dynasty of Casbin was overthrown by the Tartars abou: 
the middle of the thirteenth century. After that time tin- 
Ismaelites became scattered through Asia, maintain! :)j 
their tenets and observing their rites in concealment arui 
obscurity. Their tenets appear to have been of a K>i.ivr 
kind; they were the freethinkers of Mohammedan i^nu 
At the end of the last century they were still existing iu 
Persia, and had their Imaum at Khakh, a village in tht 
district of Khom, enjoying the protection of the Sli.ih. 
although considered as heretics by the Persian S hints 
They had followers even in India. (J. F. Rousseau, Mcnun r e 
sur Us Ismaelis et les Nosairis, with notes by De Sao.) 
ThoM of Syria haxa oontinued Co live la the mountaiii&'af 



^ so 



4B 



I SO 



the text, goes on to state that accord ini; to Brocchi (Conch, 
Foss. Suhap.t ii. 520), two varieties of /. Cor are found in 
a fosiiil state in several parts of Italy ; but as a subject 
upon which much diversity of opinion exists is here brought 
into question, he would recommend an attentive and com- 
parative re -examination of the fossil with recent specimens, 
before the inquirer comes to an absolute decision upon this 
point. Another fossil species, he obsen^es, is found at 
Piarenza, viz. /. arietina. Lam. : and he has figured /. Baso- 
chiana (Defr., Diet, des Sciences Naiurelles), a new species 
found by M. de Basoches de Falaise, in the district of 
Coutanccs. He thus concludes his remarks upon the fossil 
species of this genus : • We think we may venture to ex- 
press our opinion that all the fossil specimens published in 
various books, and existing in various collections, are not 
distinctly characterized Isocardiis^ but only the casts of 
the insides of other bivalves: the best distinguishing cha- 
racter is in the groove formed for the extension of the liga- 
ment from the hinge to the umbo. It is incumbent on us 
to mention that in Isocardia the line to which the mantle 
^s attached, passing from one muscular impression to the 
other, is entire.' 

M. Deshayes, in his tables^ records two living species 
and three fossil (tertiary) ; and Isocardia Cor as both hving 
and fossil (tertiary). 

Of Isocardia semisulcata M. Deshayes (ed. of Lamarck) 
states that it is to be presumed that the species had been 
added after the calamity which had befallen the professor : 
this distressing privation compelled Lamarck to have re- 
course to the eyes of others ; and M. Deshaves is of opinion 
that this species owes its presence among the Isocardia to 
Its external form, which has in fact an approximation to 
the shells of that genus. But, continues the same author, 
if the hinge and other essential characters had been ex- 
amined, it would have been perceived that this shell had 
notiiing about it which constitutes the character of an Iso- 
cardia, He thinks that the form approaches My a and 
Anatina, and that it ought to constitute a particular genus. 
M. Deshayes then relates that he had some time ago 
remarked in tiie collection of M. MicheUn a small fossil 
shell from the environs of Senlis, which afforded such cha- 
racters as induced M. Deshayes to comprehend it in the 
group of Anaiintff^ ;m& a genus. He states that this genus 
had already been established by Shumacher under the 
XiVLvae oi Periploma ; but he thinks it right to adopt the 
name of De Haan, so well known for his treatise on Am- 
monites and other important works, who had shown to him 
a recent shell from New Holland presenting exactly the 
same characters with those of M. Michelin's fossil. M. 
Deshayes then saw that the two species could not make 
part of the genus Perij'loma^ and that they ought to con- 
stitute a new genus. The shell which M. De Haan commu- 
nicated to him was, he says, the same as that named Isocardia 
semisulcata by Lamarck. M. Deshayes describes it under 
the name of Cardilia ; wcA he records two species— one 
living, Cardilia semisulcata, Deshayes {Isocardia semi sulca- 
ta, Lam.^, the other Cardilia Micheliniy Deshayes, for which 
he gives as a synonym Ilemicylconosta Michelinu Deshayes. 

Mr. Lea places his genus Hipfjoffus (of which he gives 
an engraving) under the family Cardiacea. ( Contributions 
to Geology, 8vo., Philadelphia, 1 833.) He states that he 
has in vam endeavoured to place this shell in one of the 
established genera. In its general character he says that 
it approaches most closely to the Isocardia Cor* but that it 
cannot be placed in that genus, being destitute of teeth. 
It bears, he adds, some resemblance to the genus Inocera- 
mus; but, ho continues, the hinge in that genus * closes 
by a series of oblong fossets,' and besides it is very inequi- 
valve. In its natural order he thinks that it seems to 
follow the genus Isocardia^ and he proposes to place it in 
that position. Hi'jtjasrus occurs in the Claiborne beds 
(tertiary of Alabama — Eocene of Lyell). 

ISOCHRONOUS, ISOCHRONISM (I^oc. equal, 
XpovoQ, time). Vibrations or oscillations which are per- 
formed in equal times are called isochronous; and isochro- 
nism is the namo given to a remarkable property of all 
systems which are in Oijuilibrium, namely, that when slight 
disturbance, be the same more or less, is given, the oscil- 
lations which take place are all performed in the same time, 
or so nearly in the same time, that any acceleration or 
relardalion is totally imperceptible. Thus, when a pen- 
dulum is allowed to vibrate till it rests, it will be found 
that there is no perceptible diifercnce bctwoea the vibrations 



of longer and shorter extent ; of which any reader may 

satisfy himself by attaching a weight to a string, and obser^'- 
ing the vibrations. But a still better proof may be found ui 
a musical string, the finest ear cannot detect any dififereiiic 
between the pitch of a note made by a smart blow on the 
key of a pianoforte and that made by a gentle one ; yet a 
very small difference in the number of oscillatiozis pe' 
second would be perceptible, and the amount of diaturbano* 
from the position of equilibrium is twenty or thirty time? 
greater in the first case than in the second. 

When, under two different circumstances, the lonp:^ 
space is described in the same time as the shorter, it mu- 
be that the force acting in the first case is greater than thi 
in the second; and it is sufficiently known from exp^ 
rience, that the more a system at rest is disturbed, tb- 
greater is the effort which it makes to return. But in onle: 
that there may be isochronism, it is not sufficient that t Ik- 
effect to return should increase with the amount of disturb 
ance, but the increase must take place according to ot - 
particular law. This law is as follows: — ^the force of reait; 
tution must be always proportional to the disturbance, ^ 
that whatever force begins to act when the disturbance i 
a, twice as much acts when the disturbance is twice j. 
and so on for all proportions. That this law does preva. 
when the disturbance is not great, either absolutely, or s 
nearly that its error is extremely small, may be proved hu'v 
by theory and experiment. The most complete proof is t . 
be found in the ' Mecanique Analytique* of Lagrange 
Granting the law, we can make it sufficiently apparent ti li 
the consequence must follow, namely, that all vibratiot:^ 
are performed in equal times. Let A and B be two materia. 



I« K A. 



w 



points which are urged towards the point O by pressurt> 
which are proportional to OA and OB; and furtlicr k: 
each pressure diminish as either point approaches towapI^ 
O, so as always to preserve between the pressures^ at an> 
two points the proportions of the distances of those poirs 
from O. Take a rainute portion of time, so small that ti > 
pressure may not vary sensibly during its continuanre: 
then [AccKLKRATiON ; Fall of Bodies] the velocities 
created and the spaces described in that time will be ])r>.«- 
portional'to the pressures producing them. If then, duru.: 
that time, A move to K and B to Q, AK and BQ (bi . 
therefore OK and OQ) will be in the proportion uf OA ; 
OB, and the points will be at K and Q, with pressures ani 
velocities proportional to OK and OQ. In a second sii«' 
instant let the points move to L and R: then KL ai 
QR, partly due to velocities which are as OK to Ot^. 
and partly to accelerations which are in the same prop*.>r 
tion, will still be in the proportion of OK to OQ, or c. 
OA to OB. Consequently the whole AL is to the v^liul. 
BR in that proportion : and reasoning in this way for ^Ll - 
cessive small accelerations, we show that the whole sp;u-<. 
moved over by A in any time is to that moved over b> !> 
in the same time in the proportion of OA to OB. Ckmx. 
quently A describes AO m the same time in which B <ii- 
scribes' BO ; or the half of a vibration of A is made 1.4 
the same time as half a vibration of B. 

To make this process perfectly strict^ recourse must \ l 
had to the considerations in Integral Calculus. 

ISO'CRATES, one of the Greek orators comuioi.l. 
called the Ten, was born at Athens, 436 B.C. He stiid.. . 
rhetoric under Prodicus, Gorgias, Tisias, and Therunieiu -. 
and became a master of his art. Acertain timidity and tct^. 
ness in his delivery prevented him from speaking in puot < 
(Panathemcus, c. 4), and he was therefore debarred fruin o< 
cupying the high stations which were open to the ambit ion* : 
his contemporaries. He taught rhetoric both at Chios and . : 
Athens, and his school was attended by numerous disci )>(«'-. 
among whom were Xenophon, Ephorus, Theopompu^, ;.. > 
other distinguished men of his time. Although no uraiii 
himself, he formed many orators ; and Isseus, Demosth cux' 
and others, are said to have studied under him. He •' 
said to have charged one thousand drachma) for a compute 
course of oratorical instruction, and to have said to sdut* 
one who observed on the largeness of the amount, that he 
would willingly give ten thousand drachmee to any one w ii" 
should impart to him the 8elf-<!onfidence and the comuu.:! 
of voice requisite in a public orator. The orutioiia <<f 
Isocrates were either sent to the persons to whom iUe\ 
w«re addressed fbr their private perufcal, or they were en- 



I s o 



50 



ISO 



ISOMETRICAL PERSPECTIVE. [Pbbspectivb.] 
ISOMORPHISM tfrom 'mtoc, equal, and /*op^^. form). 
la the year 1819 it was found by Mitschcrlich that certain 
substances which have the property of assuming the same 
crystalline form may be substituted for each other in com- 
bination without altering the form of the crystal. Thus 
crystals which have the aspect and form of alum, a salt 
-which is well known to contain sulphate of potash and 
sulphate of alumina, mav be made with sulphate of potash 
ana persulphate of iron, hence it is concluded that alumina 
and peroxide of iron are isomorplious ; and it is also found 
that the primary form of alumine or corundum is a rhom- 
boid, which differs only a few degrees from that which is 
the primary form of peroxide of iron or specular iron ore. 

The law of isomorphism, as announced by Mitscherlich 
in its utmost generality, is as follows : ' The same number 
of atoms combined in the same way produce the same 
orystolUne form, and the same crystalline form is inde- 
pendent of the chemical nature of the atoms, and is deter- 
mined only by tlieir number and relative position.' This 
view has however been since abandoned by its author, and, 
as stated by Dr. Turner, his opinion now appears to be 
' that certain elements which are themselves isomorphous, 
when combined in the same manner with the same sub- 
stance communicate the same form ;* and he proceeds to 
state, in illustration of this doctrine, that similarly constituted 
salts of arsenic acid and phosphoric acid yield crystals of 
the same figure, because the acids, it is thought, are them- 
selves isomorphous; and as the atomic constitution of these 
acids is similar, each containing the same number of atoms 
of the other ingredient, it is inferred that phosphorus is 
isomorphous wiu arsenic' 

Several distinct groups of isomorphous bodies have been 
described by Mits(£erlicfa ; from tliese we shall select the 
salts of phosphoric and arsenic acids as examples: the 
neutral phospnate and the biphosphateof soda have exactly 
the same form as the arseniate and binarseniate of soda; 
phosphate and biphosphate of ammonia correspond with 
arseniate and binar8«niate of ammonia ; and the biphos- 
phate and binarseniate of potash have the same form; each 
phosphate has a corresponding arseniate, possessing the 
same form, the same number of eouivalents of acid, alkali, 
and water of crystallization, and differing only in the fact 
that one series contains phosphorus and tne other an equi- 
valent quantity of arsenie. 

A list of isomorphous mineral groups 'is given by Pro- 
fessor Miller, of Cambridge, in the first volume, p. 118, of 
the 'Reports of the British Association;' and Professor 
Johnstone has published a list of isomorphous bodies ar- 
ranged in their several groups, in p. 225 of the same 
volume, from which the annexed has been abbreviated by 
Dr. Turner. 



10. 
Salts of Lime • 

Magnesia 
Protoxide of Iron 

Manganese 



Silver 
Gold 



1. 



2. 



Arsenious Acid (in its unusual form) 
Sesquioxide of Antimony 






Alumina 
Peroxide of Iron 






Salts of Phosphoric Acid 
t Arsenic Acid . 

Salts of Sulphuric Acid 
p, ^ SelenicAcid 
« Chromic Acid 
«i Manganesic Acid 

Salts of Oxichloric Acid 
„ Oximanganic Acid 



3. 



4, 



6. 



6. 



7. 



Salts of Potash 

M Ammonia with I eq. of water 

8. 
Salto of Soda • 

„ Oxide of Silver 

9 
Salts of Baryta 
„ Srtrontia 
M Lime (in Aitagonite) 
Protoxide of Lead 



Ag. 
Au. 

A»«0». 

SbK)'. 

Al»0». 
Fe«0«. 

p«o». 

As^». 

SO». 

SeO». 

CiO\ 

MnO^ 

cro^ 

Mn^. 

KO. 
H*NO. 

NaO. 
AgO. 

BaO. 
SrO. 

CaO. 
PbO. 



tt 



»» 



>f 



it 



» 



If 



>» 



>» 



» 



*f 



>f 



» 



» 



» 






CaO. 

FeO. 
MnO. 

NiO. 
ZiiO. 
CoU. 
CuO 
PbO 



Arc 

Fe*0 



Nickel 
Zinc 
Cobalt 
Copper 

Lead (in plumbo-calcite) 
U. 
Salts of Alumina . • • 

Peroxide of Iron • • 

Oxide of Chromium 
Sesquioxide of Manganese 
The doctrine of isoraorphisu) has been very generally re- 
ceived, yet the difficulties which attend it, and the libei u^- 
which some of its advocates have taken with what Ts^er*. 
previously regarded as the facts of chemical science, in urdkri 
to support their theory, have prevented its universal aduj- 
tion. Alluding to the supposed isomorphism of the aise;:.- 
and phosphoric acids, Mr. Brooke remarks, ' From oth^-i 
observations it appeared that barytes, strontian, and 0x2 di. 
of lead ought to be isomorphous; and hence that the ^aii* 
of those substances, when produced by the sanae aciu, 
ought also to be isomorphous. 

But on examining the sulphates and acetates, it was do- 
covered that their respective angular measurementa w ert 
not alike, and they were ascertained therefore not to b. 
strictly isomorphous. The sulphates are right rjiouib.- 
prisms, and a corresponding dihedral angle of each afifurdci. 
the following measurements : — 

Sulphate of barytes • 101° 42' 

„ slroutian • 104*' 

lead . 103° 42' 

It became necessary therefore that the doctrine of i-< 
morphism, in the strict sense of the term, should as • 
general principle be abandoned ; and it is not unreason at> 
to conclude that the crystals which su^rgested the theory, 
and which appear to measure alike, may really differ }.• 
some small quantity which the ccouiometer does not detei*: 
But although the doctrine of isomorphism, or absolut*. 
identity of form, cannot be supported, it lias been said thu: 
the forms in each ropcctive case belong to the &auir 
system of crystallization, and they have therefore bticr. 
termed pesiomorphous by Mr. (now Prolesspr) Miller, tt 
C^mbrid^e, in a paper on some artificial crystals read to tL-.- 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, in March, 1830; and 1: 
ever the class of primary form can be indicated with cer- 
tainty by the chemical composition of a crystallized bodv 
a benefit will so far have been conferred on science by ttk. 
the theory of M. Mitscherlich.' {Phil. Mag. and Annaii. 
xi., 162.) 

As connected witli the subject of isomorphism, it will K 
proper to notice two other classes of bodies, which ha\ti 
been termed dimorphous and isodimorphous substances. 

The case of dimorphism first ascertained was presenter! 
by carbonate of lime in the two incompatible cry stall in<: 
forms of common calcareous spar and of arragonite. It waa 
attempted to account for the difference by the fact that 
arragonite frequently contains a small portion of car bona u- 
of strontia and of water; but it has since been found thai 
these varying forms of carbonate of lime may be obtaiiicti 
artificially, and both in a pure state; thus when an alkalint; 
carbonate is added to a cold solution of chloride of calcium, 
the carbonate of lime precipitated is analogous to calcareous 
spar; while that thrown down from a hot solution of the 
chloride is similar to arragonite. 

It was also soon afterwards discovered that sulphur crys- 
tallized from fusion differs essentially in its form from the 
natural crystals and those deposited from bisulphuret ut 
carbon. So also the diamond and graphite, which are both 
pure carbon, crystallize in forms which are incompatible 
with each other. A table of the dimorphous bodies at pre- 
sent known has been given by Professor Johnstone, iu the 
Seventh Report qf tlie British Association. 

The term isodimorphous is proposed by Professor John- 
stone to express the fact that two substances known to be 
dimorphous, the carbonates of lime and lead, crystalline 
each in two forms, the analogous pairs of which are also 
isomorphous. 
In the paper above alluded to, Professor Johnstone ha^ 

ateo. gi,v«ii » uble of idodimorphotti gvoups. 



■essile eyes), vesicular brtmchite, disposed longitudinally il 
pBirt, a tail cotisistini; of fhim four to six segraeBts, wilh a 
fin on each side, and the anterior /eel most A-equently ter- 
minated by a strong but small nail or hook. Theie laopods 
>rs all parasitic according to lAlreille; but Seroli* appears 
not to be a parasite. Sometimes the eyes are mouoied on 
tubercles at the summit of the bead. The tail is composed 
of only four segments. 

Senilis. (Leach.) 
One species only known (CymalAoa paradoxa of Fabri- 
cius). Antenna placed on two lines, and terminated by a 
pluriarticulate stem. Under the three first segments of Ibe 
tml there are between the oiidinary appand3f|;e three others, 
vbicb are transverse and terminated posteriorly in a point 
M. Desmarest describes the animal thus: — superior an- 
tenrue formed of four joints, lai^r than the three Brst of 
ibe inferior anienns ; the last joint composed of many 
olbera, and smaller. Inferior antennte with five joints, the 
two first small; the third and fourth (principally this last) 
slongaled; the flftb compoied of many others, smallor. 
Second palrof/wJ having the penulliniate joint enlargod 
and the nail or claw murb elongated ; the sixth pair ambu- 
latory, rather spiny, and having the nail slightly curved. 
Anterior appendages of the belly, or branchial laminai. 



observes, that if articulated feet existed m the Trilobites, 
some vestiges of them, even although membraoacsoui, 
should not come down to us more perfect than tbow 
figured by Goldfuss. |^Rit.oBiTss.] 



upon a common peduncle; the two posterior and lateral 
appendages small ajid narrow, especially the interior one, 
which hardly projects. 

This is a very interesting animal, and has been considered 
to offer some resemblance at first sight to the extinct fiirm 
of the Trilobitet. M. Desmarest however remarks that it 
requires but a slight examination to prove that there is not 
the slightest resemblance between tbem. 

Dr. Buckland, on the other hand, is of opinion that 
Serolu affords the nearest approach among living animals 
to the external form of Trilobites. The most striking 
difTerence, be observes, between this animal and the Trito- 
hitea consists in there being a full; developed series of 
crustaceous legs and antennaj in Serolit, whilst no truces of 
either of these organs have yet been discovered in connexion 
wilh any Trilobite. M. Brongniart, he adds, explains the 
absence of these organs by conceiving that the Trilobitei 
hold precisely that place in the claw Crustaceans (Gymno- 
braachia) in which the aiitennn become very small or 
altogether fail ; and that the legs, being transformed to soli 
and perishable paddles ipattes), bearing branchiie, or fila- 
mentous o:gans Ibr breathing in water, were incapuble of 
preservation. 

It is however by no means clear that we have in Serolin 
the nearest approach to those extinct crustaceans so inter- 
esting to the geologist and palffionlolosi;ist. Do we nut 
find a much nearer approximation in Bopyrusf Of this 
opinion is Mr. W. S. MacLeay, the author above quoted, 
who has perhaps studied the Inverlebrala wilh a view to 
generalization more deeply than any living zoologist. The 
Trilobitei exhibit no vestige of antcnnro: Serolis has 



w the male of Bopyrut would represent a sort of Bu- 
maslia (Murcbison, Silurian SyHem\ and the female an 
Asaphu*. If this supposiltun be well founded, those forms 
among the Trilobites which systematisis havu separated 
spucilically on the ground of the absence or presence of 
eyes, may be mere modifleations arising from sexual difTer- 
ence; fur naturemakcs nothing in vain; and the females 
uf Bupyrta and Cymothon ha\'c no e)es, because they do 
not require tbem, whilst the males do. Thus the cochincal- 
inscct, when young and locomotive, has eyes; but the 
female, when fit for reproduction, becomes a fixture and is 
blind. So the Cirrbipeds in their youth are fiea and have 
eyes; in their adult stale, when they are sessile, they lose 
orcatis which would be comparatively useless. 

With regard to the obserralion of M. Brongniart, the soft- 
— SB of the lexluru ofllie Nereidina of MacLeay, and the per- 



fection of the impression of Nereite) Cambre/uit.JSntch. (pL 
27,7^.1, of Mr. Murchison's work 'On the Silurian System 
«f Kocki '), make it %-ery remarkable, u Mr. MacLeay thete 



mill TtbTiFi]. tt, bftck^ ^iaJbt tnrlbcv, ■hotting the nnfon of crditBrf«t 
laici vlth the membnoou brsnebtiei t, mignifleflTlewDf bruieliiit. 

Locality of the genus.— Tierra del Fuego, Straits of tit- 
galhaens (Banks). Senegal (DutVesne). Captain Philli|i 
Parker King, R.N.. collected many specimena on the ca^I 
coast of Patagonia, and also at Port Famine, in the Straits, 
where Capt. King saw the beach covered with deail speci- 
mens. He also observed them alive swimming close re 
the bottom among the sea-weed. They move<l slowly an^) 
gradually, unlike a shrimp. He never saw them swimmiii){ 
near the surliice : their legs seemed adapted for swimming 
and ciawliog on the bottom. 

Cymothoa. (Fabr.^ 

^nfennie nearly equal in length; ey«> but little apparent: 
last segment of the tail squared, aud ^e two pieces leiiui- 
nating the lateial fins linear, equal, and styliform. 



Cjmollu oilnim. a, appM tUa I \, tovB Mb. 

Ichthyopbilua(Latr.; Nerorila, Livoneea, hemh."). , 
Antennte uf equal length, and eyet not very visible ; last 
segment of the ^)dy nearly triangular, with two pieces ter- 
minating the lateral fins, in form of leaflets or blades : the 
exterior of these is greatest in Nerocila, and of the satiic 
size as the others in Livoneea. 

M. Latreille observes that in the four following subgenera 
the superior antenna are manifestly shorter than the in- 
Many, as well as the Cymothoie, have all the feet ter- 
minated by a powerful and strongly arched nail (unglet) ; 
the lost eight are not spiny; the etr«i are always dibtuiii 
and convex. These, in the method of Dr. l«ach, form lliree , 
genera, but M. Latreille is of oninion that they may be 
united under one subgenus, namely, | 

Canolira (Leach ; Anilocra, Olenetra, of tbe same). 
In those Canolira designated by Dr. Leach as Otcnriire 
the bladeM of the fin* are narrow and armed with jMiiiiit. 
In those named by the same zoologist Aniloera the exiern.ii 
bladeof the fins is longer llian the internal one; the invi'i-^ 
of which is the case wilh the Canotirce, in which, tio:>idi'«, 
the eyet are hut very little granulated, while they are vcrv 
nsibly granulated in AniStcra. ' \ 

M. Latreille remarks that in the three following sub- 
genera, the second, third, and fourth feet onlyare Ierniiniiii><l 
by a very strongly curved nail (onglet), and the eight Li^i 
are spiny. The e^M ordinarily have but little convux.iy, 
uid are large and convei^ng anteriorly. 



CiuoUim (AnDocni) C>]ieuu, 
Mea. (Leach.) 
» fiist joints of tie superior antenna very largo and 



i^ 









Rocinella- (Leach.) 
Two firitjoinls of tbesuparioraii/enn* nearly cylindrical, 
t>i:i n|)pruBching the Mga m tUeic large and anteriorly ap- 
]no\iinat(Kl eyes. 

Conilira. (Leacli.) 
Anienn/s as iu Rocinella; but the eye* are smal) and 
ili'lanl; and the edges of the segments are nearly Btraight, 
and Dul falciform and prominent. 

Synodus. (Lair.) 
AiiUnna upon two lines, lower antennte always short, 
h\A of six segments; distiiiguished from all the preceding 
li\ ilifir jjreat and projecling jaws. Only one species. 
Cirolona. (Leach.) 
I>.'n[;lh of the loH'ei antenna surpassing the half of that 
<il' ilii; body. Six segments in the tail. 
Nclocira. (Leach.) 
Longth of lower antennee as in Cirulana. Five segments 
(Jill) 111 ihe tail. Cornea of Iho eyes smoolh. 



Eurydice. (Leach.) 

Rcscmliling NHncira in the number of the caudal seg- 
mLhts, but differing ftom that form in its granulous eye*. 

M. Latreille is of opinion that this subgonus conducts us 
ti> (hose whose eyw are formed of small grains, or which 
hnve those organs smooth, and which have besides the four 
anipiinte inserted upnn the same horizonlal lino, consisting 
bt' fuiir joints al most, all Ihe feel ambulatory, and the tail 
rompused of six segments. Such a furm is 
Lironons. (Leach.) 

Tlic only living species known is Limnoria terebrant. 



Its pOElcnor extremity is a nn terminated by two leaflets, 
thfe lower of which is nioveablo, while the upper oqe it 
formed by an internal prolongation of tho common support. 
The branc/iial appendages are cuncd internally; the 
inlernnl side of the first is accompanied in the males by a 
small linear and elongated piece. The anterior part of the 
head, situated below the unlennip, is triangular, and in the 
form of a rovcvscd hc^rt. Some have an oval or oblong 
body, contracting ordinarily into the form of a bowl. TTie 
anCennix are terminated by a pi uri articulate joint, and the 
lower ones at least are sensibly longer than the head. The 
lateral and poiitcrior fins are fonned of a peduncle and two 
blades, composing, together with the last segment, a fen-like 
fin. In these the impressed and transverse lines of the 
anterior segment of the tail, always shorter than its suc- 
cessor, or the last, do not reach the lateral borders. The 
first joint of the superior antenns is in the shape of a tri- 
angular battledore (palette). The head seen from above 
torms a transversal square. The leaHets of the fins am 
very much ttattened, and the inrcrmediale piece, or last 
segment, is enlarged and rounded laletuUy. 
Zu£ara. (Leach.) 

Leaflets of tho Jim very largo, the upper of which it 
shortest, separated from the other to form a border to the 
last segment, 

Sphmtoma. (Latr.) 

Lec^tt of moderate sizei equal, and applied one over 
the other. 



Eptionmi dcDlaU. 
In others the impressed lines, or transverse sutures of 
the anterior segment of the tail, attain the lateral border 
and cut iL The first joint of the superior antennee forms 
an elongaleii pahtu, which is square or linear. The leaf- 
lets of the/n« are ordinarily narrower and thicker than in 
the preceding: the exterior sometimes (as in Cymndoceai 
envelops the other: tbcir point of junction resembles a 
knot or jiiint. Sometimes tho sixth segment of the tody 
is sensibly longer thaa the preceding segments and the 
succeeding one. One of the Icadets of the fins only it 
projecting. 

Niesa ((^smpecopffiB, Leach). 




Sometimes the sixth scfrmenl of the boity is of the length 
of the preceding gcgmcnisundof Ihe succeeding one, at in 



CiUama, vber* one of ttie leafleUof the fin» on); ia pFQi«t- 
iiig. llie oiaet kening against tlio posterior border of tha 
last legment 



OlicBi Litif iUi. 

Cyraodocca. (Leach.) 

In this fbrm the lonllets of llie fias are prajecling and 

illrccled backwards. Tlie sixlb seEmeiit is not prolonged 

poaleriorly, and the exlreoiity of the last segment has. a 

small blade Id a notch. 



CjOioAoftt LuiUTckLU 

Dynamene. 

Resembling Cymodocea in the projeclion and direction 
of the leaflets of the flns.but having Iha tixlk segment pro- 
longed backwards, and the last with a simple slit only, 
Ihere being no blade. 

Others again, as 

Antbura, 
haY8 a vermiform bodg, and the antenna, hardly so long 
as the head, consisting of four joints. The jcant;ts of the 
posterior /fn* form by their disposition and approximation a 
sort of capsule. The anterior /eel arc terminated bv a nio- 
nodactyl claw. 




^. Idotci'ta: (Leach.) 

This section consists of Isopoda who&e tmtenna arc four 
in number, bui upon the same horizontal and transverse 
line ; the lateral ones are terminated by a stem ending in 
a point, gradually decreasing and pluriarticulale ; the in ■ 
terraediate anlennn are short, filiform, or a little the largest 
towards the end, and four-jointed, none of the joints bcinK 
divided. The conformation of the mouth a the same as in 
the preceding saclions. The branehta: are in the form of 
bladders, white in the ercaicr part, susceptible of being 
blown up, capable of aiding in snimming, and covered by 
two iladesor valvules of the l»-l segment, adhering laterally 
to ita border*, longitudinal, biatticulale, and opening in the 
middle by a straight line, like a folding door. The tail ia 
furmed of three segments, the last of which is much the 
largest, wiihout appendo^res at the end or lateral fins. These 
crustaceans are ill marine. 

Idotca. (Fabr.l 

M III* ftet itrouKlr unguiculated and ideotiGtl ; the 



body oval or simply oblong, and the lateral antenna sborta 
than the half of the body. 



Stenosoma. (Leach.) 
Differing from Jdotea in the linear form of the body ar.il 
the length of the antennce, which surpasses the half of tli.ii 
of the My. 



irpMtotlhc ibAjni:!. 



Arcturus. (Latr.) 



Very remarkable for the form of the second and third 
/eel, which are directed forwanls, and terminate by a Iuti; 
bearded joint, unarmed or feebly unguiculate ; the two a:i- 
terior feet are applied upon the mouth and unguiculated: 
the six last are stron;;, ambulatory, thrown backwards, and 
bidenlated ot their extremity. In the length of the aniem" 
and form ot the body ArcSurut approaches Stenotoma. fi. 
Latreiile (IB2'J) says that he never saw but one sperii:. 
Arclurui tuberrulalas, brought home from the North Sta. 
by one of the last English expeditions to the North Pole. 

0. AselMa. (Latr.) 

The fifth section consists of Isopods with four ver>- ap- 
parent antenna! which are disposed on two lines, anil x^ 
setaceous and terminated by a pluriarticulale stem. %Hr>- 
are two mandible*, four jaws, ordinarily covered by a i\'r- 
cies of lip formed by the first raui-/ee(. The hranehitr >t 
Tesicular, disposed in pairs, and covered bytwolon;^iiu(imL' 
and biarticulate but free leaflets. The tail is formed of.' 
single segment, without lateral fins, but with tuo bifil 
needle-like proccs:.ea, or two very short appendages in iln' 
form of tubercles, at the middle of its posterior bordet. 
There are other lamellar append^es situated on its infeii'>r 
base, more numerous in the males than in the femalcl, anil 
these serve to distinguish the sexes. 

Ascllus. (Geoffroy.) 

Two bifid needle-like processes at the posterior e^tremiii 

of the body; eyet distant; superior antemuB at least a« 

long as the peiTuncle of the iofeiioi mntenun. Uooki 31 

the end of the feet entire 



I so 



56 



I S O 



eUi, PhiloKua, Ltgta, Aselluf, Idoted, Spfueroma, Cymo- 
thoa^ Bopyrus, Typhis, Anceus, Praniza, Apseudet, lone. 

Under the second he included the genera LepiomercL, 
Caprella, and Cyamus. 

M. Desmarest divided the laopoda into two great sec- 
tions, with many subdivisions. 

His first section, which he makes equivalent to the Phy- 
HhranckicUe Isopods of Latreille, consists of the genera 
T)/phiSf Anceus, including Gnathia of Leach, Priamza, 
Etwhetu, and lone. 

His second section, which he makes equivalent to the 
PUrye^branches of Lati-eille, comprises the genera Idotea, 
Slenosoma, Anthura, Serolis, Campeeopea, Nasa, Cilice&a, 
Cymodoeea, Dynamene, Zuzara, Spfueroma^ Eurydice, 
Nelociroj Cirolana, Conilera, Ifocinella, ^ga, CanoUra, 
Aniloera, OUncira, Nerocila, Livoneca, Cyinothoa, Lim- 
noriti, Aiellus, Janira, Jc&ra, Ligia, PMloscia, Onisctu, 
PoreelliOt Armadillo^ and Bopyrus, 

M. Milne Edwards (edition of Lamarck, 1838) states, in a 
note to that part of Lamarck*s definition of an Isopod crus- 
tacean, ' tnandibules aans palpes, that Lamarck, Latreille, 
and most authors are in error when they assign this cha- 
racter to the Isopods, for in a great number of these crus- 
taeeans the mandibles are provided with a palpiform stem, 
entirely resembling that which may be seen in the greater 
part of the AmpMpoda. 

He further remarks that the respiratory lamellie situated 
under the abdomen are hanlly ever branchicp, properly so 
called, but only one of the branches of the false feet be- 
come membranous and vascular, as in one of the appen- 
dages of the thoracic feet in the Amphipoda. The female 
of lone, he observes, exhibits an exception, for she cames 
ramose branchite on each side of the abdomen. 

M. Milne Edwards, in his notes, further states that those 
crustaceans whose respiratory appendages are placed under 
the thorax (which Lamarck calls abdomen) ought not to 
remain in the order of Isopoda, but belong to the Ltemodi- 
poda of M. Latreille. The egg-pouch he describes as being 
formed of the flabelliform appendages, which have become 
foliaceous, and are raised against the sternum. 

The same acute zoologist (loc, cit,) says that the Isopoda, 
properly so callefl, are Edriophthalmous crustaceans, whose 
abdomen is never rudimentary, and carries below five pair 
of fiilse branchial feet, having all nearly the same form 
and the same functions. The appendages of the penulti- 
mate ring (or the false feet of the sixth pair) have a form 
and use different from those of the preceding. The thorax, 
composed in general of seven rings, but sometimes having 
only five, carries nearly always seven pair of feet, which 
are often furnished with a foliaceous palp, serving to protect 
the eggs and young, but they hardly ever carry a vesicular 
appendage proper for respiration, as in the Amphipoda and 
Leemodipodcu Finally, the conformation of their buccal 
apparatus varies, and the greater part of authors are in error 
when they assign to them as a character the possession of 
mandibles deprived of palpifbrm appendages. 

M. Milne Edwards is of opinion that the Isopoda form 
three natural families, namely, the Idoteidians, the Cymo- 
thoadians, and the Cloportidians, w^nd he thus distinguishes 
them. 

A. Jaw-feet operculiform, and deprived of a palpiform 
stem, or only showing the vestiges of it. 

* Thoracic feet ambulatory; last segment of the 

abdomen smaller than the preceding segments ; 
internal antennae rudimentary. 

These form the family of 

CloportidiMis, 

* Thoracic feet anchor-like (ancreuses), last segment 

of the abdomen nearly always much larger than 
the preceding segments; internal antennas in 
general well developed. 

These form the family of 

Cymothoadtans, 
A A. JaW'feet palpiform. Last abdominal ring much 

more developed than the preceding ones ; all or nearly 

all the feet ambulatory. 

These form the familv of 

Idoteidians, 

In this classification, says the author, the family of the 
Cloportidians has the same limits as in the method adopted 
by Lamarck, and comprises the Terrestrial Isopods, 

The family of Cymothoadians is composed of the Para- 



sittc Isopods, and eoroprehends Cymothoa of Lamarck, 
lone, Anceus, and Typhis, 

The family of Idoteidians consists of Marine Isopods nr>i 
Parasitic, and embraces the genera Idotea, Sphirrvma, 
Anthura, Asellus, &c. 

Our limits will not allow us to go further into the valu> 
able observations of M. Milne Edwards ; and we must refer 
the reader to the fifth volume of the new edition of Lamarck 
for them. His highly interesting work, Histoire Naturelk 
des Crusiac4s, has not yet proceeded so far as the IsopfM, 
but we learn from it that he places them, together with the- 
Amphipoda and Lcemodipoda, under the legion of Edriof-h- 
thalmia, [Crustacea, vol. viii., p. 197.] 

Fossil Isopoda. 

M. Latreille states that Professor Germar had sent to M. 
le Comte Dejean the figure and description of a small fosal 
crustacean which appeared to him (M. latreille) to be re- 
ferrible to the subgenus Limnoria; and he further remarks 
that Oniscus priegustator, figured in Parkinson's wotIl, 
comes near to that species, or at least appears to belong tj 
the same section. 

M. Desmwe&i {Histotre Naiurelle des CrustaeSs FossiUu 
enumerates two fossil species of the genus Sphteroma.' onf, 
Bphisroma antiqua, found in a fragment of white, fini^ 
grained calcareous stone, analogous in that respect to the 
Pappenheim stone, but of whicl) he knows not the origin ; 
the others, Spheeroma Margamm, from the horizontal beds 
of green fissile marl {marne verte fissile) at Montmartre, 
above the gypseous beds, mingled with Spirorbes, 

The reader will find the Trilobitks treated of in that 
article. 

I SO PYRE, a mineral which occurs amorphous in gra- 
nite. Fracture fiat, conchoidal. Brittle. Hardness, 5*5 to f.. 
Colour velvet or greyish-black, occasionally dotted with reil 
Colour of streak greenish-grey. Slightly obeys the magnet 
Lustre vitreous. Opaque or slightly translucent. Specific 
gravity 29 to 3. It is with difficulty acted upon by acid*. 
Fuses before the blowpipe. It occurs in the granite of St 
Just, near Penzance, in Cornwall. According to Turner's 
analysis, it consists of 



Silica 


. 47-09 


Alumina 


13-91 


Lime 


. 16-43 


Peroxide of iron 


20-07 


Oxide of copper 


1-94 



98-44 

ISO'SCELES (iffoc, e<)ua1, exiXoe, leg), a term applied to 
a triangle of which two sides (or legs) are equal. 

ISOTHERMAL LINES are curves supposed to U 
traced on the surface of the earth so that each may pasi 
through a series of points at which the mean annual tempe- 
rature is the same. The situations of such points were first 
determined by M. Humboldt from the registers of observed 
temperatures in Europe, and from the numerous observations 
made by himself and other travellers in different regions of 
the world. A full account of the researches of this philo»>- 

{)her respecting the temperature of the atmosphere and the 
aw of its variations, in connection with the subject of th'n 
article, is contained in the third volume of the ' M^moires 
d*Arcueil ;' and also in the * Annales de Chimie et de 
Phj^sique,' tom. v. 

Curve lines connecting points of equal temperature in 
the interior of the earth have been called Isogeothermal 
lines. 

The temperature of the air in any region depends on tlie 
inclination of the sun's rays to the surmce of the earth in 
that region, on the distribution of land and water, on the 
state of the countries from which come the prevailing 
winds, on the vicinity of the sea, the elevation of the land, 
and numerous other circumstances; and the complexity of 
the subject is such as to render vain any attempt to assign 
a law for the actual heat at a given place. The mean 
annual temperatures of places remain however nearly con- 
stant, and their decrease, in going from the equatorial 
regions towards either pole, approaches near enough to uni- 
formity to encourage the expectation that the precise law 
of that decrease may one day be discovered. 

Professor Mayer of Got tinpcn appears to have been the 
first who attempted, from such observations as existed in his 
time, to express the law by a foimula. He made the tem- 
perature on any parallel of teaestrial latitude to depend on 



ISO 



58 



I S S 



to tbe eauator, and farther west they appear to re-ascend 
towards the north. At about 10° eastward of the meridian 
of Greenwich the curves have their convexities turned 
northwards; and farther eastward they descend towards 
the equator, but the want of accurate observations in Asia 
renders their course in that part of the world rather 
uncertain. The isothermal line of 54*5^ alone has been 
traced nearly round the earth : commencing at the mouth 
of the Columbia, on the western coast of North America, 
it passes near the city of Washington with its convexity 
towards the south ; and after crossing the Atlantic it runs 
throueh Bordeaux, from whence it continues to the city 
of Pekin. at which place it again becomes convex towards 
the equator. It may be added that by the late voyages 
into the Arctic seas two points have been determined in 
the isothermal curve of 1 7°> which appears to pass through 
Spitzbergen in lat. rs"" N., and through Melville Island in 
lat.66°N. 

But in every country the mean temperature varies vrith 
the height of the place above the level of the sea; and 
Humbuldt, from obsonations made as well on the Cordil- 
leras as in Europe, having determined that at every 100 
metres of elevation (or 3'2U£lnglish feet) the mean tempera- 
ture of the air is diminished by a quantity equal to that dimi- 
nution which is consequent on an augmentation of latitude 
eeual to one degree, calculated a table of the corrections 
which bhould be made in the curvatures of the isothermal 
lines at the level of the sea, in order to obtain the forms of 
those which appertain to points at any given elevation. 
According to Playfair the diminution of heat on ascending 
in the atmosphere is, near the surface of the earth, at the 
rate of 1° (Fahr.) for every 270 feet ; but Mr. Atkinson, in 
the ' Memoirs of the Royal Astr. Soc.,* vol 2, from a com- 
parison of many obser>'ations, makes the diminution equal 
to 1° for every 251*5 feet. He has also shown that the 
differences of temperature between summer and winter 
begin to diminish at the height of about 21,000 feet above 
the surface of the earth. 

The differences between the mean summer and mean 
winter temperatures are very considerable at places whose 
mean annual temperature is the same ; and these differ- 
ences are not equal in the Old and New Continent. On 
the isothermal line of 32° in Europe, that difference is 
equal to 39'6°, and in America to 5^4° ; and on the isother- 
mal line of 68** the differences are respectively 21*6** and 
27^ It has also been remarked that the differences 
between summer and winter are least near the northern, 
and greatest near the southern bends of the curves. 

The curves formed by connecting, on the isothermal lines, 
points at which the mean temperature of summer is the 
same are called isotheral lines ; and those formed by con- 
necting points at which the mean winter temperature is the 
same are called isocheimal lines : both these systems of 
lines deviate more than the isothermal lines from the pa- 
rallels of terrestrial latitude. 

It was long supposed that the mean temperature of the 
southern was much lower than that of the northern hemi- 
sphere. In fact, in the Arctic seas, large masses of floating 
ice are not found below the 70th degree of latitude, and 

Sermanent fields exist only beyond the latitude of 75 or 80 
egrees; while in the Antarctic regions ice is found in 
both states between the 54th and d9th degrees of latitude: 
and the island of Georgia, which is there situated, is per- 
petually covered with snow down to the sea-shore ; whereas 
in the northern hemisphere this circumstance docs not take 
place till we arrive at the parallel of 8U^ [Climatb.] 

The vast extent of the Antarctic seas, the absence of great 
tracts of land in those rct^ions, and the pointed forms of the 
African and American continents, allow the currents to 
carry far northwards the ices of the southern pole; and 
thus a considerable degree of cold is produced at particular 
places. But the observations which have, within a few 
years, been made on the temperature of the southern re- 
gions, afford good reason to believe that there is little differ- 
ence between the mean annual temperature* of places 
similarly situated in the two hemispheres. Near the equator, 
as might be expected, the mean temperatures in both are 
the same : those of the Isle of France and of Jamaica are 
80* 1"*; the mean temperatures of Port Jackson, the Cape 
of Good Hope, and Buenos Avrea (66 '7" to 67* 6"), corres- 
pond to those of Natches, Funchal, Algiers, and Cairo 
(•4-8^ to 7 i^). The mean temperature of the Malouin^ I 
or Falkland Isles is 47 'S""; at an equal latitude it is in I 



Europe about 50^ and in America 36**; and the tnean 
temperature of Van Diemen's Land is about the same as 
that of ItaW. M. Hiltnboldt concludes that, as for as the 
parallels of 46* Or 50^ of latitude, north and south, the cor- 
responding isothettnal lines are nearly equally distant from 
the equator; and with tespeet to America the mean an- 
nual temperature ift gtiMiter in tha southern than in ths 
northern henlisphera. The variations between the mean 
temi>eratures at the opposite seasons of the year aro much 
less in the former than in the latttir at correspond ini; lati- 
tudes ; in Vati Diemen*s Land the winters are said to be 
milder than at Naples, where the mean winter temperatun 
is 46^ whil6 the suttttnexs are colder than at Paris, where 
the meati sumtear temperature is 64*6*. And at Port 
Jackson the tnean winteir teinperature (=56*8*) corres- 
ponds to that of Cairo, while the mean suitimer temperature 
(=r 77*4'') is edual to that of Marseilles. 

M. Humboldt considers the mean annual temperature at 
the equator, at the level of the sea, to be eqiuil to 81^*4 
(Fahr.) ; but Mr. Atkinson {Men/i, qf the Roydl Attr. Sac^ 
vol ii.) found, by applying the method of least square;» t^ 
equations formed froni the data fut*nished by that pUiluso- 
pher himself, and assuming the temperature to vary, flnt 

as the square of the cosineb ^nd then as cos.' of 'the lati- 
tude, that the mean temperature theto is at least equal to 
84* 5^ It is right to observe however, that Humboldt, m 
a paper pnblished in the ' Annates de Cfaimie ' for Sept, 
1 8B6i objects to the conclusions of Mr, Atkinson, and ad- 
heres to his own determination. Or. (noW Sir David) 
Brewster, in the sixth volume of the * Itdinburgh Jouriul 
of Science/ by a reduction of observations made at Ceyloo, 
and assuming the temperature to vary acoording to the lav 
of Mayer, finds 80*99^ for the mean equaiodal temperature. 

An inspection of the isothermal curves» and particularij 
that of S2^ in the above diagram, will sufficiently show tlat 
the mean temperature of the tei^strial pole cannot be ob- 
tained from any simple formula in which the variations are 
made to depend on the geographical latitudes of places. 
And in &ot Captain Scoresby, using the formula of Mayer, 
and subtracting from the result a correction which he cor.- 
ceived to be- due to the frigoriflc influence of the ice, mad« 
the mean temperature at the pole eqyal to 10** (Fahr.). 
From the observations of Captain (Sir Edward) Parry it 
appears that such temperature there must be lower than 3' 
below the zero of the scale. Sir D. Brewster has been led, 
from the form of the curves, to adopt the hypothesis of \v.-\» 
polar points at which the mean temperature is a minimum : 
ne places both of these on the parallel of 80^ N. lat., hu: 
one of them is supposed to be situated in 95^ £. lon^., witti 
a mean temperature equal to 4* l^ ^d the other in lOU' 
W. long., with a mean temperature equal to — 3*5°; and, 
by inductions from observations, he has given, for the mean 
temperature at any place, the formulo 

srs^sin. D+1% 
86-3** sin. D-3-6'; 
where D is the distance of the place from the nearest pole. 

By comparing the mean temperature at Van Die men's 
Land with that at the Cape of Good Hope, the same philo- 
sopher concludes that in the Antarctic regions there are 
two points of maximum cold, whose situations correspond to 
those in the northern hemisphere. But it is evident that 
observations must be greatly multiplied in both hemispheres 
before the data can be considered sufficient for the deter- 
mination of the isothermal equator or poles ; or to serve as 
a foundation for the construction, of formuln for tempcra- 
tiu'e in which f\x\\ confidence may be placed. 

In the * Edinburgh Phil. IVans.,' 1820, Brewster has ex 
pressed the interesting idea that some connexion exists 
between the isothermal and the magnetic poles of the earth ; 
in which case the revolutions of these last may produce 
corresponding revolutions in the others, and thus may serve 
to explain that augmentation of temperature which is 
supposed to have taken place in the west of Europe since 
the days of Cttsar and Ovid. 

ISPAHAN. [Pkrsia.] 

I'SPIDA. [KiKonsBBBi.] 

ISRAEL, TRIBES OF. [Jbws.] 

I8S0IRE. [PUY DK DOMX.] 

ISSOUDUN, a town in the department of Indre in 
France, on the River Theols, a tributary of the Amon, which 
flows into the Cher ; in 46"" 67' N. lat^ 1^ 59' E. long. ; about 
130 miles. in a direct line south by west of Paris, or 150 by 
Cbe road through Kontargis and Bowges^ This town i^ 



I T A 



60 



I T A 



one order was placed above another, two straggling rows of 
low insulated pillars — for low they must be in comparison 
with the entire height — would have produced an appearance 
positively disagreeable, and instead of at all ornamenting a 
Duilding, would have encumbered it with what would have 
resembled stages of scaffolding. Should any one question 
this, he has merely to fancy aU the columns brought for- 
ward two or three feet, in the front of Whitehall chapel, 
and then judge whether it would be at all improved by two 
such sprawling galleries standing before it 

For a somewmit similar reason, either pilasters were sub- 
stituted for engaged columns, or the entablature was made 
to break over every column,— as in the building just men- 
tioned, which may be referred to as a tolerably characteristic 
specimen of* Italian style in buildings of that class, without 
those capricious abnormities which so frequently offend us 
even in the building of Palladio himself although he has 
the reputation of bemg comparatively chaste in his designs. 
For iC instead of being thus broken, the entablature were 
continued from column to column in each story, overhang- 
ing the face of the wall, it would produce the appearance of 
heaviness as well as weakness. 

One defect attending this practice of giving a separate 
order to each story is, that the columns become insigni- 
ficant, both in proportion to the entire front and to the 
windows between tnem, more especially when the columns 
are further shortened by being placed on pedestals. In 
fact windows and doors are generally the predominant fea- 
tures in Italian composition, even where two series are com- 
prised within one order, being generally more prominent in 
their cornices and pediments than the other projections. 
The^ are often decorated with smaller columns or pilasters 
(as m the front of the Atlas Fire Office, Cheapside, and 
that of the Legal Assurance Office, Fleet Street), and Pal- 
ladio has sometimes loaded them by recumbent figures on 
the raking cornices of their pediments. Sometimes, as in 
the upper order of the Procuratie Nuove, by Scamozzi, at 
Venice, the windows (decorated with a lesser order) are car- 
ried up to the height of the capitals. In the court of the 
Louvre the pediments of the windows come immediately 
beneath the architrave of the order, so that in proportion to 
the entire mass, and to the windows, the entablatures of the 
several orders become little more than deep moulded strlng- 
eourses dividing the stories of the building, and the columns 
mere expletive decorations attached to the piers. Tlie 
ornamental details may be in imitation of the members of 
an antient order, but the character of the antique itself is 
entirely gone. Even where the windows are kept more 
subordinate to the order itself, the effect of the latter is fre- 
quently diminished by the addition of a heavy attic pierced 
with windows occupying its entire length, and surmounted 
in turn by a balustrade, having perhaps a formal row of 
statues on its pedestals, which viewed at a little distance 
assume the appearance of so many pinnacles on the summit 
of the building, while the balusters themselves in such case 
suggest the idea of perforated battlements, in which, we may 
remark, they appear to have originated, since there can be 
little doubt that their name is derived from Balestra, the 
cross-bow, from which arrows were shot through apertures 
in the parapets of fortified buildings. 

Notwithstanding the pedantical strictness with which 
rules are .laid down for the different orders, they so seldom 
contribute anything either towards character or effect in 
external design, that tho Italian style exhibits itself to most 
advantage where columns have been discarded, and win- 
dows and arches made the chief features in the composition, 
and the fa9ade crowned by a bold and rich comicione. Of 
this particular style, in which much may be effected by 
means of rusticated surfaces, a species of decoration well 
adapted to it, and admitting very great diversity in itself, 
we nave a small yet exquisite example in the Travellers* 
Club House, Pall Mall, whose two fronts serve to show 
vhat variety of expression may be thus obtained. The 
fkront towanls the court of the Strand portion of Somer- 
set House is also a good sample of a purified Italian style, 
"^ere an order is placed on a decorated basement 

Of late years the Italians have abandoned many of their 
worst architectural faults, corruptions, and caprices, and 
that taste for exaggerated and frittered ornament which, 
with here and there an exception, forms so striking a con- 
trast to the antique. But they are still inclined to * swear by 
Vitruvius,* and cherish a reverence fbr Palladio and Vignola. 
EvenOagnola (who died in 1834), one of their most dis- 



tinguished architects, seems to have had Very little feelin:* 
for the beauties of Greek detail as connected with the 
orders. In fact Greek architecture has hardly been adoptt-i 
in anyone instance, if we except Canova's church at t\>^' 
sagno, which has an octastyle portico of two ranges o.' 
columns of the antient Doric order, whose frieze is en- 
riched with reliefs in the metopes. For an account of tht? 
modern Palladian architecture of Italy we refer to a paper 
on the subject in the 63rd number of the ' Quarterly Re- 
view,' which contains notices of several buildings not before 
fiGscnbfid. 

ITALIAN DRAMA. [English Drama.] 

ITALIC SCHOOL of Philosophy comprises proper! r 
two distinct schools, the Pythagorean and the Eleatir. 
Occasionally however it has been employed in a more rt^- 
stricted sense, and Italic and Pythagorean liave been U2fed 
as equivalent to denote the same philosophical system. The 
looseness and inconsistency of these different acceptation^ 
of the phrase have led to much confusion in the historv' of 
philosophy, by giving rise to a personal connection of mastx r 
and teacher between philosophers who maintained respe<^< 
tively the opinions of Pythagoras and Xenophanes. The 
peculiar fitness of the designation does not easily appear, 
and seems to have been owing to an idle endeavour on the 
part of Greek literary historians to give uniformity to the:r 
divisions of the history of philosophy, which were principally 
drawn from an outward circumstance of a local nature, rather 
than any internal character of doctrine. Thus we have the 
Academy, the Stoics, the Megarians, the Eleaticg, the 
lonians, and so forth. 

ITALY, one of the great natural divisions of Europe, 
extends from its most southern point. Capo dell* Armi, m 
37° 55' N. lat., to 46' 32' N. lat., its most northern limit, 
where the Piave, the Adda, and the Ticino have their 
sources at the foot of the Pennine, RhoDtian, and None 
Alps. It lies between 7" and 18° 30' E. long., the latter 
being the longitude of the most eastern point of Italy, near 
Otranto. The northern part of Italy is bounded on i\w 
north, north-east, and north-west by the Alps, which swec|j 
round it in a semicircle, beginning fVom the coast near 
Nizza, on the Mediterranean, and extending to the Adriatic 
in the neighbourhood of Trieste. 

The ridge of the Apennines, which runs along the Rivien 
of Genoa, and the northern boundaries of Tuscany, vj 
near Rimini on the Adriatic coast, divides Italy into tw.> 
distinct regions. One of these regions is situated north i.t 
the Apennines, and is chiefly occupied by the basin of the* 
Po and its numerous affluents; while its north-east ex- 
tremity, which is contracted between the Carnic Alps an<I 
the Adriatic, contains the basins of the Brenta, the Piave, 
and theTagliamento. The whole region extends in length, 
from west to east, from Mount Vise in 7° E. long, to tlir* 
river Isoiuo 13** 25', a distance of 320 miles. [Friuli.] Us 
greatest breadth, from the Tuscan Apennines to the sources 
of the Adda, is about 150 miles. [Po, Basik of the.] 

The other region, which is the real peninsula, extends 
in a south-east direction, between the Adriatic and the 
Mediterranean seas, for above 500 miles, its breadth var}!!)^' 
from 130 to 50 miles, and still less in some parts of Calabna. 
The Apennines, and the lower ranges which are connected 
with them, occupv the greater part of the Italian peninsula. 
The tracts of level country, with the exception of the Roman 
Campa^na and the plains of Foggia and Campania, are uf 
inconsiderable extent, and the peninsula may be viewed as 
determined in its chief physical features by the long moun- 
tain range which traverses it in its whole length. [Apkn- 
NiNES.] The Tuscan Apennines, after running in a direc- 
tion east-south-east to within a few miles of the Adriatic 
near Rimini, make a bend to the south-south-east, and run 
parallel to and near the Adriatic coast, towards which the> 
detach numerous offsets which terminate abi'uptly on the 
sea, whilst towards the Mediterranean the slope of the 
ground is much more gradual, the offsets or secondarv 
ridges running more obliquely to the coast, and formini; 
considerable longitudinal valleys. The larger rivers of th« 
peninsula are on the western side, and the principal ba^^ins 
are those of the Arno, the Tiber, the Garigliano, and the Vol- 
tumo. [Abruzeo; Arno; Campagna di Roma; Papal 
States.] In the neighbourhood of Isernia, between the 
sources of the Volturno and those of the Sangro, the main 
ridge of the Apennines begins to run more in the centre of 
the peninsula, leaving to the east the vast plain of Fo^ia 
[Capita nata], and to the west the plains of- Campania. 



I T A 



62 



I T A 



tbey are to be considered only as approxiroationSt as there 
is considerable discrepancy between tne various authorities. 

The Lombardo-Ven^to kingdom, of which the emperor 
of Austria is king, consists of two great dJTisions: Provincie 
Lombarde, or government of Milan, with an area of 8460 
square miles, and 2,379,000 inhabitants; and Provincie 
Venete, or government of Venice, with 9472 square miles, 
and 1,900,000 inhabitants. 2. The S^HPInian monarchy 
consists of two great divisions : the Stati di Terra Ferma, 
or continental territories, with an area of 20.850 square 
mile% and 3,750,000 inhabitants, and the island of Sar- 
dinia, with an area of S200 square miles, and 510,000 in- 
habitants. 3. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, with an area 
of 8700 square miles, and 1,300,000 inhabitants. 4. Duchy 
of Lucca, with an area of 420 square miles, and 152,800 
inhabitants. 5. Duchy of Pabma, with an area of 2300 
square miles, and 454,000 inhabitants. 6. Duchy of Mo* 
DENA and Massa, with an area of 2068 square miles, and 
350,000 inhabitants. 7. Republic of San Mabino, with an 
ai'ea of 27 square miles, and 7000 inhabitants. 8. Papal 
States, with an area of 17.860 square miles, and 2,707,000 
inhabitants. 9. The kingdom of the Two Sicilies, con- 
sisting of two great divisions : Dominj di qua dal Faro, or 
kingdom of Naples, with an area of 31,610 squai-e miles, 
and 5,809,000 inhabitants; and Dominj di Udal Faro, or 
Sicily, with an area of 12,900 square miles, and 1,681,000 
mhabitants. 

The most densely inhabited state is that of Lucca, which 
contains 362 individuals for every square mile, and one 
proprietor for every four inhabitants. Next to it in popu- 
lation come the Lombard provinces. The most thinly in- 
habite4 parts are the Campagna of Rome and the island of 
Sardinia. There is no country of Europe which has so 
many considerable towns in proportion to its extent as Italy. 
Besides one city, Naples, whicn has above 350,000 inha- 
bitants, there are six ethers, namely, Milan, Venice, Turin, 
Florence, Rome, and Palermo, which exceed 100,000 each ; 
five more, namely, Genoa, Leghorn, Verona, Bologna, and 
Messina, have from 60,000 to 80,000 ; six contain between 
30,000 and 40,000, namely Padua, Vicenza, Parma, Bergamo, 
Brescia, and Catania; seventeen contain from 20,000 to 
30,000, namely, Alessandria, Asti, Cremona, Pavia, Mantua, 
Piacenza, Modena, Lucca, Pisa, Siena, Ancona, Perugia, 
Ferrara, Ravenna, Foggia, Trapani, and Cagliari; and a 
still greater number have a population varying from 10,000 
to 20,000. The population is everywhere on the increase, 
at the average rate of one per cent, annually. 

Of the actual social condition, manners, and temper of 
the Italians, we have had numerous accounts from travellers 
since the peace. All those which affect to give a general 
sketch of Italian character, even the best of them, are im- 
perfect, and partly inaccurate; and this they necessarily 
must be. It is almost impossible for a foreigner to have 
all the requisites for such a work — the time, the preparatory 
information, the facilities, the introduction to the various 
classes of society, which would be requisite to secure a satis- 
factory perfunnance of the task. Italy is not one country, 
inhabited by one people long fashioned and amalgamated 
under one central government, and receiving its form and 
pressure from the influence of one capital. There are not 
only many provincial differences, as in Franco and other 
compact states, but national differences of character, dif- 
ferent institutions and customs, ami even different lan- 
guages. The steady plodding inhabitants of the broad, 
level, and rich plain of the Po are a very different sort of 
people from the active, frugal, money-seeking, adventurous, 
and free-spirited Genoese, or the caustic, refined, but some- 
what consequential and verbose Tuscans ; while the Tuscan 
himself is aifferent from the mercurial, fantastical, careless 
and pleasure -seeking, but quick and acute Neapolitan. 
Again, Italian domestic society is not of easy access to 
foreigners ; the Italians are more reserved than the French, 
and tliere is also a remarkable difference between the man- 
ners of the various classes, and between the inhabitants of 
the towns and the country people. It may be affirmed 
however of the Italians tnat they are possessed of great 
capabilities, fit for all intellectual pursuits, and fbr art in 

Smeral ; that they have a quick discernment, considerable 
asticity of temper and flexibility of disposition ; a natural 
taste fbr music and poetry; that they are more fond of 
pleasure than of assiduous labour, more inventive than per- 
severing, naturally of warm and kand feelings, but prone to 
vuspioipg ftn4 jealousy. Morals in Italy have greatly im- 



proved within the last half centiuyi o\ring rhiel}j to a 
greater diffusion of instruction, better laws, and a better 
System of police. Heinous crimes are beconie much inorr 
rare, but considerable looseness of conduct still exists in 
the towns ; much time is lost in idle gallantry, and the con- 
jugal bond is not sufficiently respected, es]^cially among 
the middling and higher classes, though tbjft reniark ad- 
mits of course of innumerable exceptions. The cliarge 
however is applicable to other southern countries besides 
Italy. Industry has mi^de and is making considerable 
progress; better modes of agriculture have been adopted, 
manufactories are established everywhere, new roads aijd 
canals have been made* pa^ularly in Lombardy, the 
Sardinian states, and Tuscany ; and several railways arc 
in course of bein^ laid. The chief towns are all embel- 
lished and increasing in population* The piaritime trade, 
especially of Grenoa, L^horn, Venice, and (Sanies, i» 
thriving, though inferior to that of Trieste. And here «a 
may observe that thg trade with Ital^ is of greater im- 
portance to England than is commonly ima^ned: it appears 
by the official returns, that the value Of British produce and 
manufacture's exported to Italy amounts nearly to three 
millions sterling annually, es^clusive of colonial produce, 
which is more than is exported to any other Europeaa 
country, with the exception of Germany. The annual im- 
ports from Italy into the United Kingdom are about one 
million and a half sterling. 

Among the writers who have given the best accounts of 
particular parts of Italy in the present century, we ma) 
mention Rose, 'Letters from the North of Italy/ which 
treat of the Venetian territories ; Ch^teauvieux's ' Lettre> 
6crites d'ltalie,* chiefly on the state of agriculture ; Keppel 
Craven, 'Tours in Calabria and the Abruzzi;' Tournon. in 
his elaborate work 'Etudes statistiqi^es sur Rome et b 
Partie Meridionale des Etats Remains,* which gives a faitl- 
ful account of that important portion of Italy ; and a ven 
impartial article on 'Education m Tuscuny in 1830,' ik 
No. III. of the ' Quarterly Journal of Educgtipu.' Some 
information concerning Italian society and tbanners ma} 
also be derived from Millin, 'Voyages on Pi^paont;' Views- 
seux, ' Italy and the Italians in the Kineteentb Ceutur)' :' 
Simond, ' Voyage en Italic,* though hurriedly written an i 
deficient in discrimination ; Valery, ' Voyages litteraires ci 
Italic;' Delia Marmora and Captain Smyth 'On the Islanl 
of Sardinia;' Captain Smyth 'On the Island of Sicih ;' 
and Benson's ' Corsica,' which last is essentisdly ftn Italian 
island, although belonging to France. Two critical 
sketches ' On modern Books of Travels in Italy' appearc^i 
in Nos. IV. and VIII. of the ' Quarterly Journal of Edu- 
cation ;' and another on Valery's book in No. 33 of the 
• Foreign Quarterly Review,' January, 1836. Accounts ut 
the state of education in all its branches in the various 
Italian states are given in Nos. I., V., VI., and XVI. of 
the 'Quarterly Journal of Education.' Elementary ir 
popular education is best attended to in Lombardy'antl 
Tuscany ; but it is making progress also in the other sute^. 
The judicial system has also received considerable im- 
provement In Tuscany, Naples, and Genoa examinations 
of witnesses and trials are now public ; whUe in other states 
the system of written depositions and trials with closed 
doors still prevails. Torture has been lone since univer* 
sally abolished. The Inquisition exists only in the P^pal 
States. 

Italian Language and Literature.^The language calUnl 
Italian is the written language of Italy, and bears the saae 
analogy to the spoken language of Tuscany and Rome as 
the written languages of France and England bear to the 
oral language spoken in the towns and provinces of those 
respective kingdoms in which dialects do not prevail. But 
while in France and England the use of di;ilects is confined 
in great measure to the peasantry of districts remote froa 
the capitals or to mountainous parts, most of ^e Italiaa 
states nave each a living dialect, which is the oral language 
of the people, and spoken even by educated people amori^ 
themselves, although all educated people speak also tho 
Italian or common written language, which they learn as a 
branch of education. The dialects of Italy are nnmenju^, 
and most of them contain written and printed works, espe- 
cially plays and other poems. The principaQ dialects are 
the following:—!. The Milanese is spoken atfMilMi and its 
territory, with some variations according tot the different 
districts. It has been cultivated by several Twritets of real 
poetical genius, such as Maggi, fdrini* aoM to our tJBies 



I T A 



64 



I T C 



lireslmess and raciness of the great Florentine writers of 
the fourteenth centur7. 

The aeventeenth century, called hy the Italians the age 
of the Scientisti, exhibited a degeneracy of taste, hoth in 
literature and the arts. The leaden yoke of Spanish vice- 
roys, armed with all the terrors of delegated absolutism and 
of clerical inquisition, ignorant or careless of the very ele- 
ments of government and administration, weighed heavily 
over the finest regions of Italv. The miseries resulting 
from that system liave been aescrihed by Boccalini and 
Giannone, and again vividly retraced in our own time, by 
Manzoni in his * Promessi Sposi,' and by Cantii in his 
' Ragionamenti sulla StoriaLombarda del Secolo XVI.' The 
Italian writers, and especially the poets, adopted a turgid 
hyperbolical style, replete with false conceptions, and all tne 
tinsel of rhetorical adulation. The school of Marini and of 
his worse disciples has become proverbial as the school of 
depraved taste in composition. However the same causes of 
mental d^radation and corruption did not operate equally 
over all the peninsula. Tuscany, Venice, Genoa, Piedmont, 
retained their independence and with it their national 
spirit Accordingly we meet here and there with writers 
distinguished by their sentiments as well as by their 
language, such as the celebrated Sarpi, the learned prelates 
Bentivoglio, Pallavicino, and Bellarmino; the historian 
Davila ; the Jesuits Segneri and Bartoli ; the poets, Guidi, 
Chiabrera, Filicaja, Tassoni, Rinuccini, Menzini ; the pain- 
ter and poet Salvator Rosa ; the philologist Salvini ; while 
Italian science can boast in the same age of Gralileo, Cassini, 
Torricelli, Malpighi, BoreUi, Marsigli, Redi, Viviani, and 
Guglielmini. Antonio Serra, one of the earliest, if not the 
earUest, writer on political economv, published in 1613 a 
treatise showftig the various causes through which countries 
may become enriched ; a work neglected and forgotten for 
ages after. The historian Noris, the learned antiquarian 
Bianchlni, and the jurist Gravina, wrote in Latin. 

In the eighteenth century Italian literature assumed a 
new character. The historians Maffei, Muratori, and Gian- 
none, and the philosophic writers Yico, StelUni, andGenovesi, 
brought a new light into their respective departments. The 
spirit of investigation and deep reflexion was now busy at 
work. Gh)ldoni effected a revolution in the Italian stage, 
and Metastasio imparted a new vigour and poetical fresh- 
ness to the melodrama or opera. In the department of 
criticism there were Zeno, Baretti, Gozzi, Mazzuchelli. and 
Cesarotti ; Milizia, Lanzi, and Bottari wrote eloquently on 
the fine arts; Martini and Tartini, on music ; Verri, Carli, 
Galiani, Neri, on political economy ; Bettinelli, Tiraboschi, 
and Comiani, on the history of Italian literature ; Buona- 
fede, on the history of philosophy ; Beccaria, Filangieri, and 
Mario Paeano, on legislation ; Vallisnieri and Spallanzani, 
on natural history; Voltaand Galvani, on physics; Denina, 
on the history of Italy; Passeroni, Varano, and Pariui 
wrote moral poetry ; and lastly Alfieri created the Italian 
tragedy. 

The invasion of Italy by the French in 1796 and the 
political revolution which followed, whilst they served to 
stimulate the minds of the Italians to exertion, had an un- 
favourable influence upon the language. French was the 
language of the conquerors, and it'became the fashionable 
language of the conquered. Those Italians, and they formed 
an immense majority, who did not know French, intermixed 
French idioms with their already imperfect and dialectic 
Italian, and a spurious unseemly compound was thus 
formed which was neither French nor Italian, and which 
found its way into the political essays, the newspapers, the 
pleadings, and even the acts of government. A few writers, 
formed in a better school, opposed the torrent; among 
these are Alfieri, Monti, Foscolo, Ippolito Pindemonte, 
Nanione, Cesari. and Giordani. The other principal writers 
of tne present century are — the historian Botta, the best that 
Italy has produced since the sixteenth century ; the trage- 
dians Niccolini and Pellico; the romantic poets Grossi 
and Sestini ; the didactic Arici ; the satirist D'Elci ; and 
above all, the novelist, philosopher, dramatist, and lyric poet 
Manzoni, who has given Italy the first model of an histori- 
cal novel, an example followed by Professor Rosini in his 
* Monaca di Monza,* and by several others. Nota has 
supplied the Italian stage with many good comedies. 
Micali has written the history of Italy before the Roman 
dominion ; Bossi, a general history of Italy ; Vacani, the 
military history of the Italian army employed in Spain 
under Napoleon ; Cuoco and CoUetta, the history of Naples ; 



Pi^otti, the history of Tuscany ; Manno, that of the island 
of Sardinia ; and Serra, the history of Genoa. Cicognara 
has given a history of sculpture ; and Missirini, an interest- 
ing biography of the great squlptor Canova. Ugoni and 
Lucchesini have written on the Italian literature of the 
eighteenth century. Gioja has written largely on political 
economy and legislation ; Romagnosi and Tamburini, on 
jurisprudence; Brocchi and Breislak, on geology and mine- 
ralogy. 

These, who are only a few out of many, are the principal 
writers that Italy has yet produced in the present century. 
The best historians of Italian literature are Tiraboschi, 
continued by Lombardi to the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury; Corniani, continued by Ugoni; Ginguen^ continued 
by Salfi ; and Fontanini's ' Biblioteca dell* Eloquenza Ita- 
liana,' with the* notes by Zeno. Numerous writers have 
treated of particular branches, such as Aldeano, Quadrio, 
Crescimbeni ; and series of Italian historians, dramatists, 
lyrio poets, satirists, &c., have been published. 

Italy, which has been for ages the nurse of the fine arts, 
has still, since the death of Canova, many respectable artists, 
but hardly a first-rate sculptor or painter. With architects 
and engineers she is better provided. The art of engraving 
is in a highly flourishing state ; Morghen, Longhi, Gan- 
dolfi, Anderloni, and others, are first-rate artists, and thu 
splendid works illustrative of the arts which appear in Italy, 
such as ' The Churches of Italy,' the ' Famiglie Celebrt 
Kaliane,* edited by Litta, and others, are equal to anything 
of the sort produced by any other country. {Quadro de/ia 
Letteratura, Scienze, ed Arti in Italia nelV anno 1620, di 
Giuseppe Acerbi ; Saggio suUa Storia delta Letieratura 
lialiana, net primi 26 Anni del Secolo XIX., 8vo., Mi- 
lano, 1831 ; Sacchi, Indole della Letteratura lialiana net 
Secolo XIX.) 

The journals, both literary and poUtical, of which forty 
years ago there hardly existed a dozen in all Italy, have in- 
creased to nearly two hundred since the last peace, em- 
bracing every branch of literature, science, and art. The 
statistics of every state of Italy are also published, as well 
as accounts of the state of education, legislation, industr)*, 
commerce, and other useful knowledge. Such is the 
condition of Italy' at the time we are writing (1838), 
very different in reality from what it was at the end of the 
last century, or from what party exaggeration and queru- 
lousness would represent it still to be. An immense pro- 
gress has been made, though many further improvement:) 
may still be wanted. In machinery, mercantile speculation, 
and practical political economy, Italy is certainly behind 
Germany and England, and perhaps France. 

The religion of Italy is the Roman Catholic, with the 
exception of a few valleys among the Alps of Piedmont, 
inhabited by the Valdenses, and of the Jews, who live in 
most of the principal towns, and have synagogues. At 
Leghorn, Florence, Venice, and other mercantue places, 
cliapels for foreign Protestants and Greeks are tolerated. 

ITCH, or, as it is termed by nosologists. Scabies or Psora, 
is a disease of the skin, of which the most prominent symp- 
tom is a constant and intolerable itching. The eruption 
consists most commonly of minute vesicles filled with a 
clear watery fluid, and slightly elevated on small pimples; 
but its character is often obscured by a mixture of papula* 
and pustules with the vesicles. Hence the disease has bet*n 
divided into distinct species according to the predominance 
of each kind of eruption ; but the distinction is artificial, 
and of no practical utility. The eruption occurs princi- 
pally on the hands and wrists, and in those parts most ex- 
posed to friction* as the spaces between the fingers and the 
flexures of the joints. After a time it extends from these 
parts to the arms, legs, and trunk ; but very rarely, if ever, 
appears on the face. 

The itch is attended by no constitutional disorder, except 
in those severest forms in which the eruption consists chiefly 
of large pustules surrounded by considerable inflammation 
of the adjacent skin. It never appears to arise sponta- 
neously ; but, where cleanliness is not strictly obs^ved, it is 
easily communicated by contact. Minute insects, of a spe- 
cies of Acarus, are often found in the vesicles ; but as they 
are also often absent, the disease cannot be considered to 
depend entirely upon their presence. 

A certain specific for the cure of the itch, which never 
gets well without treatment, is the local application of sul- 
phur; all the parts on which the eruption is visible should 
be plentifully smeared with the unguentum nUphuri^ every 



66 



INDEX. 



mains of antiquity at Ivrea ; among others, a fine urn with 
figures in relief. The cathedral is built on the ruins of a 
temple of the 8un. Ivrea, called antiently Eporedia, was 
a town of the Salassi, and afterwards was colonized by the 
Romans. 

The other towns of the province are : Castellamonte, 
with 4800 inhabitants ; Caluso, 5400 inh., and a college ; 
Cuere^nd, 3000 inh.,and a grammar-school and copper-works ; 
Aglie, 3000 inh., with a castle and a handsome park ; S. 
Giorgio Canavese, 3300 inh., and a college ; Locana, 6000 
inh., with brass-works ; Valperga, 2700 inh. ; Pont, 2600 
inh., ia a delightful valley watered by the Orca and its 
affluent the Saona. In this valley are many natural curio- 
sities, and the traces of silver and gold mines, said to have 
been once worked by the Romans. Copper is found in the 
Val d'Orca, and iron in the Val Brozzo, where there are 
several iron -works. There are several other small towns of 
above 2000 inh., such as Azeglio, Bolengo, Vische, S. Giusto, 
Pavone, Chiaverano, &e. (Neigebaur, Gemdlde Italiens; 
Calendario Sardo; Saussure, Voyages dans les Alpes.) 

IXA. [LeucosiansJ 

I'XALUS, a form of herbivorous Mammifers, placed, 
with doubt, by Mr.- Ogilby imder his family Moschidae. 
That zoologist observes that the genus, foundied upon the 
observation of a single specimen, may eventually prove to 
belong to a different family. He remarks that it differs 
little from the true Antelopes ; but even supposing it to be 
correctly placed among the MosckidcBt other forms, he ob- 
serves, are still wanting to fill up the chasms which evi- 



dently exist among that group. The type is lacalus Prohaion, 
{Proc, ZooL Soc, part iv., p. 119.) 

IXO'RA, a genus of Rubiaceous plants of the tribe Cin- 
chonacece, so named, it is supposed, from the Indian god 
Iswara. The genus is characterized by having a small four- 
toothed calyx ; corolla l-petalled, funnel-shaped ; tube long, 
with the four stamens in its mouth; ovary 2-cellcd, 
] -seeded ; style single ; berry drupaceous, inferior, ^seedetl. 
The species are numerous, and chiefly coufioed to India 
and the Oriental Archipelago. They form shrubs or amall 
trees, with opposite leaves, and stipules arising from & 
broad base, but acute at the apex. The flowers are in term inal 
corymbs, and are usually red, but sometimes white, and are 
generally highly ornamental, whence seyer^l are cultivated m 
our hothouses, where they require to be kept in a moist beat 
to thrive well. Some of tne species are i)sed medicinally, but 
not to any extent. Dr. Horsfield mentions /. coccinea as 
employed in Java as a stimulant, and Rheede two or three 
other species ; but none appear to be possessed pf any very 
active properties. 

IXOS, a genus of birds established by M. Temmin^k, 
for those thrushes which have the bill shorter than usual, 
and embracing the greatest part of the Brachypodirue and 
nearly the whole of the Crateropodina of Swainson. Or- 
nithologists generally admit this genus ; but Mr. Swainwin 
is of opinion that, though it may be continued in artiilclai 
systems, it cannot be adopted in natural classification, since 
it includes genera long before defined, at)d unites under 
one name birds which actually belong to different families. 



INDEX TO THE LETTER I. 



VOLUME xn. 



1, ps^ 434 

Iambics, 424 

Jimblichus, 494, 

linthina [Janthina] 

lauthocinda [Merulidae] 

laxt [JaxtJ 

I'bacus [Skyllarus] 

iMria, 425 

Jb^ria, 425 

Ibex rOoftt] 

Ibis TAbau-Hannes j Tanta- 

lidae] 
Ibycter [Fa1coaida,vol.x«p.l67] 
Ice [FreesiDg ; Water] 
Iceland, 425 
Iceland Moss, 427 
Iceland Spar [Calcareous Spar] 
Iceni [Britannia] 
Ichneumon, 427 
Ichneumon (Entomology) [Pu- 

pivora] 
Ichthyology, 429 
Ichthyosaurus, 430 
Ichthyosi&gones, 433 
IcolmktU [lonal 
Ic6nium [Asia Minor} 
Icononio, Bridge of [Granada, 

p. 353] 
Icosahedron [Solids, Regular] 
Icos&ndria, 433 
I'cterusrsturnidflD] 
Icttifus f Jaundice] 
rctides, 433 
Ida fCandia] 
Ida [Troad] 
Idea, 434 
Ideal, 435 
Idealism, 43S 
Ideology, 436 
Identity, 436 
Ide9 [Kalendar] 
Idia, 436 
l(im6nea, 436 
Idocrase, 436 
Idotea [Isopoda] 
Idria pilyria] 
Idrialin [HvdiogeD, p. 397] 

Idya, 437 
2dyia,437 



Idyll, 437 

lerea, 437 
Iglau [Moravia] 

Igniltius, 437 

If;n4tiu8 Loyola [Jesuits] 

Ignition [Heat] 

Igu&na, 437 

Igu&nida, 439 

Icuanodon, 441 

llchanic Tables [Nasir Kddin] 

Ilche»ter [Somersetshire] 

Ildefunso, S. [CastUla] 

lie de France, 442 

I'leum [Intestines] 

rieus, or Iliac Passion, 442 

Ilex, 442 

Ilfraromb [Defonshiio] 

Iliad [Homer] 

Illssus [Attica] 

Piium TroasJ 

Iltanus, 443 

Illeet Vilaine,4l3 

Illecebricesp, 444 

IlKcium, 444 

Illinois, 445 

Illumioating [Manuscripts] 

Illyria, 445 

ima};inary [Negative and Im- 
possible Quantitiev] 

Imagination, 447 

I'roaus [Himalaya Mountains] 

Imbecility [Insanity] 

Imbros, 448 

Imir^tia [Georpa] 

Imitation, in Music [Fngi'^J 

Immaterialism [Berkeley; Mar 
teriahsm] 

Immortality [Materialism] 

I'mola, 448 

Impact, 448 

Impitiens, 449 

Impenetrability, 450 

Impeiitor [Emperor] 

Imperial Chamber, Kammer- 
gerichte, 450 

Impetigo, 450 

I'mpetus [Momentum] 

Imports and Exports, 451 

Imponibla [Negative and Ixn« 
poBttbU Quai&ifls] 



Impost, 452 

InApregnation (of Plants), 452 
Impressment of Seamen [Sea- 
men] 

Impropriations[Benefice,p.2l9 ; 
Tithes] 

Improvvisatori, 452 

Impulse, 452 

Ina, 452 

I'nachus, 453 

Inaubing [Grafting] 

Inca [Peru] 

Incandescence [Heat] 

Incidence, Angle of, 453 

Inciwrs [Dentition] 

Inclination (magnetism), 453 

Inclination (mathematics), 455 

Inclined plane, 455 

Incommensurable, Incommen- 
surables, Theory of, 455 

lucompatibles (chemistry), 456 

Inconcinnous Intervals, 456 

Increment and Decrement, 456 

Incus [Ear] 

Indefinite, 456 

Indenture [Deed] 

Independents, 45/ 

Indeterminate, 458 

Index [Exponent] 

India, 458 

India Company [East India 
Company] 

Indian Corn [Maise] 

Indian Ink [Ink] 

Indian Kubber [Caoutchouc] 

Indiana, 458 

Indianite. 459 

Indians [North American la 
dians] 

Indicator(n9, 459 

Indict ion ; Cycle of Indiction 
[Period of Revolution] 

Indictment, 460 

Indies, East [East Indies] 

Indigestion [Dyspepsia] 

Indigo, 460 

Indigprera,462 

Indivisibles [Cavalieri] 

Indore, 462 

Indn (aw}> 463 



Indie (deparimeat), 463 

Indre et Loire, 464 

Induction (mathematics), 46o 

Induction (logic), 466 

Induction [Benefice, p. 219] 

Indulgence, 466 

Indus [Uiadustan] 

Indus (constellation), 467 

Inequality, 467 

Inertia, 467 

Infant, 467 

Infant Schools [SchoolJ 

Infanticide, 468 

Infantry, 469 

Infection, 470 

Inferobranchi&ta, 470 
Infinite, Infinity, Infinitesimal. 

Infinitesimal Calculus, 47 i 
Inflammation, 473 
laflexion J DifiractionJ 
Inflexion [Flexure, Contrary] 
Inflorescence, 473 
luflueusa, 474 
Information, 474 
Infundibulum [Brain] 
Infusions, 474 
Infus6ria, 474 
Inga, 476 

Ingatestone [Essex] 
Ingolstadt, 477 
Ingroxsiog, 477 
Ingutphus, 477 
Injunction, 477 
Ink, 478 
Inn [Bavaria] 

Innocent I.— XIII., 478^-48 1 
Inns of Couxt and of Chancerv, 

481 
Inoc^ramus. 482 
Inocul&tion ^surgery\ 483 
Inoculation fof plants), 483 
Inoculation [Grass Land] 
Inquest [Coroner] 
Inquisition [Office, Holy] 
Insanity, 484 
Ineecta,4d8 

Inicctivora [VoU vi, p. 906J 
I]iMSs6re8» 496 
Insolvency, 495 
iaMlint»496 



J. 



J, ill the English language, bas a aibiknt" sound, cloself 
connected with that of the syllable di hefore a vowel. [Al- 
FHABBT, p. 379.] It has B similar sound in the French 
tongue ; but in German it is pronounced altogether as oui 
S before a vowel. What its pronunciation was in Latin may 
admit of dispute, for although it is generally laid donn Ihit 
its power with the Romani was the aame as with the Ger- 
mans, there is reason for thinking that our own suund of 
the letter was not unknown to the antient inhabitants of 
Italy. The name of Jupiter was undoubtedly written 
originally Diiipiter. so Janus was at first Dianiis, ju&t as 
tbo goddess Diana was called by the rustics Jena. (See D 
and I.) The argument might be strengthened by compar- 
ing the Latia JuTigo with the Greek (iitvujh, Jupiter with 
Zfu -wartp. Sec, and also by referring to the modem Italian 
forms, 'GiOjTO, giovare, giovenco, giouane. &c. There is no 
absurdity in supposing that two pronunciations may have 
co-existed in the same country. As to the form of the letter 
t, it was originally identical with that of i, and the distinc- 
tion between ibem is of recent date. Exactly in the sanie 
way, among the numerals used in medical prescriptions, it 
is Uie practice to write the lost symbol for unity witli a 
longer stroke, t^, vij, viij. 

In the Spanish languagej represents a guttural, and is 
now used instead of x, which had the same power: thus 
Jerei rather than -Xercs is the name of the town which 
gives ita title to the wine called by us sherry. For the 
changes to which j' is liable, see D. G, and I. 
' JA'BIRU, the name of a genus of GiaUatorial or 
Wading Birds, Mycteria of LioDrous, and thus charac- 
terized ; — 

Bill long, conical, smooth, robust, comnressed, and pointed i 
upper mandible trigonal and straight, toe lower thicker and 
turned up. Head and neck more or less bare of feathers. 
Anterior toea united at the base by a membrane. Size 
gigantic. 

Geograpkieal DistribtUion ^f Ike Genm. — South Ame- 
rica, Western Africa. Australasia. 

Habit* almost entirely the same with those of the Storks. 

There are three species known, distributed geographi- 
cally a* above. We select Mycteria Americana as an 
example. 




Description. — Very large in size, white; the head and 
neck (excepting the occiput) without feathers, and covered 
with a black skin, which becomes reddish tuwards the lovei 
part. On the occiput are a few white feathers. Bill.ejui 
feet black. 

Locality, South America, where it frequents the borders 
of lakes and marshes, preying on reptiles and flst. [Ht- 
RONa, vol. %K.. pp. 165, 166,] 

JABLONSKI. PAUL ERNEST, the son of Daniel 
Ernest Jablonski, a distinguished minister of the Protesiani 
church, was born at Berlin in 1603. He was educated ai 
the university of Frankfort on the Oder ; where be applied 
himself with great diligenceand success to the study of ihc 
Coptic and other Oriental lanji^agcs. Atthaageef Iwenlv- 
one he was sent at the expense of the Prussian government 
to the various public libraries in Europe, in order to purwio 
his studies and to make extracts Yrom Coptic MSS. In I ;i>u 
he was appointed minister of the Protestant church at Lii.-- 
benberg; and in 1722, professor of theology at Frankfurt 
an the Oder; and also minister of the Pral^^tant cburi.-h 
in the same place. He died on the 13th of Septeiubi'i-, 
1757. 

The moat important of Jiblonski's works are: — ' Pan- 
theon .£gyptiorum, sive de Diis eonim Commentarius. cum 
Prolegomenis de Religione et Theologia J^gyptiorum,' .1 
vols. 8vo., 1750-32 ; ' Do Memnone Gr»coram et .Sgyplio- 
rum,hujusque celebcrrima inTheboi'de Status.' 410,, I75:< : 
'Rempbah iCgyptiorum Deus ab Israelitis in I}eserIo cul- 
tU8,'8vo.,173l ; 'DisserlationesAcademicotdeteriaGosen.' 
4to„ I73S, 1 736 ; ' Disquisitio de Lingua Lycaonica' (which 
is mentioned inthe^c'aq/'<A«,,4po«f;M,xiv. II), 4lo., 1714, 
1724; 'Exercitatio Historico Theologica de Nestoranismo.' 
evo., 1724; 'De ultimis PauU Aposloli Laboribus a Luoa 
prcetermissis,' 4to., 174G; ' Institution es Historic ChrLs- 
tiancB Antiquioris,' 8vo., 1754; 'Institutiones Historin 
Christianm reccntioris,' Hvo,, 1756, Several of these works 
have been repubhshed with many additions and corrections 
by Te Water, under the title of ' Opuscuta quibua Lingua 
et Antiquitates i^g]^tiorum, difficilia Librorura Sacruruiu 
Loca, et Histories Ecclesiastics Capita illustrantur,' &c., 
4 vols. 8vo„ Leyden, 1804-13. 

JA'CAMAR. [KiNOFisHsiu,] 

JA'CANA. [Ralud*.] 

JAtXHUS, or lAIXHUS (Mammalogy), the name of 
a genua of monkeys applied by Geotfroy, Desmarest, and 
others to the form denominated Hapale by Illiger, Ouislilit 
of the French, the type of which may be considered to bo 
Sima Jacchus of LinnEsus. 

M. (jeofiroy treats them as a family divided into two sub- 
genera {Hapale and Midai), under the name of Arctopi- 
l/ieci; but the term Arrtojrithecus, it seems, had been ap- 
plied by Gesner as a denomination for another animal, 
probably the Three-toed Sloth, whilst thelatter uses Galeo- 
pilhecaa to designate the Sagoin. 

Generic Charaeler. — Upper intermediate incisors Jajijer 
than the lateral ones, whichiare isolated on each side ; lower 
incisors elongated, narrow, and vertical, the lateral ones 
longest ; upper canine teeth conical and of moderate size ; 
two lower ones very small. 



Dental Fbrmuta : incisors — 



1-1 . 
1-1' 



molars — 



Size small, muzzle short, &cial angle nboul 30°. Head 
round, prominent at the occiput; the Ave fingers armed 
with claws, with the exception of the thumbs of the poste- 
rior extremities, which are furnished with nails ; thumb of 
the anterior extremities in the same direction as the fin- 
gers; fur very soft; tail full and handsome. 

Geographical HiXnfiution.— South America. How Lu- 
dolph, who figures two in his ' History of Ethiopia," could 
have been so far milled as to place the form in that part ol 
the world, does not appear. 

TL« specits, which ar« not few, havt been separalwl into 



J A C 



70 



J A C 



Attack the larger quadrupeds, but the smaller animals and 
poultry are their most frequent prey. Their cry is very 
peculiar and piercing. Captain Beechey notices it as hav- 
ing something rather appalling when neard for the first 
time at night ; and he remarks, that as they usually come 
in packs, the first shriek which is uttered is always the si";- 
nal for a general chorus. * We hardly know,' continues the 
Captain, • a sound which partakes less of harmony than 
that which is at present in question ; and indeed the sud- 
den burst of the answering long-protracted scream, suc- 
ceeding immediately to the opening note, is scarcely less 
impressive than the roll of the thunder-clap immediately 
after a flash of lightning. The eflfect of this music is very 
much increased when the first note is heard in the distance 
(a circumstance which often occurs), and the answering yell 
bursts out from several points at once, within a few vards 
or feet of the place where the auditors are sleeping.* I'hese 
animals are said to devour the dead on the battle-field and 
to scratch away the earth from the shallow graves in order 
to feed on the corpses. 

John Hunter {Phil. Trans.) has recorded the case of a 
female Jackal which whelped in this country. The period 
of gestation was about the same as that of the dog, and the 
whelps were blind at first 

The story of the Jackal being the lion's provider may 
have arisen from the notion that the yell of the pack 
gives notice to the lion that prey is on foot, or from the 
JackaVs being seen to feed on the remnants of the lion's 
quarry. 

Cuvier observes that it is not certain that all the Jackals 
arc 8itnilar(*of the same species'); those of Senegal, for 
example {Cams Anthus, F, Cuv.), he remarks, stand higher 
on the legs, and appear to have the muzele sharper and the 
tail rather lunger. 

The oficnsive odour of the Jackal has been given as one 
of the reasons against reducing it to a state ot domestica- 
tion. We do not seo what advantage is to be derived from 
such a process ; but, if it were desirable, that objection, it 
seems, would not hold. Colonel Sykes, who notices it as 
the Kholah of the Mahrattas,* and as being numerous in 
Dukhun (Dercnn), had in his possession at the same time 
a very large wild male and a domesticated female. The 
odour of the wild animal was almost unbearable ; that of the 
domesticated Jackal was scarcely perceptible. 




Jackal. 

Some are of opinion that the three hundred foxes between 
whose tails Samson is said to have put firebrands in order 
that they might set fire to the crops of the Philistines 
(Judges^ XT., 4, 4) were Jackals. Many of the modern 
Oriental names for the last-mentioned animals, Chicol of 
the Turks, Sciagal, Sciugal, Sciachal, or Shacal of the 
Persians, come very near to the Hebrew t^onX Sj^t*. Shual. 
Hasselquist, speaking of * Canis aureus, the Jackcall, Chical 
of the Turks,' says (translation), 'There are greater num- 
bers of this species of Fox to be met with than the former 
{Cams Vulpes), particularly near Jaflh, about Gaxa, and in 
Galilee. I leave others to determine which of these is the Fox 
of Samson. It was certainly one of these two animals.' This 
»es not seem however to be quite so certain, for there are not 
nting those— and Dr. Kennicott is one of them— who 
3ct all quadrupedal aid as ancillary to the vengeance of 



him of Zorah. Dr. Kennicott alludes to the remark {hat 
the Hebrew word translated 'foxes' signifies also handfuU 
(Ezek. xiii. Id, 'handfuls of barley'), if the letter \ whidi 
has been inserted or omitted elsewhere almost at pleasure, 
be left out. ' No less than seven Hebrew MSS. want thai 
letter here,* says Dr. Kennicott in continuation, ' and read 

UhyV' Admitting this version, we see that Samson took 
three hundred hanufuls (or sheaves) of corn, and one hun- 
dred and fifty firebrands; that he turned the sheaves end t) 
end, and put a firebrand between the two ends in the midst ; 
and then, setting the brands on fire, sent the fire into thv^ 
standing corn of the Philistines.' Our limits will not allow 
us to dwell upon this subject, which the reader will fin'I 
elaborately dii'ciissed by Dr. Harris and others. 

JACKDAW, the well-known English name for Cornu 
Monedula of Linnaeus. 

J ACKSAW, one of the provincial English names for tli : 
Dun Diver. [Merganin.e.] 

JACKSON, WILLIAM, who alone is almost sufficient u 
refute the opinion too generally entertained, even in th.« 
country, that the English have no school of music, was boni 
in 1730, at Exeter, of which place his father was a higl.U 
respectable tradesman. He there received a liberal cmIuc;^- 
tion, and having evinced distinct proofs of musical geniu , 
was placed under the tuition of the organist of the cathedi z.:, 
but completed his professional studies in Londoti, under ibr 
celebrated Travers, of the Chapel-Royal. He returned tit 
and settled in hit native city, and in 1777 was appoint*;', 
sub-chanter, organist, lay-vicar, and master of the choristers 
of the cathedral. 

Jackson first made himself known as a composer by tl- 
publication of Twelve Songs, which immediately spread In. 
fame throughout the kingdom. His next work was «Sf' 
Sonatas/or the Harpsichord ; but this proved unsuccessful 
his power was in vocal music — in giving melodious cxpn'N- 
sion to good lyric poetry, of which he always made a judiciu 
choice, for he was too sensible a man to waste his stren^i 
in such nonsense- verses as are commonly set by the nui- 
berless pseudo-composers of the present day. His th:! 
work, Six Elegies for Three Voices, completely establis^hi . 
his reputation ; they are, and will ever continue to be. a' 
mired bv all who have a cultivated, unprejudiced love of \\ 
art. This was followed by his Opera iv., consisting . 
twelve more songs, among which is, if we mistake iiot^ tl 
very lovely air, * Go, gentle gales :' and subsequently he \>\i.^ 
lislied two other sets of the same number of songS iii e^r h 
many of which deser^'e to be rescued from that neglect r 
which fashion, that is, the rage for novelty, has condcmiit 
them. His Thtelve Canzonets for Two Voices, all of tlu., 
more or less ingenious and pleasing, were once the deli^ .. 
of every musical circle. Of these, * Time has not thinned il. 
flowing hair' has lost none of it5 charms; and 'Love .. 
thine eyes for ever plays' is a duct familiarly known • 
most, if not all, persons of taste in the British isles. Of h • 
three dramatic compositions The Lord of the Manor a 1m 
sunives. The exquisitely tender air in this, * Encnmpa-v 
in an ^ingel's frame,' is one among the many adiniral- 
things in the opera ; the words by General Burgoyne, w ho 
a preface to tne drama pays an exceedingly elegant vrc. 
descrvetl compliment to the composer, viewing him both : 
a musician and as a man. 

'Originality and grace are the attributes of Jackson 
Exeter: there is in his works a total absence of ili... 

f)hrases— cant phrases they may be called— which, Ihcuj:' 
ashionable and admired at the time, soon became vul^ - 
and distasteful. He wrote not only for his own age. but ? 
future ages. He is already admitted into the list of classi- 1 
English composers, and will hereafter, when the 'vencraU 
gai-b of antiquity * is thrown over him, be better known a:. = 
more esteemed than at the present period ; though even n. - 
all real judges of musical excellence justly appreciate h- 
best productions. He was decried by his professional co'> 
temporaries, because superior to most of them in gen!u . 
and infinitely beyond tnem in education and in those a* 
tainments which become a gentleman. He was a critic ti>' 
and wrote as well as said caustic things. His mind wjis t,r 
large calibre ; it was powerful and active; bethought f : 
himself, and commonly thought right. His Thirttt Lett*^ > 
on various Subjects, and his Four Ages, together tn:\ 
Essays on various Subjects, display the extent of his know 
led^e, the correctness of his judgment, and the originahi* 
of his conceptions. From those volumes music is nui 
wholly excluded, though it occupies only a small portion uf 



JAP 



J A I 



tbe measures of the reign of terror, originated with the cluh 
of the Jacobins. [Cohmxttbb of Public Safety.] The 
club had affiliations all over France. After the fall of Ro- 
bespierre in July, 1794, the convention passed a resolution 
forbidding all popular assemblies from interfering with the 
deliberations of the legislature. The Jacobins however 
having attempted an insurrection in November, 1794, in 
order to save one of their members. Carrier, who had been 
condemned to death for his atrocities at Nantes, the con- 
vention ordered the club to be shut up ; and Legendre, one of 
its former members, proceeded with an armed force to dis- 
solve the meeting, and closed the hall. The spirit of the 
club however survived in its numerous adherents, and con- 
tinued to struggle against the legislature and the Executive 
Directory, until Bonaparte put an end to all factions, and 
restored order in France. The name of Jacobin has since 
continued to be used, though often improperly applied, like 
other party names, to denote men of extreme democratical 
principles, who wish for the subversion of monarchv and of 
all social distinctions, and are not over-scrupulous about the 
means of effecting their object. 

JACXDBITES. [EuTYCHiANs.] ' 

JADE, a name which has been given to several mine- 
rals which resemble each other but little, except in colour, 
and therefore it is one which it would be Well should fall 
into disuse. 

Serpentine, nephrite, and Saussurite have all been de- 
scribed under the name of jade. Yu, or Chinese jade, is 
supposed to be prehnite. 

JAEN, an intendencia« or administrative province, of 
Spain, once a Moorish kingdom, is included in the geogra- 
phical division of the Peninsula called Andalusia. The 
province of Jaen consists in great measure of the upper 
oasin of the Guadalquivir, and of the numerous streams 
which contribute to tne formation of that riv^r, and it lies 
between the Sierra Morena on the north, which divides it 
from Castile, the great southern range or Sierra Ne- 
vada on the south towards Granada, and the Sierra de 
Cazorla on the east, which forms the connecting link be- 
tween the other two, on the borders of Murcia. To the west 
the ground slopes with the course of the Guadalquivir 
towards Cordova. Numerous offsets of the above chains 
enter and cross the territory of Jaen ; such are tlie Sierra 
de Bedmar, Sierra de Ubeda, &c. The province of Jaen is 
75 miles from east to west, and nearly as much from north 
to south, and its area is estimated at about 4000 square 
miles, with a population of 277,000 inhabitants, distributed 
among 71 pueblos or communes. The province is divided 
into five partidos or districts, Jaen, Andujar, Baeza, Mar- 
tos, and Ubeda. The soil in the valleys is extremely 
fertile, but very imperfectly cultivated. The produce is 
wine, oil, corn, vegetables and fruits of every kind ; honey 
and silk are also gathered. The mountains abound with 
rich pastures; sheep and a fine breed of horses are the 
principal cattle in the country. Jaen, the capital of the 
province, is a bishop's see, with a fine cathedral, and has 
19,000 inhabitants. At Cazalla, south of Jaen, «re mines of 
lead and silver, and veins of copper are found in various 
parts of the province. In the northern part, at the foot of 
the Sierra Morena, is the German colony of La Carolina, 
founded by the philanthropist Olavides, in 1767. (Miiiano ; 
Bowles ; Ponz ; Bourgoing.) 

JAEN. [Ecuador, vol. ix., p. 267.] 

J^RA, or JAERA. [Isopoda, vol. xiii., p. 65.] 
JAFFA. [Syria.] . 

J AFFNAPATAM, the principal town of the province of 
Jaffna in the island of Ceylon, is situated in 9*^ 47' N. lat. 
and SO*' 9' E. long. ; 215 miles north from Colombo, and 
296 south-west from Madras. It possesses a large fort built 
in the form of {^pentagon, with five bastions, furnished with 
a broad moat and an extensive glacis; and having within 
its walls a church in the form of a Greek cross, a com- 
mandants house, and some other good buildings, besides 
barracks and accommodations for soldiers. The town stands 
to the eastward at the distance of half a mile, and contains 
several broad pamllel streets intersected by smaller ones. 
The houses are for the most part built with brick. The 
majority of the inhabitants of the town formerly consisted 
of the Dutch and their descendants, but since the Britbh 
conquest many have emigrated to different parts of the 
island, and some have gone to Batavia. The bazaar is 
abundantly supplied with the necessaries of life at a cheap 
rate. In the neighbourhood there is a church belonging to 



the Tamul Protestants, called St. John's, in which the 
Tamul colonial chaplain of the district officiates. The 
Hindus have a large temple in the neighbouring town vC 
Wannapanny, which far exceeds in grandeur all the rest in 
the province. It is ornamented with an accumulation ot 
small towers, and enclosed by a wall having a large gate' 
way. It was founded and endowed by one»Wyti Ilinpi 
Chetty, about forty years ago. There is a band of dancinjr 
girls attached to the temple, who enliven the procession^ 
with their dancing. ^ 

Jaffnapatam is not accessible to vessels of any coasidor- 
able size, owing to the shallowness of the water. Th<' 
cargoes of the larger vessels are unloaded at Kails, and 
conveyed up to the town in small boats. 

Jaffnapatam is the seat of a government agent, who h 
deputy fiscal, and of a provincial judge, who are gentleman 
of the civil service. They form a minor court, to decide vi\ 
appeals from the courts of the subordinate magistrates ol 
the province of Jaffna. 

JAGANATH. [Juggkrnauth.] 

JAGER. (Ornithology.) [Larid^e.] 

JAGUAR. [Leopards.] 

JAINAS, a religious sect of the Hindus. Tlie name i^ 
derived from the Sanskrit jina, * victorious,' which is thi; 
generic name of the deified saints of this sect. 

The Jainas are very numerous in the southern and westcru 
provinces of Hindustan ; they are principally engaged in 
commerce, and from their wealth and influence form a ver) 
important division of the population of the country. The 
history and opinions of this sect are also interesting from 
their striking similarity to the chief peculiarities of the reli- 
gion of Buddha. liie earliest information concerning this 
sect was given in the 9th vol. of the ' Asiatic Researches,' 
in an ' Account of the Jains, collected from a priest of this 
sect, at Mudgeri, translated for Major Mackenzie ;' in ' Par- 
ticulars of the Jains,' by Dr Buchanan ; and in ' Obser- 
vations on the sect of Jains,' by Colebrooke. Several 
particulars concerning them are also given in Buchanan's 
* Journey from Madras through Mysore,' &c. ; Wilks » 
' Historical Sketch of the South of India;' in the work of 
the Abb^ du Bois ; and in "Ward's * View of the History, 
Literature, and Religion of the Hindus.' Information still 
more important is given in the 1st volume of the * Transac- 
tions of the Royal Asiatic Society,* by Colebrooke, *On*lbe 
Philosophy of the Hindus ;* by Major Delaraain, * On tbe 
Srdwaks, or Jains;' by Colebrooke, Dr. Hamilton, and 
Col. Franklin, * On Inscriptions in Jain Temples in Behar :' 
by Dr. Hamilton, * On the Sr^waks, or Jains;' and also in 
the 2nd volume of the Transactions, by Major Todd, * Oti 
the Religious Establishments in Mewar.' But the ma>t 
complete acccount of this sect is given by Prof. Wilson, in 
his * Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus.* {As, Hfs., 
vol. xvii.) 

A view of the literature of the Jainas is given by Wils!):i 
in his * Descriptive Catalogue of the MSS., &c., of Cu). 
Mackenzie,' vol. ii., pp. 144-162. The Jainas have their 
own Purdnasand other religious works, which are principally 
devoted to the history of theTorthankaras, or deified teachers 
of the sect. The chief Puranas are supposed to have been 
written by Jina Sena Achdrya, who was probably the 
spiritual preceptor of Amoghaversha, kin^ of K&nchi. nt 
the end of the ninth century of the Christian sera. They 
have also their own works on astronomy, astrology* medicine, 
the mathematical sciences, and the form and disposition of 
the universe, of which a list is given in Wilson's ' Descrip- 
tive Catalogue.' ' But the list there given is very far from 
including the whole of Jain literature, or even a considerable 
proportion. The books there alluded to are in fact confiiul 
to Southern India, and are written in Sanskrit or tht^ 
dialects of the peninsula ; but every province of Hindustan 
can produce Jain compositions, either in Sanskrit or its 
vernacular idiom ; whilst many of the books, and especially 
those that may be regarded as their Scriptural authoritR>s 
are written in the Prakrit or Magadhi, a dialect which, 
with the Jains as well as the Bauddhas, is considered to l^r 
the appropriate vehicle of their sacred literature.* (WiUon, 
As. Res.t Vol. xvii., p. 242-3.) The Jainas are also said lo 
have a number of works entitled Siddhslntas and Agamn^. 
which are to them what the Vedas are to the Brahman ica I 
Hindus. 

The Jainas are considered by the Brahmans to form n<> 
part of the Hindu church. The principal points of diflor- 
ence between them and the Brahmanical Hindus are :— * 



JAM 



74 



JAM 



at the point where it is united to the rangs of the Blue 
MountainB, is 4600 feet above the sea-leveL The declivities 
of the mountains are rather steep, partly bare, and partly 
covered with woods, but the level summits are generally over- 
fj^rown with trees. The valleys are mostly narrow, and eon- 
tain but little level ground, with the exception of the vale 
nf Bath, which extends about eight miles from the town of 
that name to the mouth of the Plantain Garden river, near 
the promontory of Morant Point, the most eastern cape of 
the island. This vale is about one mile and a half wide, 
and covered with sugar plantations. 

West of the range in which S. Catherine's Peak stands 
tlie mountains subside, and are divided firop) those farther 
west b^ a de|)ression which extends across the island over 
the plain of Liguanea and th^ hilly country which encloses 
the banks of the Wagwater river. Yet north of the plain 
the country seems to be 1000 feet above the >ea-level, or 
nearly s^. The greatest plain in the island is that of Ligu- 
anea, which begins a few miles east of Kingston, i^nd ex- 
tends westward to a point west of Old Harbour, a distance 
of about thirty miles: its average breadth is about five 
miles. The western portion of this plain has a considerable 
iiiclinatiun. It is defended irom the sea by the Palisados, 
a sand-b^ink several miles in leuRtb, which joins the town 
of Port Royal to the mainland of the island. A part of 
this plain consists of savannahs, or natural pasture-ground, 
covered with grass. W^t of Port Henderson a range of 
low hills called Itealthshire Hills lie betwen the plain and 
the sea. 

The plain of Liguanea is divided from the plain of Vere 
by a narrow range of low hills, which approach the sea 
west of Old Harbour, near Salt River Bay. The plain of 
Vere extends from south-east to north-west about 18 miles, 
with an average breadth of 7 or 8 miles. On the south- 



precipitous hills; the valleys between them are oovere<l 
with high forest-trees, which exhibit a very luxuriant tcuv- 
tation. 

Except the districts which lie within the limestone furmi- 
tion above mentioned, Jamaica has the advantage of bent,,' 
well watered by numerous rivers, rivulets, and springs. N on • 
of the rivers are navigable, except the Black River, in th> 
parish of St. Elixabeth, by which goods are bronght down a:. ' 
carried up about 30 niiles in flat»Dottomed boats and cani.** > 
But the other rivers are of great importance for the wat. 
which they supply for the irrigation of the plan tat ion &, t!.. 
numerous'mills which they turn, and the beauty and \i\u 
rest that they give to the country through which they tlj^t. 
Some of them form beautiful cascades. 

The want of river navigation can hardly be felt in -.r 
island like Jamaica, whicn has a coast-line of more tbu. 
$00 miles, in which hardly any place is more than 30 ml!e^ 
from the sea, and whose shores are sufficiently indented t> 
supply it with numerous harbours and other shelters i r 
shippmg. There are 30 principal harbours, besides m<>r' 
than double that number of bays, creeks, and coVes, capahit 
of affording more or less shelter to vessels. The safest ani 
Qiost capacious of the harbours are those of Port Momnt. 
Kingston, and Old Harbour on the southern, and tho^e of 
Lucia and St. Antonio on the northern shores. 

The climate of Jamaica is considered exceedingly k^t. 
but (his is onlv the case in the lower plains along the south- 
ern coast The mean heat of the summer months (frum 
June to November) is about 80% whilst the mean heat of iix 
other six months does not exceed 75% In sumnier the tht r- 
mometer sometimes rises to 96% and occasionally, thoiK * 
rarely, to 1 00® In winter it sinks to 69% But the chango i-^ 
the temperature are very slow and gradual, the difference N 
tween noon and midnight rarely exceeding 5"* or 6% The m 



east of this plain is the Portland Ridge, which terminates heat on the hills, which are 1000 feet and upwards above '.:, 
in Portland Point, the most southern cape of Jamaica, sea, in summer is stated to be 75% and in winter bet ween 7' 



On the north-west it is joined by the Mile Gully, a pic 
turesque valley, several miles in length, traversed by the 
upper course of the Minho river. . The soil of the plain of 
Vere is of moderate fertility, and mostly used as pasture- 
ground. 

The mouiltains which enclose these plains on the north 
rise with a steep and abrupt ascent,- but they do not attain 
a great elevation, hardly any summit being 3000 feet high, 
and most of them not 2000 feet. These mountains do u6t 
occupy the whole of the country, but enclose valleys of con- 
siderable extent and fertility, and the basin of St. Thomas- 
in-tlie-Vale, a plain embosomed in hills, about 9 miles 
long and 2^ miles across, which is covered with sugar 
plantations, and is very fertile. Towards the northern 
coast the mountains sink down into low and well-wooded 
hills. 

The mountains, which cover nearly the whole of the 
island west of the basin of St. Thomas-in- the- Vale, do not 
rise much higher than those which enclose the basin. 
Their mean elevation falls short of 2000 feet, and few of 
their summits .attain more than that elevation. The highest 
seems to be the Peak near Blewfields, not far from the 
southern coast, which rises to 2560 feet. Properly speak- 
ing, the ridges do not extend in one general line, but inter- 
sect each other in various direction, so as to form valleys, 
which open to nearly every ppiut of the compass. Near the 
central hoe of the island, the hills present the charac- 
teristics of the limestone formation, of which they consist. 
Caverns occur in several places, and some of them are 
very extensive. In the midst of the bills are also cavities 
and depressions, sometimes of considerable extent The 
water which runs down from the hills or falls into these 
cavities during the rains forms small rivers, which flow for 
a short distance and then disappear in sink-holes, and 
sometimes come again to the surface and again sink. These 
districts are only provided with running water during 
the rains, and the inhabitants are obliged to have re< 
course to tanks or cisterns, in which they collect the rain- 
water .for the dry seasons. In the western part of the 
island the level grounds are not of great extent. The 
largest plains are the Pedro Plains, near Great Pedro 
Point, and the Savanna la Mar, towards South Negril 
Point, the most western cape of the island. A consider^ 
able portion of these plains is low and covered with 
swamps. No plains occur on the northern coast. The 
country between Montego Bay on the west and St. Ann's 
Bay ou the east consists only of low though abrupt and 



and 72% though the thermometer occasionally sinks to yt , 
and on the higher mountains even to 48^. Snow has ne^t i 
been observed, even on the most elevated peaks; hail i5 i. . 
a rare occurrence on them, but it melts as soon o^ m 
reaches the ground. The dimate is cooler and more sn!.:- 
brio us on the north side of the island than on the soutl. 
The heat of the low coast is considerably diminished by th • 
daily sea-breeze, which sets in generally about nine oVIch k 
in the morning and ceases only towards sunset. Its faS. 
brious effects are so obvious, that it has obtained from tK ■ 
seamen the name of the doctor. During the hottest ]>r.ri 
of the day, and in the most sultry montm^, a succession *^^ 
light flying clouds cotitinually pass over the sun, and, \ \ 
interrupting its rays, contribute to modemte the heat. 

In Jamaioi there are two rainy and two dry seas on <. 
The spring rains begin some time after the sun has na^^c * 
the equator, in the middle of April or beginiiing of Mi\. 
But in these months the rains are generally partidl, ai . 
come down only in showers : the dry Weather frequent!; 
continues to the month of June, especially on the souther:', 
side of the island. The heavy rains commence in June (•:- 
even later, and last about two months ; they are by far th j 
most violent of all that occur during the year, and at \h.^ 
time the air is most intolerably sultry. This intense heat, 
joined to a still breathless atmosphere, is a presage of tit 
approaching torrents. The clouos hastily gather, and form 
into a compact mass, overspreading the sky, which ju^t 
before was cloudless and serene. A tremendous peal of 
thunder bursts from these dark clouds, and in a few minute:^ 
the Imih descends in torrents, of which no one can form an 
idea who has not witnessed them. During the continuant" 
of the rain the heavens are rent with incessant peals cf 
thunder and quick and vivid flashes of lightning. Tht'^e 
rains set in regularly every day, and continue ft^m twu to 
three hours, sometimes for the space of several week>. 
Sometimes very heavy rain descends for several days and 
nights with little intermission. The autumnal or/ali rain v . 
as they are called by the planters, come in October and N^^- 
vember : they are by no means so heavy as those of the 
spring, nor are they Usually accompanied with thunder and 
lightning, but they are often attended with heavy gusts of 
wind from the north. In the mountains the rains are earlier, 
more frequent, and more heavy than In the low country. 

Jamaica is from time to time visited by those terrific pheno- 
mena called hurricanes. They generally set in from the north 
or north-west, but only in the summer months between 
the two rainy nasoiUi which montha are therefore called 



JAM 



76 



JAM 



assise courts are held here. The harbour is exposed to a 
heavy swell, which sets in during the prevalence of the north 
winds ; but a breakwater has been erected as a protection 
against the sea. Fifty years ago Falmouth was an incon- 
siderable village, but it is now nearly as large and populous 
as Montego Bay, and carries on a considerable commerce. 

The population of Jamaica appears to be less than 
400,000 souls ; but it cannot be exactly ascertained, as no 
complete census has ever been taken. In 1834 there were 
297,186 negro slaves, all of whom have been made free in 
this present year (1838), by separate acts of the legislatures 
of Great Britain and of Jamaica. 

The Maroons were originally runaway slaves, partly from 
Jamaica itself^ partly from Cuba, who lived in the forests 
on the northern side of the island. In 1738 a tract of land 
was granted to them in those parts, which they cultivated 
and on which they built two small towns, and though a por- 



tion of them forfeited their'privileges by a rebellion, others 
have preserve-! them to this day. The other inhabitant<« 
are either whites or people of colour. The whites are either 
natives of Great Britain or descendants of Europeans, and 
probably amount to about 30,000 individuals. The people of 
colour, of whom there are perhaps 40.000, are theoffspriD;^ 
of Europeans and negro women. They are subdivided into 
miUattoes, the offspring of a white and a black ; 8ambof%, 
the offspring of a black and a mulatto ; quadroons, the ofl- 
spring of a white and a mulatto ; and mestees, the offspring 
of a white and a quadroon. No traces of the native popula- 
tion of the island existed when it was taken by the Engli^li 
from the Spaniards. 

The people are occupied either in agriculture or in trade. 
The following tables snow the share which every town hk^ 
in the trade of the island, and the imports and exports, ai.i 
their value in sterling money for the year 1834. 



1. Numbei 


', Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels which entered into the Harbours of Jamaica in 


1834. 






i 


Great Bxitaixi. 


British ColoDieB. 


1 


[Jnited Stotes 


a 


Foreigu Slates. 




TotaL 


Fortf. 






























No. 
109 


Toas. 


Men. 

■ ■ 


No. 
81 


Toiu. 


Men. 

• • 


Na 
82 


Tool. 


Men. 

• • 


No. 
145 


Tons. 


Men. 

a • 


No. 

417 


Toua. 


M«b. 


Kingston 


30,437 


10,480- 


13,754 


13,991 


68,662 


39S3 


Antonio 


8 


2,318 


118 


3 


337 


20 


1 


109 


7 


• a 


• . 


• • 


12 


2,764 


14:> 


Montego Bay 


26 


7,981 


• • 


24 


3,577 


• a 


25 


3,843 


• • 


31 


1,995 


• • 


106 


17,396 


1031* 


Morant Bay . 


28 


8,975 


494 


7 


1,137 


57 


2 


282 


13 


'.. 


a • 


• a 


37 


10,394 


56-1 


Annotto Bay 


17 


5,237 


• • 


• • 


■ a 


• • 


1 


129 


a a 


• • 


• a 


a ■ 


18 


5,366 


290 


Maria • . 


8 


2,453 


• ■ 


2 


562 


• • 


1 


223 


• • 


5 


193 


• • 


16 


3,431 


2ui 


St Ann's Bav 


3 


668 


56 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• ■ 


• • 


• • 


a • 


• • 


• ■ 


3 


668 


5f5 


Black River 


5 


1,633 


89 


• • 


• • 


• a 


• a 


• • 


• • 


• a 


• a 


• • 


5 


1,633 


S\* 


Falmouth • 


21 


6,901 


• • 


18 


2,225 


• • 


16 


2,230 


• a 


12 


300 


• • 


67 


11,656 


64-: 


S.Lucia • • 


11 


4,341 


• • 


• • 


• • 


• • 


4 


647 


• • 


• ■ 


a a 


• • 


15 


4,988 


263 


Savanna la 
































Mar • • 


• ■ 
236 


• • 


■ • 

• a 


■ • 
135 


• a 


• • 

• • 


3 
135 


438 


■ • 
• a 


1 
194 


125 


a • 
a • 


4 


563 


nu 


Total 


70,944 


18,318 


21,655 


16,604 


700 


127,521 


729: 



2. Number, Tonnage, and Crews of Vessels cleared at the Ports of Jamaica in 1834. 



Porta. 


Greak Britain. 


British Colonies. 


United States. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 




No. 

72 
6 
31 
21 
17 
19 
10 
27 
33 
14 

8 
258 


Tona. 


Men. 

• • 

• • 

• a 

• • 
• 

769 

• • 

• a 

• • 
a • 

■ • 

• a 


No. 


Tons. 


Men. 

a • 
a ■ 

• • 
a • 

• a 
a • 
■ a 
a a 

• a 

• a 

• • 

• • 


No. 

47 

1 

20 

1 
1 

a a 

2 

a a 

13 
4 

3 

92 


Tons. 


Men. 

* • 

■ a 

• a 

• a 

• « 
a • 
a • 
a a 

• a 

• a 

■ a 

• • 


No. 
191 

a • 

30 

1 

• a 

• a 

3 

12 

1 

a a 

244 


Tons. 


Men. 

a • 
a • 

• • 

• • 
■ • 

• • 
a a 
a a 

• a 
a . 

• • 

• • 


No. 

377 
13 

108 
27 
18 
19 
15 
28 
74 
23 

16 

718 


Tous. 


Mt-a. 


Kingston 
Antonio 
Montego Bay 
MorantBay . 
Annotto Bay 
Maria 

St. Ann's Bay 
Black River 
Falmouth 
S. Lucia . • 
Savanna la 
Mar • . 


21,184 
1,545 
9,500 
6,379 
5,237 
5,534 
2,357 
7,806 

10,462 
5,273 

2,737 


67 
6 

21 
4 

a a 

• a 

• • 

1 

16 
4 

5 

124 


8,326 
695 

2,714 
489 

• a 

• • 

104 

1,618 

699 

717 


7,544 

109 

2,785 

98 
129 

• * 
221 

1,825 

583 

477 


20,273 

3,'057 
380 

a ■ 
• a 

59 

399 
171 

• • 


57,327 
2,349 

18,056 
7,346 
5,366 
5,534 
2,637 
7,910 

14,304 
6,726 

3,931 


3.350 

i;i^ 
I6r;; 

76J 
Ui-' 
4.U 
7>o 
33i 

24- 


Total 


78,014 


15,362 


13,771 


24,339 


131,486 


7963 



The imports into Jamaica in the year 1 834 amounted to 
l,589,72o/. Some of the largest articles in amount were 
apparel and slops, beef and pork, butter, grain and flour, 
cotton articles, salted fish, glass, hardware and cutlery, 
iron, wrought and unwrought, hats, leather, linen articles, 
soap, stationery of all sorts, wine, wood and lumber, and 
woollen articles. The value of books imported was only 
3755/. The exports from Jamaica during the year 1834 
amounted to 3,148,797/. The chief articles were arrowroot, 
coffee, colonial and foreign cotton manufactures, dye and hard 
woods both of the growth of the island and imported, gin- 
ger, iron and steel manufactured articles, linens, molasses, 
pimento, sarsaparilla, spirits, rum and shrub, sugar colonial 
and foreign, tobacco unmanufactured, tortoiseshell, and wool- 
lens. 

Towards the end of the last eentury and in the beginning 
of the present Jamaica was the entrepOt of the immense 
quantity of European merchandise wluch was destined for 
consumption on the Spanish Main and the Spanish idands, 



and though at present a free intercourse between tbe^e 
countries and Europe exists, yet a considerable quantity of 
British manufactures is still sent to Jamaica, and thence U- 
Mexico, Central America, New Granada, and Venezueh. 
Dye and hard woods, indigo, and other articles are sent ii. 
return to Jamaicaa The Americans of the United Stato 
also carry on a considerable trade with this colony, which 
they furnish with lumber and provisions, taking in retuni 
rum and molasses. But by far the most important com- 
merce of Jamaica is that with the mother-countrya Tho 
time when the ships arrive ftem Great Britain is from 
October to May, and they continue to depart as thev get 
fVeighted, from April to the first day of August, after which 
day, and until the hurricane months are over, ships and 
their cargoes sailing for Great Britain pay double insurance, 
Jamaica was discovered by Christopher Columbus on hi< 
second voyage, the 3rd of May, 1494, but was not settled I v 
the Spaniards before 1510. In 1655 it was taken from the 
Spaniards by the English, who for some time did not ap- 



JAM 



78 



JAM 



goUl or silver/ A new coinage was struck, of like weight 
and fineness with the money of England; hospitals were to 
be visited and reformed ; idleness and begging were for- 
bidden ; the law records of the kingdom (which seem to 
have been in a state of neglect) were to be inspected and 
ascertained ; and the statutes of parliament were ordered, 
for the first time, to be regularly enrolled. This was not 
all however; for in the spirit of King Henry IV.*s time, 
which had witnessed some detestable examples of religious 
persecution, an act was passed anent heretics, that inquisi- 
tion be taken by every bishop in his diocese, andi 'gif it mis- 
leris,^ that secular power be called in support and aid of the 
church. In his time the chancellor and clergv first |i:ot 
a footing in the administration of the common law. This 
was in the year 1425, when the chancellor and certain per- 
sons of the three estates chosen by the kin^ were empowered, 
under the name of the Court of Session, to hear and 
finally determine all complaints, causes, and quarrels com- 
petent before the king and his counciL 

We have already alluded to the king's conduct towards 
the family and friends of tl)e regent Duke of Albany imme- 
diately on his accession to the throne. At a later period of 
his reign we have another signal instance of the kings 
eners:y and promptitude of purpose in his conduct towiud 
the Lord of the Isles. About the year 1427 the Lord of 
Isla was slain by a person of the name of Campbell, who 
had, it seems, a commission from the king to apprehend 
Kla; but, it is added, he exceeded his powers in putting 
that chieftain to death. The circumstance occasioneid great 
disturbance throughout the highlands and isles. I^ter- 
mined to restore order, and to enforce the lawsi in those 
wild districts, the king summoned a parliament at Inver- 
ness, to which the Lord of the Isles and the other highland 
chie& were cited to appear. On their arrival, to the num- 
ber of about forty, they were seized by a stratagem of the 
king, and committed to prison in separate apartments. The 
Lord of the Isles and some others were at length liberated ; 
but deeply feeling the indignity he had sufferra, the Lord of 
the Isles, immediately on his return home, gathered together 
liis friends and vassals, and at the head of a vast fiirce wasted 
all the crown lands near Inverness, and made an attempt 
also to destroy the town. Information of this inroad being 
communicated to the king* orders were instantly given to 
repair to the spot; and leading his troops in person, he suc- 
ceeded by forced marches in coming Up witn the rebels in 
Lochaber, at a time when they least expected such a thing. 
The consequence was that at length the rebels made an un- 
conditional surrender, and the Lord of the Isles was obliged 
to make his submission on his bended knees at the court of 
HohTood House. 

The king's vigour and determination were not a little 
obnoxious to the nobles, who saw in it the speedy ruin of 
their usurped authority. But it is probable that his devo- 
tion to the ecclesiastics wounded them mure* keenly than all 
the exercise of his rojal power. They felt humbled, not so 
much before the sovereign as before the clergy. A conspi- 
racy was accordingly formed against him, under the Duke 
of Athol, the king's uncle, and on the 21st February, 1437, 
the kiug was murdered, in tlie 44th year of his age. A year 
or two afterwards also his adviser Wardlaw, bishop of St. 
Andrew's, died ; and immediately on this event Bishop Ca- 
meron, Wardlaw's favourite, was turned out of the chan- 
cellorship which he had held from the institution of the Court 
ufthe Session, and Sir William Crichton, a layman, and the 
first who had held the great seal for a long period, was con- 
stituted chancellor ; the Court of Session expired, and the 
course of the old common law was re-established. 

JAMES II., King of Scotland, only son of James I., suc- 
ceeded to the crown when but about seven years old. The 
rivalry which existed between the nobles and ecclesiastics 
at his father's deatli continued ; and the one party or the 
other prevailed according as by violence or stratagem they 
obtained possession of jthe king's person. Disorder na- 
turally spread throughout the kingdom, and the power of 
individuals grew most insolent from neglect to enforce the 
laws. The Earl of Douglas in particular erected a sort of 
independent principality in the country, and forbidding his 
vassals and dependents to acknowledge any authority save his 
own, he created knights, appointed a privy-council, named 
officers, civil and military, and appeared in public with a 
snlendour and magnificence more than royal. To add to 
the calamities which the nation suffered, the country was 
visited by a plague, and there wa« aUo » great famine. The 



king was immature in mind as m yean, and altogether de 
ficient in the vigour necessary in his circumstances an*] 
situation : his partialities were also misplaced. During h.« 
whole reign the country waa disturbed by intestine broiU. 
and though continual executions and forfeitures took pla- • 
yet no regular or effectual measure was adopted to obta-*^ 
or secure peace. He was also attacked from England, ai. ) 
at the siege of Roxburgh, which was occupied by the Eng- 
lish, be was killed by t)ie bursting of a cannon near hii.i. 
This was in the year 14fi0,andin the 29th year of the king - 
age. 

JAMES III., King of Scotland, was, like his father J amrs 
n., about seven years old at his accession to the throne, 3r \ 
August, 1460. He had scarcely begun his reign when DonaM 
the Lord of the Isles, seeing the weakness of governing:: i 
and the distracted state of the kingdom, assembled a counr:! 
of his friends and vassals at his castle of Ardtomish, and u. 
the style of an independent prince granted a commission t j 
ambassadors to confer with deputies from Edward IW, 
king of England, with a view to the settlement of the realm. 
The commissioners met at Westminster, andafter anegoka* 
tion, concluded a treaty,dated at London,! 3th February, 1 4r>3, 
the object of which was no less than the con«juest of Sci>i- 
land hy the vassals of the chieftain and the auxiliaries to 1»* 
furnished by Edward, with such assistance as oould be given 
by the banished earl of Douglas. While this rebellion «as 
going on in the north, Robert lord Boyd, one of the lords <-r 
the regency, and also lord justiciar south of the Forth, an \ 
lord-chamberlain of the kingdom, was grasping in another 
part of the country at all the chief honours and places of 
government, and it would seem that the minor oflRces of 
magistrates and common-councilmen in the several burg'^ 
were also then objects of tumultuous contest; for it \i.> 
at this time the act 1469, o. 29, was passed, by which tl.e 
entire system of burgh election was changed, on the pre- 
tence of such confusion. This act was the foundation of the 
close system, which was only remedied by the late Bur<:K 
Reform Act for Scotland. The same year the act \a(*'.\ 
c 30> was passed, subjecting all notaries to the etaminati >n 
and authority of the Ordinary. Tins act was passed :-> 
please the clergy, who had the ear of the king. The lotttr 
indeed appears to have been the known slave of his eccle- 
siastics, and Sir James Balfour iAnnc^ qf Scotland, ai). 
1481), records a trick played off upon him by King £ i> 
ward IV. of England, who trimmed up a person in v i* 
habit of a papal legate, and sent him to James with injunc- 
tions and excommunicaiions in the nkme of his HoIiue>.s 
The imposition succeeded completely. The king took ny 
also with low favourites, and on their account involved him- 
self in a quarrel with his nobles, which ended in tlie ci- 
counter at Bannockbum. The king fled in fright from Hm 
field, and (idling from his horse was karled into a milIor\ 
cottage, where, on being discovered, he was secretly kiUfl 
and carried off, nobody knew where (Pitscottie, 220). Tlie 
king's death took place in June, 1488, in the 35th year ot 
his age. 

JAMES IV., King of Scothmd, son of James III., v^s 
about fifteen years old at his accession to the throne, whirh 
took place on the llth June, 1488. He was of an active 
disposition, full of life and vigour ; and in his time the com- 
merce and literature of the country flourished under ht& 
encouragement But though he possessed not a few of tt.o 
elements of a great mind, he unfortunately became the 
slave of superstition, and thence in his puUic conduct a 
meer tool in the hands of his clergy. 

In 1494, having fiillen into a state of melancholy on thit 
reflection that he had countenanced the rebellion in whicli 
his father perished, he received a legate from the pope, aii<!. 
in obedience to him, bound about his waist an itrm belL t • 
be worn in penance, day and night, for the remainder of li> 
life. Sometime after this his <]ueen fell sick, and'immeili- 
ately thereupon he made a pilgrimage to St. NinianV ui 
Galloway, on foot, for her recovery, and she having af\t"- 
wards recovered, they both went t&itber in pilgrimage li.e 
same year. That year also he went to St Dutlun's in Ru^^ 
— ^which was to the extreme north of the kingdom, as the 
other shrine was at the extreme south; and we cannot hesi- 
tate to think it was at the desire of the ecclesiastics that h • 
made those repeated progresses to the highlands and isles in 
which we find him engaged, with the ostensible purpose c.f 
quieting that part of the realm, but in fiact to remove him 
from tlie seat of authority and flK)vemment In the mean- 
time the clengy were not idle. In the aboveyear, 1494, the 



JAM 



80 



JAM 



the kingdom, ttnd soon after died in France, and James 
himself rema&ned a captive in the hands of the conspirators, 
whose prcRceedings immediately received the full approval 
x>f a convention of the estates. They had also the active 
thou^ unavowed support of Queen Elizaheth, who in the 
t)vertnrow of the government of Morton and the ascen- 
dancy of Lennox and Arran had seen her whole policy with 
regard to the northern kingdom thwarted. On the other 
hand Henry III. of France interposed his influence, though 
imsuecessfuUy, to rescue the Scottish king fh)m the thral- 
dom in which he was now kept. 

James remained in a state of restraint amounting almost 
to actual imprisonment for ahout ten months. At last, on 
the 27th of June, 1583, having heen permitted to go ^m 
Falkland to St. Andrew's, he contrived, with the assistance 
of some friends, with whom he had arranged his plans, to 
throw himself into the castle there, and to maintain his 
position till the faction of his enemies, finding themselves 
outnumhered hy those who flocked from all parts to his 
assistance, threw down their arms and gave up the contest 
One of the king's first acts after he recovered his lihcrty 
was to release and recal to court the infamous Arran, and 
a^in to commit the management of affairs to that luckless 
minion, whose government speedily became as harsh and 
arbitrary as ever. James in the first instance had evinced 
a disposition to follow a moderate and conciliatory course 
with the faction lately at the head of affairs ; he had even 
visited the earl of Gowrie at Ruthven Castle and granted 
him a f^U pardon ; but under the influence of Arran he 
soon changed his conduct. An act was obtained from the 
convention of estates declaring all those who had been con- 
cerned in the Raid of Ruthven guilty of high treason : most 
of them made their escape to England ; but Gowrie, who 
relying on his pardon had made his submission, was seized, 
thrown into prison, tried, condemned, and sent to the block. 
Seeing the power of that party thus to all appearance 
broken for ever, Elizabeth now applied herself to form an 
alliance with Arran, who readily undertook that the govern- 
ment of Scotland should be conducted in conformity with 
the wishes of the English queen, and by his unbounded 
influence over his royal master was easily able to perform 
that engagement. James was induced, among other acts 
of subser>iency, to write to his mother in such unduti- 
ful and unfeeling terms as to make Mary, in the bitterness 
of her resentment, threaten to leave him the load of a 
parent's curse. Soon after this, 29th July, 1 585, a treaty 
of intimate alliance was concluded between Elizabeth and 
the Scottish king, and an annual pension of 5000/. was 
settled by the former upon the latter. A chief manager 
in these transactions had been a new court favourite 
of Jameses, the eldest son of the Lord Gray, styled the 
Master of Gray, an individual formed by nature and educa- 
tion for intrigue and treachery. With the view, it is sup- 
posed, of removing a formidable rival, Arran had caused 
Gray to be sent as ambassador to the English court, where 
the unprincipled politician appears to have been imme- 
diately gained over by Elizabeth, and engaged by her to act 
his part in forwarding her various schemes of policy with 
regard to Scottish affairs. One of the first uses which Eliza- 
beth made of this new instrument was to effect the over- 
throw of Arran, on whose unsteadiness and caprice she felt 
that she never could place any sure reliance. With her 
connivance, the lords who bad been banished on account 
of the Raid of Ruthven entered Scotland at the head of a 
force of J 0,000 men, in the end of October, 1585, and ad- 
vancing to Stirling, where the king and Arran were, in- 
vested the castle, on which Arran took to flight, and the 
king was compelled to negotiate with them upon their own 
terms. All their past offences were pardoned ; the princi- 
pal forts of the kingdom were put into their hands ; and, a 
parliament having been called, Arran and his late associates 
were all dismissed from power, he himself being besides 
stripped of his titles and estates — the latter, chiefly the con- 
fisH^atefl property of those whose moment of retaliation was 
now come. The new settlement of the government was 
followed by the conclusion, 8th July, 1586, of another 
treaty with England, by which the two kingdoms bound 
themselves in a league offensive and defensive against all 
foreign powers who should invade the territories or attempt 
to disturb the reformed religious establishment of either. 

In October of the same year James's mother, the unfor- 
tunate Mary, after her imprisonment of nearly twenty 
years, was at last brought to trial, and on the 8th of Febru- 



ary following she was put to death. Between Lor oonden- 
nation and her execution James had made conaiderabU 
exertions to save her ; in addition to solicitations air 
remonstrances, he took steps to obtain the aid of France 
Spain, and other foreign courts in support of his demand « 
but his ambassador to the English court, the infamoL- 
Master of Gray, is said to have betrayed his trust, so far - 
actually to be the most urgent instigator of the execute 
often reminding Elizabeth and her ministers that the du. 
cannot bite, and undertaking that no unpleasant cuu»- 
quences should follow from any momentary resentmv 
which James might show. In point of fact, the Scot;.< 
king was very soon pacified ; he blustered at first uii'i 
the sting of the insult that had been offered him ; 1 l 
reflecting that by any violent course he should put in haz^: 
both his pension and his chance of the Enelisn succe:»&r' 
he prudently allowed himself to be soothed by Elizabcti . 
hollow excuses, and continued on the same terms of frier 
ship with her as before. Gray was indeed, on the discoven 
the part he had acted, disgraced and dismissed firom cou: 
The next year James signalized his zeal in the service 
his English patroness by firmly r^ecting all the overtu.^ 
of the king of Spain and the other Catholic powers to ^'. 
duce him to join them, and by co-operating zealously wr: 
Elizabeth in her preparations for repelling the attack 
the Armada. 

In 1 589, James was married to the princess Anne, ti- 

second daughter of Frederick II., king of Denmark. He pr 

ceeded in person to Upslo in Norway, to which place bis br>. 

after having put to sea, had been driven back by a storm, &- 

there the marriage was solemnized on the 24th of Novtz 

her. James did not return to Scotland till the 20th 

May, 1590. The character of Queen Anne, who snrviu 

to 1st March, 1619, is depicted in the scandalous cbr- 

nicies of the time in not very creditable colours ; she 

represented as an eager and restless intriguer, both . 

politics and in gallantry ; on the other hand however, Ar. 

bishop Abbot, who knew her well, and who was not lik* 

to regard with indulgence simie of the fiiults she is cbar^': 

with, speaks of her memory with great respect She see^ 

to have been a person of greater energy and decision il. 

her husband, over whom she exerted considerable influenx 

notwithstanding his constant doting fondness for one m^ 

favourite after another. The first memorable event ti 

occurred in Scotland after the king*s return was a daring a 

tempt made by his relation, Francis Stuart, lately creair 

earl of Bothwell, a grandson of James V. by his son Job 

prior of Coldingham. He had been committed to prison • 

the absurd charge, made bv some unhappy persons appr. 

bended and tortured as witcnes, that he had employed ibi 

art to raise the storms by which the life of the queen had bt- 

endangered on her first attempted voyage to Scotland, ar 

the king had afterwards been so long detained in Denmar* 

Upon effecting his enlargement, he collected a force of r * 

retainers, and on the night of the 27th December. U.'* 

entered the palace of Holyrood-House, with the desir. 

as he pratended, of expelling the chancellor Maitla* 

from the king*s council, but apparently with still iiio: 

daring intentions. The alarm was given after he had ? . 

fire to several of the apartments and had nearly mav 

his way to where the king was; he succeeded howe\er / 

making his escape, and fled to the north. The earl 

Huntly having been sent in punuit of him, took that oppi. r 

tunity of falling upon his private enemy the yonng Earl 

Murray (son-in-law and heir of the late regent), and sla} iti: 

him, after burning his house to the ground ; an atnx-c 

which excited the deepest popular indignation at the thw 

and is celebrated in Scottish song. Bothwell and all ! :- 

adherents were soon after attainted in parliament; Ij; 

this did not put an end either to his audacious proceed ir .> 

or to the treasonable attempts of other parties. In the 1 .'- 

ginning of 1593 a new conspiracy of Huntly and the othti 

heads of the popish faction was detected for bringint* ^ 

Spanish force mto the kingdom, with the object of rc^esu* 

blishing poperv and invading England; and a few montS 

later, Bothwell, after having failed in another attempt :> 

seize the royal person at Falkland, having associated him>cL' 

with the remaining adherents or connexions of the h^ 

favourites Lennox and Arran, suddenly returned fr.-:! 

England, where he had been protected by Elizabeth, ui i 

on the 24th of July, 1593, entered the palace with a bai.i 

of armed followers, and made the king his prisoner. Jam^ 

was obliged both to grant a full pardon to the traitor and :§ 



JAM 



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thereTerseof tbatof his contemptible father. A rumour 
arose at the time, and has been preserved by some contem- 
porary writers of a violent party spirit, that the prince had 
Deen carried off by poison, and not without the privacy and 
consent of the king ; but this accusation, too monstrous to 
be admitted without the strongest evidence, rests upon 
neither proof nor probability of any kind. The death of 
Prince Henry was foUpwed, 14th February, 1613, by the 
marriage of James's daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, with 
Frederick the Elector Palatine, an alliance which was at- 
tended with important results both in that age and in the next 

The ruling favourite whom James had brought with him 
from Scotland was Sir George Hume — whom in 1604 he 
created Lord Hume in the English peerage, and in 1608 
earl of Dunbar in that of Scotland — a man of integrity, as 
well as of superior talent. The king's silly and mutable 
fondness however was in course of time transferred to other 
objects — ^to Philip Herbert, the second son of the earl of 
Pembroke, whom he made earl of Montgomery in 1605, 
and who many years after succeeded his elder brother as 
earl of Pembroke ; and to another Scotchman, Sir James 
Hay, made a Scottish peer by the title of Lord Hay of 
Bewlie in 1609, and who afterwards bore successively in the 
English peerage the titles of Lord Hay of Sawley (1615), 
Viscount Doncaster (1617), and earl of Carlisle (1622), by 
which last he is best remembered. It is said to have been 
Hay who, about the beginning of the year 1610, introduced 
at court a young countryman of his own, Robert Carr, or 
more properly Ker, of a good family, but chiefly distin- 
guished by his handsome person, an advantage which never 
failed to attract the king's attention and regard. Carr was 
immediately taken into the highest favour, made a knight 
of the Bath, and the next year a peer by the title of Viscount 
Rochester. In 1613 the young and beautiful Frances 
Howard, countess of Essex, having by an infamous process^ 
in urging which the king took a part that alone ought to 
consign his memory to abhorrence, obtained a divorce from 
her husband, was married to the favourite, her previous 
profligate passion for whom is believed to have incited her 
to the proceedings by which she succeeded in dissolving 
her first marriage. The king on this occasion raised Ro- 
chester to the rank of earl of Somerset (November, 1613). 
Somerset's fall however was still more rapid than his rise 
His chief friend Sir Thomas Overbury, who had strenuously 
exerted his influence to prevent his marriage with Lady 
Essex, which he represented as the sure destruction of his 
fortunes, was first, by the contrivance of the unprincipled 
woman whom he had thus made his enemy, thrown into the 
Tower, and soon after taken off by poison administered to 
him by her means* and with the privity of her husband. 
The crime, though suspected from the first, was not fully dis- 
covered till about two years after its commission ; but in 
1615 all the parties concerned in it were brought to trial, 
and their guilt completely established. Four persons who 
had been accomplices in the murder were left to the execu- 
tioner; the two principals, the wretched Somerset and his 
wife, had their better merited punishment commuted into 
confiscation of their property, and imprisonment, from 
which they were both after some years released. Their 
condemnation of course threw down the earl from his place 
and favour at court, and he was given up with the most 
easy indifference, not unaccompanied with some touches of 
gratuitous baseness, by James, whose mind had now been 
taken possession of by a passion for a new object, another 
handsome youth, named (Jeorge Villiers, who had been re- 
cently introduced to his notice. Villiers, who, after having 
been knighted, was created successively Viscount Villiers 
(1616), earl of Buckingham (161 7), marquis of Buckingham 
(1618), and duke of Buckingham (1623), continued the first 
fkvourite and ruling minister during the remainder of the 
reign. [Buckinoham.] 

In the summer of 1617 James paid a visit to Scotland, 
and, having summoned a parliament, succeeded, though 
not without great difficulty, in obtaining the assent of that 
body, and also of the General Assembly, to such regulations 
as, along with other innovations previously made since his 
accession to the English throne, brought the Scottish church, 
in government, in ceremonies, and in its position in relation 
to the civil power, very nearly to the moael of the English. 
It was now no longer a Presbvterian, but nominally as well as 
substantially an Episcopal church. But the popular feeling 
of the country was never for a moment reconciled to these 
enforced changes. 



The year 1618 was disgraced by the execution of Sir 
Walter Raleieh, on the monstrous pretence of the sentence 
passed upon him for the conspiracy in which he had lxK?n 
involved in the first year of the kii^^ reign, but in reality a^ 
a sacrifice to the court of Spain. [Raleigh.] But the public 
indignation at James*s subserviency to that Catholic powtT 
was roused to a still higher pitch by the ^reat foreign events 
of the two following years, when, Austria assisted by Spain 
having attacked the Bohemians, who had chosen the Electut 
Palatine for their king, James not only refused to take part 
with his son-in-law and the Protestant interest on the (Con- 
tinent, of which he was thus installed as the champion, but 
even refused to acknowledge his new regal title. Frederick 
was soon driven both from his acouired and his hereditary 
dominions by the arms of the C!atholic powers confederate! 
against him, and obliged with his fkmily to take refuge in 
Holland. Staggered by this sudden catastrophe, and by th« 
vehemence with which the people expressed their rage aD«i 
grief, James now hastened to take some steps to repair the dis- 
asters which his pusillanimity and inaction had mainly oc- 
casioned. After endeavouring to raise money in the way 
of a benevolence, he found himself obliged to call together 
a parliament, the first that had been allowed to meet fur 
six years. In this parliament, memorable among other 
things for the impeachment of Bacon [Bacon, Francis]. 
the first decided stand was taken by the Commons in 
their contest with the crown by their famous protest, passed 
16th December, 1621, in reply to the king's assertion that 
their privileges were derived from the grace and concessiuD 
of his ancestors and himself, ->' That the liberties, franchises, 
and jurisdiction of parliament are the antient and ua- 
doubted birthright and inheritance of the subjects of Eng< 
land.' This resolution, which the king tore from the 
Journals with his own hand, was followed by the immediate 
prorogation and soon after by the dissolution of the {parlia- 
ment ; several of the leading members of the House uf 
Commons being at the same time sent to the Tower or to 
other prisons. 

James had for some time before this set his heart upon 
the marriage of his son Prince Charles with a Spanish 
princess : the project of that match had principally influ- 
enced him to the course he had taken in the affair of 
Bohemia, and he now hoped by the same arrangement to 
be able, ^without having recourse to arms, to recover the 
Palatinate for his son-in-law. But in both these expecta- 
tions he was disappointed. For some time the negotiations 
seemed to proceed favourably; but they were in 16*^3 
brought to an abrupt termination, apparentlv by the ra»h 
interference of Buckingham, who, after having persuaded 
Prince Charles to proceed along with him to Spain for the 
purpose of expediting the matter, disgusted and quarrelled 
with the leading personages of the Spanish court, and then 
successfully exerted his influence with James, or perhaps 
rather with the prince, to prevent the match. As the pub- 
lic clamour for the recovery of the Palatinate still continued, 
another parliament was assembled in February, 1624, v^hicb 
eagerly granted supplies for the attainment of that object 
by force of arms ; war was in conseouence declared against 
Spain, and an army under Count Mansfeldt was sent inu> 
Germany in the latter part of the vear. But this expeclition 
turned out an utter failure ; the force, reduced to half its 
numbers by a pestilential disorder before it had crossed tlie 
sea, never even entered the Palatinate ; and that principality 
remained in the hands of the Emperor, or ratner of the 
Duke of Bavaria, to whom it had been assigned, along 
with the electoral dignity, by the Imperial diet 

James's reign of nearly fifty-eight years in Scotland, an'l 
rather more than twenty -two in England, was terminated 
by his death on the 27th of March, 1625, when he was within 
three months of completing the fifty-ninth year of his ag«. 
As happened in the case of the death of almost every person 
of eminence in that and the preceding age, a rumour snnins: 
up that he had been carried off by poison ; and when Buck- 
ingham was impeached by the Commons in the beginning 
of the next reign, one of the charges brought against him 
was that the late king owed his death to some pksters and 
drinks which he had administered to him without the know- 
ledge of the physicians. In fact something of this kind 
does appear to have taken place, although Buckingham'^ 
intentions in what he did may possibly have been innocent 
enough. It was even said, in the violence of party hate. 
that Charles himself was implicated in the poisonine of his 
father; and this grossly improbable imputation bas 



JAM 



84 



JAM. 



nobleman till the 2 1 at of April, 1 648, when he made his esoape 
from St James's Palace, disguised in female attire, and took 
refiige in Holland with his sister Mary, princess of Orange. 
Here he immediately joined a part of the English fleet 
which had revolted from the parhament,and was then lying 
at Helvoetsluys ; hut although at first received on hoara 
as admiral, he soon after resigned that post to his hrother, 
the prince of Wales, on the arrival of the latter from Paris, 
and returned to the Hague. When Charles, now styled 
king by his adherents, came to Jersey, in September, 1649, 
he was accompanied by the duke, who remained with him 
during his stay of three or four months. He then 
returned to the CJontinent, and resided for some time with 
his mother at Paris. ' Never little ftimily,' says Clarendon, 
who had an interview with him at Breda in 1650, 'was torn 
into so many pieces and factions. The duke was very 
young, yet loved intrigues so well that he was too much 
inclined to hearken to any men who had the confidence to 
make bold propositions to him. The king had appointed 
him to remain with the queen, and to obey her in all things, 
religion only excepted. The Lord Byron was his governor, 
ordained to be so by his father, and very fit for that province, 
being a very fine gentleman, well bred both in France andltaly, 
and perfectly versed in both languages, of great courage and 
fidelity, and in all respects qualified for the trust ; but his being 
absent in the king's service when the duke made his escape 
out of England, and Sir John Berkley being then put about 
him, all pains had been taken to lessen his esteem of the 
Lord Byron ; and Sir John Berkley, knowine that he could 
no longer remain governor when the Lora Byron came 
thither, and hearing that he was on his journey, infused 
into the duke's mind that it was a great lessening of his 
dignity at that age (when he was not above fourteen years 
of age, and backward enough for that age) to be under a 
governor ; and so, partly by disesteeming the person, and 
partly by reproaching the office, he grew less inclined to 
the person of that good lord than he should have been.* 
{Life, i. 284, edit, of 1827.) Shortly before his meeting 
with Clarendon it had been reported that Charles, then in 
Scotland, was dead ; upon which the duke, looking upon 
himself as almost already king, had set bis mother's autho- 
rity at defiance, and left Paris for Brussels, with the view 
of taking counsel, as to what he ought to do, with the duke 
of Lorraine. When the falsehood of the intelligence about 
Charles was discovered, he and the advisers by whom he was 
attended resolved upon going to the Hague ; ' and when 
they had wearied all people there,' says Clarendon, ' they 
came to Breda, where the chancellor had met them. The 
duke himself was so young that he was rather delighted 
with the journeys he had made than sensible that he had 
not entered upon them with reason enough ; and they had 
fortified him with a firm resolution never to acknowledfe 
that he had committed any error,' (Ibid, p. 290.) In the 
end he found himself obliged to return to his mother at 
Paris ; and here he chiefly resided till he attained his twen- 
tieth year, when he received a command in the French 
army, and served for some time under Marshal Turenne. 
The peace concluded with Cromwell however in October, 
1655, comneUed him, with his elder brother, to quit France ; 
upon whicn, on the invitation of Don John of Austria, the 
governor of the Low Countries, he retired thither, and 
entered the Spanish service. Both he and his brother the 
duke of Gloucester fought on the Spanish side at the siege 
of Dunkirk, which surrendered to the French in June, 
1658. 

At the Restoration (May, 1660) the duke of York re- 
turned to Eneland with the king, and was immediately 
made lord-high-admiral and lord-warden of the Cinque 
Ports. The course of his conduct for the next twenty-five 
years forms an important part of the public history of his 
bi other's reign, and only the leading incidents can be 
shortly noticed here. In September, 1660, he married 
Anne, the eldest daughter of the Chancellor Hyde (after- 
wards earl of Clarendon), to whom it was affirmed that he 
had been married, or at least contracted, at Breda about a 
year before. The lady was at any rate far gone with child 
when the present marriage took place, and produced a son 
in about six weeks, a circumstance which makes her father's 
professed ignorance and want of suspicion as to the whole 
affair the more extraordinary. For some curious details 
touching his behaviuur when the matter was first commu- 
nicated to him by the king, his ' Life,' written by himself, 
may be consulted. It is asserted by Burnet that the duke 



endeavoured to avoid the marriage, and that ' he thought 
to have shaken her from claiming it by great promises and 
as great threatenings ; but she was a woman of great spirit, 
and would have it known that she was so, let him use her 
afterwards as he pleased.' This is altogether opposed to 
her father's account, according to whom the duke petitioned 
the king to give his consent to the marriage with a ' passion 
which was expressed in a very wonderful manner, and with 
many tears, protesting that if his majesty would not give 
his consent he would immediately leave the kingdom, and 
must spend his life in foreign parts.' But the delay of the 
step till so near the last moment does not look much Uke 
impatience on the duke's side, and rather gives ground ibr 
suspecting that there was some reluctance which it required 
great exertions to overcome. 

The duke of York took an eager part in promoting the war 
with Holland, which broke out in the close of 1664, and as 
lord-high-admiral he assumed the command of the fleet which 
was fitted out, and which put to sea even before any declaration 
of hostilities. The motive that has been sometimes assigned 
for the conduct of both the brothers on this occasion is their 
wish to crush the Dutch as a Protestant people, and to dis- 
able them from interfering to prevent the re-establishment 
of popery in England. On the 3rd of June, 1665, the duke 
gained a great victory off Harwich over the Dutch fleet com- 
manded by Admiral Opdam, who was killed, and nineteen of 
whose ships were taken or sunk, with the loss of only one od 
the part of the English. The death of the duchess of York 
took place in the thirty-fourth year of her age, on the 3Ut 
of March, 1671, hastened, as is supposed, bv the neglect, if 
not the positive ill-usage, of her husbano, who, notwith- 
standing nis professions of zeal for religion, indulged him- 
self in a fair share of the reigning licentiousness, and kept 
a mistress almost from the date of his marriase. A fev 
months before her death the duchess had signed a declara- 
tion of her reconciliation to the antient religion ; and im- 
mediately after that event the duke also publicly avowed his 
conversion to popery, an act which, although his concealed 
inclinations had been long suspected, did not fail to create 
a great sensation, especially as, from his brother's want of 
issue, he was now looked upon as Charles's probable suc- 
cessor on the throne. 

When war was anew declared against Holland, in March, 
1672, the Duke of York again took the chief command it 
sea. The most remarkable event of this contest was the 
action fought 28th May, 1672, in Solebay, off the coast of 
Suffolk, between the combined Enjglish and French fleets 
under the duke and Count D'Estrees, and the Dutch fleet 
commanded by De Ruyter, who attacked the allies with a 
very inferior force, and was not driven off till the engage- 
ment had lasted the whole day, and the English fleet had 
been so shattered as to be disabled from pursuing him. 
The French are accused of having taken little part in the 
affair ; the object of their government, it is conjectured, 
having been to allow the English and Dutch to destroy euch 
other. On the passing, in the beginning of the following 
year, of the Test Act, which required all officers, civil and 
military, to receive the sacrament according to the usage of 
the Established Church, the duke necessarily resigned both 
the command of the fleet, in which he was succeeded by 
Prince Rupert, and the office of lord-high-admiral, which 
however was assigned to a board of commissioners consist- 
ing of his friends and dependants, so that he still remained 
substantially at the head of the naval affairs of the country. 
On the 21st of November, 1673, he married Mary Beatrix 
Eleanora, daughter of Alphonso IV., duke of Modena, a 
lady then only in her fifteenth year. Before concluding 
this union he had paid his addresses to Susan, Lady Bo- 
lasye, daughter of Sir William Armine, Bart, and widow of 
Sir William Belasye, the son of Lord Belasye; but that 
affair was broken off, partly by the obstinate Protestantism 
of the lady, partly by the interference of her father, who 
gave the king information of what was projected, when 
Charles sent for his brother and told him that having played 
the fool in making an unequal marriage once already, he 
ought to be satisfied without repeating the same thing in 
his advanced age. The lady was induced, partly by pro* 
mises, partly by threats, to relinquish the claim she had. 
founded upon a written promise of marriage, and by way of 
compensation was, 25th March, 1674, created Baroues$ 
Belasye for life. She survived till 1713. On the 4th ^f 
November, 1677, the Duke's daughter Mary, then in htr 
sixteenth year, was, greatly to the public satisfaction, tnar- 



JAM 



86 



J A ML 



Monmottthv whose landing did not take place till the llth 
of Uiat month, hj which time Argyle was all but an unat- 
tended fugitive, was, after having met in the first instance 
with a vauotk greater promise of success than his confederate 
in the north had experienced, defeated, 5th July, in the 
decisive battle of.Sedgemoor,and being two days after found 
concealed in a ditch, was brought to I^ondon, and delivered 
to the executioner on the 15th of the same month. His 
uncle obdurately refused to grant him either his life or 
even the briefest respite. The suppression of Monmouth's 
insurrection was followed by the savage miUtary vengeance 
of Colonel Kirke, and the more revolting enormities of the 
western ' campaign,* as it was jocularly called by the king, 
of chief-justice Jeffreys. Between the two the south- 
western counties were strewed with the carcasses and the 
dismembered limbs of human beings, women as well as 
men, butchered by the sword or the axe. 

When the parliament re-assembled in November, the 
king told them that in the late crisis he had employed a 
great many CSatholic officers, and that he had. in their favour, 
by his own authority dispensed with the legal test of con- 
formity to the Establishea Church to be taken by every per- 
son appointed to any public office. This was too much to 
be borne without some expressions of dissatisfaction and 
alarm ; but the resistance of the House of Commons was 
exceedingly timid and feeble. A very respectful and sub- 
missive liddress having been answered by the king with 
great arrogance and violence, nothing further was done in 
the matter ; the supplies were at once voted ; and one of 
the members, who had ventured to observe, when the king's 
answer was read, that he hoped they were all Englishmen 
and not to be frightened by a few hard words, was even 
sent by a vote to the Tower for his audacity. In the Lords 
a more formidable opposition seemed to be threatened, to 
get rid of which the parliament was prorogued after it had 
sat for little more than a week. One of the acts of this 
parliament was to extinguish completely the liberty of the 
press by the revival of an act originally passed for two years 
in 1662 (the 13 and 14 Car. II., c. 33), and afterwards ex- 
tended for seven in 1664 (by the 16 Ckir. II., c. 8); a most 
important piece of legislation, which yet, as Mr. Fox 
remarks, has been scarcely noticed by any historian. 

James's persevering attempts however to establish the 
disnensing power, which in the particular instance he chose 
to oegin with was an attack upon the established religion 
as well as upon the law, eventually involved him in a dis- 
pute with the Church, which was productive of the most 
important consequences. In the beginning of April, 1687, 
he published a declaration at once suspending and dispens- 
ing with all the penal laws against Dissenters, and all tests, 
including even the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, 
directed to be taken by persons appointed to offices civil or 
military. In Ireland all places of power under the crown 
were immediately put into the hands of Catholics. The 
earl of Castlemaine was at the same time publicly sent as 
ambassador extraordinary to Rome, to express the king's 
obeisance to the pope, and to effect the reconcilement of the 
kingdom with the holy see. In return tho pope sent a 
nuncio to England, who resided openly in London during 
the remainder of the reign, and was solemnly received at 
court, in face of the act of parliament declaring any com- 
munication with the pope to be high treason. Four Catho- 
lic bishops were consecrated in the king's chapel, and sent 
to exercise the episcopal function each in his particular 
diocese. Even in Scotland and England, as well as in Ire- 
land, offices of all kinds, both in the army and in the state, 
were now filled with CJatholics ; even those of the ministers 
and others who had shown themselves disposed to go far- 
thest along with the king were dismissed, or visibly lost his 
favour, if they reflised to conform to the antient religion. 
An attempt had already been made to compel the university 
of Cambridge to confer a decree of Master of Arts on a 
Benedictine monk. This was not persevered in ; but soon 
after a vacancy having happened in the presidency of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, the vice-president and fel- 
lows were ordered by royal mandate to fill it up by the 
election of a person named Farmer, a late convert to popery 
(for whom was afterwards substituted Parker, bishop of 
Oxford, who avowed himself a Catholic at heart), and on 
their refusal were cited before an ecclesiastical commission, 
and expelled. On the 27 th of April, 1688, the king published 
a second declaration of indulgence to dissenters from the Es- 
tablished church, and commanded it to be read by the clergy 



immediately after divine service in all the churches. On thii 
Sancroft, archbishop of CSanterbury, and six bishops, Lloyd of 
St. Asaph, Ken of Bath and Wells, Turner of Ely, Like 
of Chicnester, White of Peterborough, and Trelawny uf 
Bristol, met in the archbishop's palace at Lambeth, l8tli 
May, and drew up a petition to the king, representing the:: 
aversion to obey the order, for manv reasons, and especiall) 
because the declaration was foundea upon such a dispenbiog 
power as parliament had often declared illegal* lot tU 
they were all, on the 8th of June, sent to the Tower, an*! 
afterwards, on the 29th, brought to trial before the (}oun 
of King's Bench, on the charge of publishing a faU, 
fictitious, malicious, pernicious, and seditious libel, whvu 
a verdict of Not Guiltv was pronounced bv the jury, whic: 
was received with acclamations by the whole kingdom a 
a great national deliverance. This defeat however iii 
no degree checked at the moment the infatuated king. 
To quote the summary of Hume, * He struck out two of the 
judges, Powel and Hollo way, who had appeared to favour 
the DLshops ; he issued orders to prosecute all those clerp 
men who had not read his declaration, that is, the wboli 
Church of England, two hundred excepted ; he sent i 
mandate to the new Fellows whom he nad obtruded u 
Magdalen College to elect for president, in the room of 
Parker lately deceased, one Gifford, a Doctor of the Sur- 
bonne, and titular bishop of Madaura : and he is even said 
to have nominated the same person to the see of Oxford.' It 
was in the midst of this great contest with the Church and 
the nation that, on the 10th of June, a son was annouuet^ 
to have been born to James, a piece of intelligence whicii 
was very generally received with a strong suspicion that th> 
child was supposititious, and that the queen had never been 
delivered or pregnant at alL For this notion however it a 
now generally admitted that there was no good ground. 

James's son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, had not bees 
an unobservant spectator of what was passing in £ng 
land ; and to him the hopes of the English people werenuv 
very generaU/ turned. The heads of the several partlti 
in the state, though probably with no great definiteness oi 
complete union of views, joined in applying to him fir 
his assistance to save the public liberties ; and he at la^: 
made up his mind to comply with their solicitations. Hav- 
ing set sail with a fleet of about fifty men-of-war and 30<i 
transports, having on board a land force of about 14,000 men, 
he landed, on the 5th of November, at Torbay in Devon- 
shire. Before the end of that month James found himi^lf 
nearly deserted by every body ; all were gone over to the prince, 
the people, the gentry, the nobilitv, the army, his immediate 
servants and firiends, even his children. In the night of tbe 
12th December, having previously sent over the queen aud 
the young prince to France, he embarked with a single 
attendant in a boat at Whitehall Stairs, with the uitentioo 
of proceeding to the same country, but was driven backby 
contrary winos, and forced the next day to land at Feven* 
bam, from which he returned on the 16th to Whiteball. 
The next day the prince, having arrived with his army io 
London, desired James to leave the palace, on which be 
proceeded to Rochester, and on the 23rd embarked from 
that port on board a frigate, in which he was conveyed to 
Ambfeteuse in Britanny. Hence he repaired to St Ger- 
main's, where Louis XIV. received him with great kind- 
ness, gave him the castle of St. Germain's for his resideiue, 
and settled on him a revenue sujfficient to support tbe 
expenses of his small court. 

Meanwhile the English crown was settled upon the prina' 
and princess of Orange as King William III. and Queen Mary- 
[William III. and Mary.] In the beginning of Marcli in 
the following year James, having sailed from Brest, landi-d 
at Kinsale, and thence immediately marched to Dublin, 
with a small force with which he had been supplied by ibo 
French king. A few weeks after he laid siege to London- 
derry, which however he was not able to reduce, althou|;i> 
his forces continued to encompass it for three months bcfoie 
it was relieved. He himself, returning to Dublin, held a par 
liament, and for some time continued to exercise the rights 
of sovereignty in that capital ; but after various mihtary 
operations, the detail of which belongs properlv to the hi- 
tory of the next reign, his cause was finally ruined by the 
signal defeat which he received fh)m King William in per 
son at the battle of the Boyne, fought 1st July, 16»i'- 
[BoYNK.] He soon after returned to France, and continued 
to reside at St. Germain's till his death, (ith Septeuber» 
1701, in the 68th year of his age. 



JAN 



88 



JAN 



crease tbe number of such and similar institutions. As to 
the commerce of Rio, see Brazil, vol. v., p 268. 

(Cazal, Corografia Brasilica; Henderson^s Hutory of 
Brazil ; Travels in Brazil qf Spix and Martius ; Cald- 
clcugb; On the Geolo^ of Rio de Janeiro, in Geolog. 
Tram,, 2nd series, vol. li.) 

JANI'RA. [IsopoDA, p. 55.] Tbe word is also employed 
by Oken to designate a genus of Acalephans apparently 
nearly allied to the Callianireg, 

JANIZARIES is tbe name of a Turkisb militia once 
formidable but now extinct. Tbe origin of this body dates 
from the reign of Amurath, or Murad I., who, after having 
overrun Albania, Bosnia, Servia, and Bulgaria, claimed the 
llfYh part of the captives, from among whom be chose the 
young and able-bodied, and had them educated in the Mo- 
hammedan religion, and for the military profession. These 
recruits, being duly disciplined, were formed into a distinct 
body of infantry, divided into ortas, or battalions, and they 
were consecrated and blessed by a celebrated dervish called 
Hadji Boktash, who gave them the nome of Yeni Cheri, or 
' New Soldiers.' They soon became tbe terror of the 
enemies of the Ottomans : being completely weaned from 
their friends and homes, they were enthusiastically devoted 
to tbe sultan as their common lather ; and a strict disci- 
pline, regular pay, and constant serx'ice gave them habits 
of order and obedience far superior to the irregular bodies 
which formed at tbe time the armies of the princes of 
Christendom. After the death of Solyman the Magnificent, 
and tbe general thougb gradual decay of tbe Ottoman 
warlike spirit, when the sultans no longer took the field in 
person, the Janizary body was no longer recruited exclu- 
sively from choice and young captives, but by enrolments of 
Osmanlees, who, being born and bred in (he faith of Islam, 
bad not the zeal of proselytes, and were lesides connected 
by ties of consanguinity and friendship with the body of 
the people around them, and not exdusively devoted to the 
will of tlie sultan. In 1680 Mohammed IV. abolished tbe 
law by which tbe Christian rayahs, or subjects of the Porte, 
were obliged to give a portion of their children to tbe 
sultan to be educated in the Mohammedan faith and en- 
rolled into tbe militia. By tbe original laws of their body 
the Janizaries could not marry, but by degrees the prohi- 
bition was evaded, anrl at last totally disregarded. Their 
children's names were then inscribed on the rolls of their 
respective ortas ; and their relations and friends, men often 
unfit for any warlike ser^'ice, obtained a similar honour, 
which gave them certain privileges and protection from the 
capricious oppression of their rulers. In this manner a 
crowd of menials, low artisans, and vagabonds, came to be 
included in the body of Janizaries ; even rayahs and Jews 
purchased for money the same privilege ; but all this motley 
crew lived out of the barracks, where only a few in time 
of peace were present at the appointed hours for receiving 
their soups or rations. Military exercises were abandoned ; 
tbe Janizaries merely furnished a few guards and patroles 
for the city, many of them being only armed with sticks ; 
and they never assembled as a body except on pay-day, 
when they defiled two by two before their nazirs, or in- 
spectors. Still they were formidable to the government 
from their numbers, which were scattered aa over the 
empire, and their influence and connexions with the mob 
of the capital. They repeatedly mutinied against the 
sultans, and obliged them to change their ministers, or 
even deposed tbem. In our own days they dethroned 
Sclim ; and in tbe beginning of the reign of the present 
Sultan Mahmood they broke out into a dreadful insurrec- 
tion which lasted three days, and in which the Vizir Mus- 
tapha Bairactar lost his life. In both instances they were 
impelled by their hatred of the Nizam Djedid, or new troops, 
disciplined after the European fashion. At last Mahmood 
resolved to put down the Janizaries; and having for 
several years matured his plan with the advice of his 
favorite Halet Eifendi, and gained over their aga and others 
of their principal officers, he issued an order that every orta 
or division should furnish 1 50 men to be drilled according 
to the European tactics. This, as he had foreseen, led to 
a revolt ; the Janizaries assembled in the square of the 
Etmaidan, reversed their soup-kettles according to their 
custom in such cases, and, mvoking the name of their 
tutelat saint Hadji Bektash, they began by attacking and 
plundering tbe houses of their enemies. But tbe body of 
topjis, or cannoniers, the bostandjis, or guards of the serag- 
lio, and the galiondjis, or marines, were prepared ; the sultan, 



mufti, §nd the ulemas, assembled in tbe mosque-of Achimt, 
pronounced a curse and a sentence of eternal dissolution 
on the bodv of the Janizaries; the sandjak shereef. u: 
sacred stanaard, was unfurled, and a general attack on ih<r 
Janizaries began, who, cooped up in the narrow 8trec't\ 
were mowed down by grape-shot, ttnd the rest were cis- 
patched by the muskets and the yataghans of their enemit . 
or burned in their barracks. About 25,000 Janizaric? »re 
said to have been engaged in the actual revolt, and most • f 
them perished : the others concealed themselves or w^tj 
exiled into Asia. This carnage took place in June, i^.s 
and from that time the Janizaries as a body have cea:Mr: 
to exist Macfarlane, in his ' Constantinople in is. '8/ 
gives a vivid account of that catastrophe. 

JANSENISTS, a sect which appeared in the Ronrr. 
Catholic church about tbe middle of the seven teen 1 1. 
century. They professed not to attack tbe dogmas be: 
only the discipline of that church, which however stigma- 
tized them as heretical in some of their tenets. They tock 
their name from Janssen, or Jansenius, bishop of Ypres in 
the Netherlands, who published a book entitled * Au?ui- 
tinus,* in which he supported, by means of passages fnim 
the writings of St. Augustine, certain principles ooncemir g 
the nature and cfiicacy of divine grace wnich appear t< 
partake greatly of Calvin's doctrine of predestination. Th > 
Question of grace and predestination had already been 
aiscussed in the church at various times, and had proved 
a stumbling-block to many theologians. Michael Baius, pr^ 
fessor at Louvain, had been condemned in 1567 by a PafN.^ 
bull, and obliged to disown seventy-six propositions take-u 
from his writings, chieflv concerning that abstruse suUjtnn. 
Jansenius however died quietly at Ypres in 1638, and i: 
was not till several years after his death that some Je^u.t 
theologians, on examining his book, discovered in it the 
following five propositions, which they denounced as Le 
retical:^!. That there are certain commandments of Goi i 
which even righteous men, however desirous, find it im- 
possible to obey, because they have not yet received a suffi- 
cient measure of grace to render obedience possible. 2. Th^: 
nobody can resist the influence of inward grace. 3. In our 
Allien state of nature it is not required, in order that we hi 
accounted responsible beings, that we should be free fn^u 
the internal necessity of acting, provided we are free fn.>L: 
external constraint. 4. Tbe Semi-Pelagians were hereiK*'^ 
in maintaining that the human will has the choice of re- 
sisting or obeying the internal grace. 5. That to maintain 
that Christ died for all men, and not solely for those ^l^ 
are predestinated, is Semi-Pelagianism. 

After much controversy, these five propositions were con- 
demned by ahull of Pope Innocent A., m the year 1634. 
as impious and blasphemous, and the bull was received h} 
the French prelates, and promulgated throughout Francv 
with the king's consent Several learned men, who dislikiti 
the Jesuits and their latitudinarian system of ethics, wrote 
not to defend the five propositions, but to prove that tbcv.- 
propositions did not exist in the book of Jansenius, at \v^: 
not in the sense for which they were condemned. Tb. 
Jesuits again appealed to the pope, and a curious question 
arose for the pope, which was, to determine the exar: 
meaning of an author who was dead. Alexander Vll. 
however, by a new bull, in 1656, again condemned Jan- 
senius's book as containing the five propositions in tbe 
sense ascribed to them by tbe former bull. Arnauld nno 
other learned men of Port-Royal persisted in denying thi^ 
assumed meaning ; and thus they, and all those who thought 
like tbem, received the appellation of Jansenists. A f>T 
mulary was now drawn out conformable to the Papal bull, 
which all ecclesiastical persons in France were required t«> 
sign, on pain of being suspended from their functions ani 
otnces. A great many refused, and this occasioned a scbi&.ic 
in the French church, which lasted many years. ArnauM 
Pascal, Nicole, and other reputed Jansenists attacked \i- 
hemently the corruption, discipline, and morality of r.i. 
church, and the Jesuits as supporters of that relaxattoiv 
They also inculcated the necessity of menUl rather tlu»i 
outward or ceremonial devotion ; they promoted the know- 
ledge of the Scriptures among the people, and they en- 
couraged general education by numerous good works whic^» 
came from the press of Port-Royal. Meantime the co:s 
troversy with Rome continued, although Clement IX., i.'. 
1668, entered into a sort of compromise with the French 
non-subscribing clergy, and Innocent XI. behaved with 
still greater moderation towards them. But Father Ques- 



JAN 



90 



JAN 



wfen to the dnwingi of Mr. Bauer, engraved as above 
quoted. 

In the 4th vol. of the 'Journal of the Philadelphia Aca- 
demy' will be found ' Remarks on the floating apparatus 
and other peculiarities of the genus Jahthina,' by Rey- 
nell Coatee, M.D. This highly interesting paper, the re- 
sult of the author's personal observations during a voyage 
to the East Indies, establishes the correctness of Cuvier's 
remark, that no anatomical connexion exists between the 
animtds and the air-cells of their float ; but does not corro- 
borate the views of Sir Everard as to the camerated nidus 
on the shell which he saw with so much satisfaction. Dr. 
Coates placed some Janthince in a tumbler of brine, and 
having removed a portion of the float of one with scissors, 
the animal soon set to work to supply the deficiency after 
the following manner : — ^The foot was advanced upon the 
remaining vesicles, until about two-thirds of that part rose 
above the surface of the water ; it was then expanded to the 
uttermost, and thrown back upon the water, like the foot of 
a Lymncea when it begins to swim ; it was then contracted 
at the edges, and formed into the shape of a hood, enclosing 
a globule of air, which was slowly applied to the extremity 
of the float. There was now a vibratory movement through- 
out the foot, and when it was again thrown back to renew 
the process, the globule was found enclosed in its newly- 
made envelope. From this it results that the membrane 
enclosing the cells is secreted by the foot, and that there is 
no attachment between the float and the animal, other than 
that arising from the nice adaptation and adjustment of 
proximate surfaces. Dr. Coates states that the float varies 
in different species. In Janthinafragilis he describes it as 
convex, subcarinate above and concave beneath, straight, 
and composed of large vesicles : in J. globosa he found the 
vesicles smaller, and the float flat both above and beneath, 
added to which it is formed by the reunion of one of the 
edges into a spiral and nearly circular disk. In J. exigua 
it was straight, narrow, and flattened, and the vesicles were 
small. Along the under surface of the float a little line of 
pearly fibres was remarked, to which are attached the eggs 
of the animal. 

Although Dr. Coates had no opportunity of observing the 
eggs of / fragilis, he is strongly inclined to believe that 
the eggs figured and described in ' Phil. IVans.,' as above 
alluded to, belong to some other marine animal; and he 
grounds his belief on the dissimilarity between those figures 
and the eggs of J. globosa and J. exigua. In these two 
species the eggs are contained in little membranous bags 
of some consistence, which are attached in rows to the 
pearly fibres of the under surface of the float by small fila- 
mentous pedicles similar iu appearance to the fibres. These 
ba^'s are covered with minute, gelatinous, conical eminences, 
and are partially divided by incomplete septa, as may be 
seen by the aid of a powerful lens. In 7. exigua, the divi- 
sion is very partial ; but in /. globosa it ffives to the whole 
sac a chambered appearance. It would seem that the 
animal consumed considerable time in depositing its eggs, 
for the bags nearest to the extremity of the float were con- 
stantly found empty, while the central bags contained young 
shells fully formed: those towards the animal were filled 
Willi eggs. The probability is, that the youne animals when 
hatched ascend the float of the mother, and thus gaining 
access to the sur&ce, construct the elements of their future 
support. 

M. Rang, who also notices Sir Everard*s statement, men- 
tions it as certain that Janthina deposits its eggs sometimes 
in considerable number, as he has had occasion to remark, 
under the float, where they are attached by means of small 
pedicles; and he goes on to say, that the animal abandons 
them, together with the float, which is then charged with 
their preservation. M. Rang adds, that it is possible that, 
ai this epoch, the natatory appendages of the mantle, being 
sufficiently developed, permit the animal to use them for 
swimming, and thus supply the loss ; or one must suppose 
that these animals have the faculty of replacing the float. 
That they have that faculty we have, above, seen. 

Browne, in his 'Natural History of Jamaica,' gives by no 
means a bad account of the floats of these animals, many 
of which he encountered between the Bermudas and the 
Western Islands, in his voyage from Jamaica. He says, 'I 
have observed many of the vesiculsa themselves swimming 
upon the surface of the water, which inducc<l me to think 
that they were thrown oflf as the creatures retired.* Sloane 
also saw these ooeanic snails, and figures them. 



In January, 1833, Dr. Grant exhibited to a meeting nf 
the Zoological Society of London numerous specimens of 
Janthina vulgaris. Lam., and of Velella limbosa. Lam., 
both animals of rare occurrence on the English coast, qtvI 
chiefly met with floating in tropical or warmer seas. Tiiey 
were obtained by him at the beginning of September, lb3J. 
in Whitsand Bay, close to the point of the Land's En*). 
Cornwall, where they were thrown in great numbers on 
the sands, after a storm of three days' continuance from the 
north-west: they must, he observed, consequently hare 
been floating before they were directed to the coast by the 
storm, in latitudes at least as high as that in which they 
were found. Dr. Grant regards it as probable that neither 
of these animals is capable of discharging at wUl the gn^e*- 
ous fluid by which they are supported on the surface of ilio 
sea ; otherwise, in such a violent and continued tempest as 
that which stranded them, they would have emptied the.r 
vesicles and have sunk to the stiller bottom. {Zool, Proc,i 
Browne on the other hand says, speaking of the float, 
'This raises and sustains it while it pleases to continue oi 
the surface ; but when it wants to return, it throws off its 
bladder and sinks.* 

Lamarck placed Janthina among the plant-eaters ; but 
in the communication by Dr. Grant above noticed, it h 
suggested that Janthina, a predaceous Gastropod accent 
panying Velella, as there described, may prey upon it, an.: 
acquire from it the blue colouring matter of fts shell. 

Several authors speak of the beautiful purple liquor whifli 
the living animal diffuses when it is touchea. 

We select as an example Janthinafragilis. 

Description. — Shell pale ; body whorl angulated ; the 
base flattened, striated, and deep violet ; aperture broader 
than long ; outer lip deeply emarginate. (Swainson.) 

Zoca/i7y.— Oceanic in warm and temperate climatc> ; 
several instances are recorded of its capture near the Bhti>}i 
Islands, and on them. 

Janthina exigua has also occurred on the English an<I 
Irish coasts. {Zool. Proc., 1835.) 

Mr. Swainson, who in his * Zoological Illustrations * hi^ 
given beautifully correct figures of J. fragilis and /. globtt^^x 
justly remarks that the shells are so brittle that it is raro 
to find them perfect. 

M. de Blainville is inclined to think that those sbcils 
which are notched belong to females. 





Shell of Janthioa fra^lU. 



Fossil JANTHiNiE? 

Mr. G. B. Sowerby {Genera) states that he has never 
seen any fossil species of this genus, nor is he aware that 
any exist, but he refers to a fossil engraved in Min. O-n. 
pi. 10, which bears a very near resemblance to it. TLv 
fossil is named, in the valuable work alluded to. Helix cari- 
«a/a, and the solid grey limetone near Settle in Yorkshiie 
IS said to be the locality. Janthina does not appear in lie 
tables of M. Deshayes. 

JANUARY, the first month in our present Calendir. 
was also the first month in the Roman Calendar. It w .> 
not the first month of the year in this country till 17Jj, 
when the legislature, by an act passed in the preccdjj j 
year, altered the mode of reckoning time from the Julia i 
to the Gregorian style. At this time it was directed tint 
the legal year, which then commenced in some parts of tli >, 
country in March, and in others in January, should uni\tr- 
sally be deemed to begin on the first of January. Janu.i > 
denv-es its name from Janus. Macrobius expressly says •; 
was dedicated to him because, from its situation, it mi-ln 
be considered to be retrospective to the past, and pros i ac- 
tive to the opening year. It consists of thirty-one da>>. 
though onginally of only thirty days. The Anglo- Sax. '. :=, 
called January tVolf-monath. (Brady, Clavis Calendar., i. 
55, 56 ; Macrobii Saturn., i. 13.) 

T**^^^,^^* *" mvlhological history, is the earliest of t!- 
Italian kmgs, and reigned in Latium, being contempora.N 
with hatum. He was succeeded by Pious and Faiiiu > 



JAP 



92 



JAP 



in Nipon, which rises in the lako of Oils, a sheet of water 
tixtx miles in length but of inconsiderable width. After 
leaving this lake it traverses the fine plain which extends 
from its shores to the harbour of Oaacca, and in all this 
ccurse it is navigated by river-barges. 

We are of course very imperfectly acquainted with the 
climate of Janan, the meteorological observation made by 
Thunberg at Nagasaki only extending over one year. The 
southern part seems to resemble in many points the climate 
of England. In winter it does not freeze and snow every year, 
though this is generally the case : the frost and snow, when 
there is anv, last only a few days. In January, 1 7 76. the ther« 
mometer descended at Nagasaki to 35° Fahr., but it was 
considered a very mild winter; in August it rose to 98°, and 
that was considered as the average heat of the season. The 
heat would consequently be very great but for the refresh- 
ing breeze which blows during the day from the south, and 
during the night from the east. The weather is extremely 
changeable, and rains are abundant all the year round ; 
but they are more heavy and frequent during the satkasi^ 
or rainy season, which occurs in June and July. Storms 
and hurricanes seem to occur frequently, and the descriptions 
of them in Kampfer and Langsdorf are truly terrific. 
Thunder-storms are also common, and earthquakes have 
successively destroyed a great part of the most populous 
towns. Only a few spots appear to be exempt from these 
terrible phenomena. It is ooserved by Kampfer that water- 
spouts are nowhere of such frequent occurrence as in the 
seas enclosing Japan. 

In no part of the world is agriculture carried to a higher 
degree of perfection than in Japan. All the declivities of the 
hills to the top, except those which are too steep, are formed 
into terraces or beds of different width, according to the 
slope, and these terraces are cultivated with the utmost care. 
Here, as in China, the greatest attention is paid to the col- 
lection of manure. The raising of rice is the principal 
object, but wheat, barley, and rye are also cultivated, 
though to a much smaller extent. Indian corn is not enu- 
merated by Thunberg among the grain-crops of Japan. As 
the Japanese use no butter nor tallow, the^ cultivate Rhus 
iuccedaneum^ Sesamum, and Brassica onerUaUs; the oil 
from the two last serves for dressing victuals, and that of 
the first is used for their lamps. The seeds of Panicum ver- 
iiciliatum, Holeua sorghum, or millet, Panicum Corvi, and 
Cynosunu Coraeanus, are much used as food for man and 
beast, and cultivated extensively in some districts. Of escu- 
lent roots chiefly batatas and potatoes are raised. Other 
vegetables are turnips, cabbages, carrots, radishes, lettuces, 
melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, and gourds. Different kinds 
of beans and peas are raised in astonishing abundance, and 
several provinces have obtained a name from producing 
them in superior quality. Amons the beans are the daidsu 
beans {Dolichos Sqfa), firom which the Japanese make that 
liquid which is known in Eugland under the name of soy. 
The plantations of the tea shrub are extensive in some dis- 
tricts, but their produce is inferior to that of China, and 
does not make an article for exportation. Ginger is culti- 
vated, and the pepper shrub is planted for the consumption 
of the country. Their orchards are stocked with the fruit- 
trees of southern Europe, as oranges, lemons, medlars, figs, 
grapes, pomegranates; and they produce also chesnuts, 
walnuts, pears, peaches, and cherries ; apples are not men- 
tioned bv Thunberg. The raising of cotton and silk are 
Objects of great importance, and the Broussonetia papyrifera 
is planted extensively, its bark being used for making cloth 
and paper. Hemp is also much cultivated, but only em- 
ployed in making cloth; the cordage is made from dif- 
ferent kinds of nettles. Besides these different plants they 
plant the varnish-tree (Rhui vemix), from which they 
make the excellent varnish for their fiimiture, the cedar 
iCupres9us Japonica), the bamboo-cane, and the camphor- 
tree iLauru9 camphora), though all these trees are also 
found in a wild state. They extract a blue dye-stuff firom 
three kinds of Polygonum, dunense, barbatum, and aviculare. 
The authority for this account of the botany of Japan is 
Thunberg, from whom we have also taken the technical 
botanical names. 

The horses are of a middling sixe, but strong. The 
number is small, as horses are only used for the saddle and 
by the princes. Thunberg is of opinion that there are not 
as many horses kept in the whole empire as in one single 
town in Sweden. Horned cattle are still less numerous. 
The Japanese do not use either their flesh or their milk, 



and they are only kept for drawing carts or for ploughln, 
such fields as lie almost constantly under water. Bufsloe 
are found only in some districts. Neither asses nor mult 
are mentioned by Thunberg, but he expressly observes thi 
sheep and goats are not kept Swine are only found : 
Nagasaki, where they have probably been introduced I 
the Chinese, as the Japanese do not eat them. Fov- 
ducks, and geese are plentiful, but principally valued f: 
their eggs, of which the Japanese are very fond. Of vi! 
animab only hares are mentioned by Thunberg. but ' 
states, on the information obtained from the natives, lU 
deer, bears, and other animals occur in the eastern a. 
northern part of Nipon. Though the Japanese do !j 
make much use of the flesh of domestic animals as ft .. 
they derive abundant provisions from the sea. Fish is i\ 
tremely plentiful, and numerous villages are only inhab:! 
by fishermen. Their rocky coasts are covered with oy itt^r 
and several other kinds of shell-fish, and many fain:! 
live exclusively on them. Even the flesh of the whale, . 
which some kinds are rather numerous along these coas^ 
is eaten. 
Japan abounds in mineral wealth. Oold seems to beTr 

?lentiful in several provinces, but is not worked everyvber* 
'he government seems to use corrective means to pnver 
such undertakings. Silver is not abundant; hut cop;>: 
which contains a good deal of gold, is extensively work-i 
and supplies the most important article of export Iron 
said not to be common, but still there is enough for the^' 
sumption of the country. Some tin-mines are also statai * 
be worked. Salt in great quantity is made in several c> 
tricts along the southern coast, where there exist salt-infiun-' 
Of other minerals only fine clay is mentioned, whicb ! 
used in the manufactiue of china ; the porcelain is eq'.i 
if not superior, to that of China. The sea gives pearls m 
ambei^is. 

All travellers speak of the populousness of the conor 
and the extent of the villages, which frequently occuprtv 
English miles and more in length. In some more fert 
districts they are so close to one another as to form nrai- 
one contiguous street ; as, for instance, in the pl^^in uli^ 
extends from the harbour of Osacca to Meaco. The smitllc 
towns commonly contain five huudred houses, and :i 
larger two thousand and upwards, and though they lu« 
generally only two stories they are occupied by a oompi'v 
tively large number of persons. 

1. The island of Kioosioo is extremely well cnltintcv 
and generally fertile, with the exception of its eastern aa>' 
bordering on the Boongo Channel, which is mountain. v 
barren, and comparatively thinly inhabited. In se^r 
places there are consideralSle manufactures of cotton ci:' 
silk goods, and paper. The best known towns of im])ortaL' 
are Nagasaki, Sanga, and Kokoora. 

Nagasaki, sometimes pronounced Nangasaki, the onIypl:i' 
open to foreigrners, hes on a peninsula formed by the dr 
bay of Omoora, in 32'' 45' N. lat. and 129'' 15' £. long. I' 
harbour is spacious and deep, extending in length aboi' 
4 miles, with an average width of more than a mile. ^ 
its entrance is the small island of Papenberg, where (i 
water is 22 fathoms deep, but it grows shallower as it prv^ 
ceeds inward, so that opposite to the town it has onh i 
depth of 4 fathoms ; so tar it runs north-east, it then tur:.: 
north, and has less depth. The town is built on its easier. 
shores, in a narrow valley which runs eastward. It is xhne 
quarters of a mile long and almost as broad, and enclusci: 
by steep though not high hills. There are some ^(if^ 
buildings in the town, as the palaces of the two goveritur:^ 
and those of some princes and noblemen of the empire, but 
especially the temples, which were 62 in number, wit)ni 
and without the town, in the time of Kampfer (16'.^^^ 
There are some manufkctures of gold and silver. Tbc po- 
pulation may amount to 15,000 or 18,000 souls. ItistiK 
of the five imperial towns of the empire. 

Sanga, situated on a fine and well watered plain at thi 
northern extremity of the large bay of Simabarra, the cajn- 
tal of the fertile province of Fisen, is a very large &n<l 
populous town, with canals and rivers running through it> 
wide and regular streets. It has considerable xnanu* 
factures. 

Kokoora, built near the entrance of the Strait of Sini|> 
noseki, has a shallow harbour, but carries on a considcrsblt 
trade. The town, which in the time of Kalmpfer bi^ 
much decreased, was found in a thriving state in 1776, b; 
Thunberg. 



JAP 



94 



JAP 



under the title of Kubo Soma. The constitution of the Ja- 
panese empire is materially different from that of the Chinese 
in its hereditary nobility, dignitaries, and officers. The go- 
vernment of the provinces resembles in some respect the 
antient feudal system of Europe. The nobility, or hereditary 
governors of the provinces and districts, are called Daimio, 
or High-named, and Siomio, or Well named. The flrst- 
mentioned govern the provinces, and the Siomio govern the 
districts. Six months of the year these noblemen are in 
their provinces to watch over their government, and six 
others they must pass at Yedo, but their families must re- 
main in that town the whole year round as a security for the 
loyal conduct of the governors. According to Meylan, the 
population of the country is divided into eight classes — ^tbe 
princes or governors, the nobility, priests* military, civil 
officers, merchants, artisans, and labourers, by which we 
suppose agriculturists are meant All these dignities, offices, 
and employments are hereditary; a circuntstance which 
tends to keep society quiet, though it may also prevent some 
improvement. 

The Japanese females have almost as much liberty as 
European females; most of them can play on a musical 
instrument which is like a guitar. 

The inland trade is very considerable. The coasting trade 
is much favoured by the great number of small harbours, 
and the interior communication by well-planned and well- 
maintained roads, which are always thronged with carriages 
and people. Most of the roads are wide, and ornamented 
with lines of trees. The foreign commerce is limited to the 
Dutch and Chinese. The Dutcli have a factory on the island 
of Desima, which is connected with the town of Nagasaki 
by a bridge. To prevent all communication with the inha- 
bitants, it is planked on all sides, and has only two gates, 
one towards the town and the other towards the harbour. 
These gates are strictly guarded during the day, and locked 
at night. In this inclosure are the storehouses, the hos- 
pital, and some houses built of wood and clay and covered 
with tiles. Only one ship is at present annually sent from 
the island of Java; it arrives in June and returns toward 
the end of the year. The Japanese export principally copper, 
camphor, and lacquered wood- work ; with some china, silk- 
8tuf», rice, saki, and soy. The principal articles of im- 
portation are sugar, elephants' tusks, tin and lead, bar-iron, 
fine chintzes, Dutch cloths, shalloons, silks, cloves* aiid 
tortoiseshell ; with some saffron, Venice treacle, Spanish 
liquorice, watches, spectacles, and looking-glasses. The 
Japanese copper does not reach the European market, 
being disposed of on the ooast of Coromandel to great 
advantage. 

The Chinese, like the Dutch, are shut up in a small is- 
land, but they are permitted to visit a temple in the town 
of Nagasaki ; their trade is much more extensive. About 
seventy junks arrive annually from the ports of Amoy, 
Ningpo, and Shanghae, but as the Chinese have no factory 
they cannot remain during the winter in the harbour of 
Nagasaki. The Chinese junks arrive at three different 
times in summer 

In the time of Kampfer there was still some trade car- 
ried on with Corea and the Lew-Chew Islands, but this 
trade had ceased at the time of Thunberg (1775), and 
Siebold (1830) confirms this fact. 

{AmbMsades MemorableSt &c., by Jacob van Meurs; 
Kampfer's History qf Japan ; Charlevoix, Hutoire et De- 
scHption gcncrale du Japan ; Thunberg's TraveU in Europe^ 
Africa^ and Ana ; Adventures qf Captain Goloumin ; Sie> 
hold's Japan; Extracts from Fischer and Meylan; Journal 
qf Education^ vols, vi., p. 370, x., p. 184.) 

JAPANNING. Japanning is the art of producing a 
highly varnished surface on wood, metal, or other hard sub- 
stance, sometimes of one colour only, but more commonly 
figured and ornamented. The process has received its name 
from that of the island of Japan, whence articles so var- 
nished were first brought to Europe ; though the manufac- 
ture is also extensively practised by the Chinese, Siamese, 
Burmese, and other nations of the extremeeast of Aisia, among 
whom it was suggested most probably by the possession of 
a tree, which affords with Uttle preparation a beautiful var- 
nish, exceedingly well adapted for the purpose, and which 
hardens better than those prepared in Europe, 
t The appearance of japanned work is as various as' the 
taste and mncy of the artists employed in it Sometimes it 
is a plain black or red, with a gilded or painted border ; or 
it ii aniaitfttion of marble of fine grained or ram wood, or 



of tortoiseshell ; sometimes a drawing, in which high fioi)'. 
brilliant colour, and showy patterns are more souglit tlia: 
good design ; and occasionally fine copperplate engraviio 
are applied to a japanned surface With good effect, h J: 
cases the work is highly pohshed and varnished. 

Japanning is applied to ladies' work-boxes and work 
tables, to toilet-boxes, cabinets, tea-caddies, firescreen*. 
tea-trays, bread-baskets, snuffers and trays, candlestick: 
and a variety of other articles. A good deal of common wui>i 
painting is also called japanning, which differs from the m 
ordinary painter s work chiefly by using turpentine in<>ti. 
of oil to mix the colours with. Bedsteads, dressingtallv> 
wash-hand-stands, bed-room chairs, and similar article 
furniture are done in this 'way. 

Three processes are usually required in japanning ; h;. 
ing the ground, painting, and finishing. In addition: 
these processes, whenever the matter to be japanned ii i: 
sufiiciently smooth to receive the varnish, or when it U t 
soft or coarse, it is sometimes prepared or primed bcir. 
any of the proper japanning processes are applied. It mi.. 
here be observed, that almost every workman has his c v 
peculiar modes of working, and his own receipts for mik... 
and mixing his varnishes ; and that consequently od1< . 
very general idea can be given of the way in which t 
various operations are performed. 

The preparatory mixture or priming is composed of « 
and chalk ; the size is usually made of the ordinary c; 
penter's glue, which is well mixed up with as much cbii 
or whiting as will serve to give it a body sufficient to co> - 
the colour and grain of the wood on which it is laid; it 
put on with a brush like paint, and when perfectly c-^ 
which will require a day or two, according to tne state ofi' 
atmosphere, it must be brought to an even surface byn 
bing with rushes, and then be smoothed by a wet rag. ? 
best japanners disapprove of the use of priming, becauM ; 
brittleness is very detrimental to the firmness of iiie \ 
nishes laid over it ; they use no substances which arc 
themselves unfit for receiving a varnish, or which the) ^r 
unable to bring to a sufficiently smooth surface. For « • 
hard and fine enough to receive a varnish without prim . 
and for metals, paper, and leather, the only prepsni 
necessary is a coat or two of varnish. In all these process 
it is a rule to allow a day or two to intervene after eu: 
operation, that the work may be thoroughly dry. 

When the work is prepared, the ground must be laid x 
this is either all of one colour, or marbled, or done in in • 
tion of tortoiseshell. The grounds are the ordinair;. 
ments mixed with varnish, which are laid on smoothly t^^- 
a brush: when thoroughly dry they are varnished, andifi*' 
wards polished by rubbing with a rag and tripoli or nr.' 
stone ; and, if the ground be white, with putty or str- 
and oil. The varnish used is either copal, or else it isnp 
posed of seed lac, or of gums animi and mastic; the I 
varnish is considered by many workmen the best u^ 
hardest, but it is unfortunately too highly coloured i' 
some of the more delicate grounds, to which it oomnm' 
cates a yellowish tinge ; from this defect the gum vam^ 
is free, but it is deficient in hardness ; occasionally & niv 
ture of the two is used, and some workmen prefer cof- 
varnish to either gum or lac. 

The mode of laying the grounds varies greatly ; the '<> 
works on japanning are tediously minute in describing ''^ 
various processes to be followed, detailing the number 
times each coat should be laid on, and how long an interr. 
should be allowed to elapse after each ; and different p* ' 
portions of colour and varnish are fixed as necessary to ^- 
used in each different operation. The mode now genenl^ 
followed is to lay on one or two thick coats of colour nn^" 
with varnish, then to varnish three or four times, and atte^ 
wards to dry the work thoroughly in a stove. The colour' 
are flake-white or white-lea4 rrussian-blue, venniH^'^ 
Indian-red, kingVyellow, verdigris, and lamp-black; '^^^' 
mediate tints are made by mixtures of these : an imitati*^ 
of tortoiseshell is produ<^ by vermillion, and a varnish t 
linseed-oil and umber. When a particularly gorgeous or 
pearance is desired, the ground may be laid entirely in gol' 
This is produced by going over the work with japsniwf' 
gold sijte, which, when d^ enough to bear touching ^i'; 
the finger, but still soft and clammy, is covered v^'^ 
gold-dust, applied on a piece of soft wash-leather. A^* 
other metallic dust may be laid on in the same way. ^^] 
receipts are given for preparing the japanner's gold site, bt|| 
nearly all agzee in making ii^eed-oil and guia aniou u» 



J A V 



96 



J A V 



sjrmptoms of general disorder of the digestive organs, as 
nausea or vomiting, thirst, and loss of appetite, confined or 
irregular condition of the bowels, headache, and general 
uneasiness. These cases generally c^me on suddenly, as a 
sequel of common diarrhoea, or in the dyspeptic and those 
of a sedentary habit, or whose bowels have been long in- 
active. It is often difficult to say what prevents the 
excretion of the bile ; sometimes it is separated from the 
blood in too viscid a form ; sometimes mucus anoears to ob- 
struct the duct ; in many cases there is probably spasm of 
the duct, as in those which occur after violent fits of anger 
or other mental affection ; and in some a larger quantity of 
bile appears to be formed than can be conveyed away with 
proportionate rapidity. 

It is impossible that any one mode of treatment should 
be adopted for a symptom depending on such varied causes. 
Where the obstruction is mechanical, the jaundice is of 
course curable only by the removal of its evident cause ; 
and in inflammation of the liver it is but a symptom of a 
more important disease, to which the treatment must be 
directed. In the more common cases, which, as distin- 
guished from these, are sometimes called functional, the 
treatment should consist chiefly of smaU doses of mercury, 
and active purgatives containing calomel or neutral salts. 
Warm baths and opium should be used, if there be any 
spasmodic pain of tne right side ; and leeches or bleeding, 
if any inflammatory pain or tenderness be felt. A mild 
diet and the avoidance of all stimulant drinks or food should 
be carefully enjoined. 

JAVA, one of the Greater Sunda Islands, the third in 
extent, but the first in importance, is situated between 
6'' 52' and 8" 4' S. lat, and between 105'' 11' and 1 14*" 13' 
E. long. On the south and west it is bounded by the 
Indian Ocean. The north-western corner of the island 
forms with the most southern extremity of the island of 
Sumatra the Straits of Sunda, which at one place are only 
fourteen miles across, and unite the Indian c5oean with the 
Java Sea. The last-mentioned part of the Indian Ocean 
washes the northern shores of Java, and at the south- 
eastern extremity of the island it is again united with the 
ocean by the Strait of Bali, which in the narrowest part is 
only two miles wide. The length of Java from Java Head 
on the west to East Point (Oost Hoek) is 666 miles; its 
breadth varies from 56 to 135 miles. The area is estimated 
at 50,000 square miles, or about that of England. 

The island of Madura is commonly included in Java, 
from the north-eastern part of which it is divided by the 
Strait of Madura, which in one part is only one mile broad. 
Madura is 91 miles long, and 31 miles wide in the widest 
part. 

Surface and Sot'/.— The southern coast in its whole 
extent is high and steep, rising in many places perpendicu- 
larly to an elevation of 80 or 100 feet, and in some places 
much higher. It runs in a continuous line, with fewinden- 
tations, and those not deep. Consequently there are few 
places which have good anchorage, and as it is exposed to 
the open ocean, and to a high ^well or surf, it is not much 
visited by shipping. Still a few good harbours occur; the 
best are Chelachap, about 109°E. long., and Pachitan, about 
111'' £. long. 

The hilly country which is contiguous to the southern 
coast rises rapidly as we advance inland, and probably 
attains towards the middle of the island a mean elevation 
of more than 1000 feet, where it extends in elevated plains 
with an uneven or hilly surface. This hilly country does 
not extend over the whole breadth of the island, except at 
the western extremity as far east as Bantam, and in the 
peninsula, which comprehends the most eastern districts 
east of 112"* 30'. This elevated region is traversed by nu- 
merous ridges of hills, probably rising to 2000 or 2500 feet 
above the sea>level, and running mostly in the direction of 
the island's length. On these ridges a considerable number 
of peaks rise to a great elevation. It is stated by Raffles 
that there are thirty-eight of such peaks. They have all a 
broad base, and gradually diminish in size to the summit, 
which has always the form of a oone. They are all volcanic 
Indications and products of their former eruptions are 
numerous and uneauivocal. The craters of several are 
<*ompletely obliterated ; those of others contain small aper- 
tures which continually discharge vapours and smoke. 
Many of them have had eruptions during the present cen- 
tug^ which have caused great loss of property and life. 
The highest and most remarkable of these volcanic peaka 



are the Pangerango, south of Buitenzorg, more than soo: 
feet high; Mount G^ede, south-east of the former, rimi '^ 
9888 feet; the Dshirmai, south-south-west of Cher.bj; 
more than 8000 feet high ; the Gede Tegal, near IDS'" !<. 
which probably attains between 11,000 and 12,000 fer 
and Mounts Sindoro and Sumbing, called the Two Brothes 
near IIO"* lone. Three large volcanoes, called Ung art:, 
Merbidu, and Mer4pa, lie in a direction almost south irs 
north across the hilly region near 1 1 0° 30' £. long-. Ntj 
the eastern peninsula is the Arjuna, 10,614 feet bigb,- 
south-east of it, not far from the Indian Ocean, the Smt^* 
or Semiru, probably the most elevated of these peak^ A: 
the north-eastern extremity of the island near Cape Se<k 
is the elevated volcano of Tel&gawurung. 

The hilly region contains some extensive plains and u- 
leys of great fertility, enclosed by the ridges of hills vL:: 
connect the peaks. The largest of these elevated plaktj 
that of Bandung, which seems to occupy nearly the vh» 
tract from Mount Gede on the west to Mount Gede Te.-. 
on the east It is of great fertility, though somewhat:- 
ferior to the two valleys which lie contiguous to it on 'i 
east — the Vale of Banyumits, traversed by the beautiful n >: 
of Serayu, and the Vale of Kedii, on the banks of the r.tr 
Elo. East of the last-mentioned vale is the elevated phi: - 
Solo, which extends round the town of Sura-kerta, and & 
hibits a great degree of fertility. The elevated plain . 
Kediri, traversed by 112^ long., is equally extensiTe <:: 
fertile. The eastern penhisula, whose surface is mc; 
occupied by peaks and high ridges connecting them, b 
only narrow and close valleys. 

The elevated and hilly region terminates to the north : 
rather a steep slope, and between it and the Java Sea *> 
tends a flat country which descends imperceptibly from t>i 
foot of the hills to the veryshores, where it terminatri. 
some places in swamps. This low tract, which is mjAi 
alluvial, is widest towards the west, and occupies nearly cr 
fourth of the width of the island, or about 40 miles, betis'. 
Bantam on the west and Cheribon on the east. Betvo 
Cheribon and Sam&rang it is hardly more than 10 in..* 
wide. This portion of the low lands is not equal in ferL - 
to the inland districts. In Sam&rang are the flats of Dea^i 
which extend between the elevat^ region and the nri: 
tains of Jap&ra ; they were once an extensive swamp, i * 
are hardly inferior in fertility to any part of the i^-'- 
East of these flats and between the same mountains are'-' 
low lands of Jipang and Surab&ya, which terminate on ': 
strait and gulf of Madura with the delta of the Surabi 
river ; the delta is also distinguished by its fertility. T'< 
low lands of Demak, Jipang, and Surabaya di>ide > 
mountains of Japara and some lower ridges from the : 
vated regions. The mountains of Japara, which conti: • 
peak of considerable elevation, occupy the peniniiuU 
Japara, on which the low coast-tract is very narrow. T: 
isolated mountain-system is separated by a deep rsi^' 
covered with alluvial soil, from a low ridge which occup 
the whole tract of the coast between Cape Lerang and 6> 
Panha, and perhaps 10 or 15 miles inland. 

The northern coast is lined b^ numerous small \^^^*^ 
and is marked by many projecting points and headlap^- 
Accordingly the harbours are numerous. But tbe«i>* 
coastline affords anchorage at nearly all seasons of tbej»' 
and vessels of any burden can approach all the princu- 
stations at a convenient distance for the exchange of tb<^' 
merchandise. The sea being generally smooth and (-• 
weather moderate, the native vessels and small craft al*i)' 
find sufficient shelter at the change of the monsoon t| 
running under some island, or passing up the rivers, wb '^^ 
though in general difficult of entrance on account of tliAj 
bars, are for the most part navigable for such vessels as ^ 
up as the maritime towns. 

The soil of Java is generally deep and rich. The b^ 
soils are the alluvial soils along the beds of the rivers, »« 
on the slopes of the largest mountains ; the worst are i- 
the declivities of the lower ranges. But though there if 
these varieties, the general character of the soil is tbatti 
extraordinary fertility. The eastern districts however ^ 
superior to the western. The neighbouring countries, esp^ 
cially Sumatra and the Malayan peninsula, cannot be ^^^ 
pared with Java in this respect. The best soils annua' 
produce two crops without manure, and even the p<^'^'' 
remunerate the labour of the husbandman. , 

Rivers. — Java is watered by numerous rivers, but fe** 
them have a considerable couim on account of the QoDp^ 



J A V 



98 



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AnimaU.^^TherB are no elephants; "eameU, or asses. 
The horses are of a small hreed, but strong, fleet, and well 
made. BulTaloes are numerous, and of greater use in 
agriculture than any other animal. Black cattle are com- 
mon, but much more so in the central and eastern districts 
than in the western. Groats are abundant, but sheep are 
scarce ; both are of small size. The hog is reared chiefly 
by the Chinese. 

Of beasts of prey .there are the tiger, the leopard, the 
tiger-cat, and the jackal. Other wild animals are the rhi- 
noceros, the wild Java ox, the wild hog, and the stag, as 
Raflles calls it, which is perhaps the axis deer. 

Of domestic birds there are turkeys, geese near the set- 
tlements of the Europeans, ducks, fowls, and pigeons. 
Among the wild birds the most remarkable is the hirundo 
escidenta, whose nests are eaten, and exported in large 
quantities to the Chinese market. They are called Salanga- 
nests. 

The cayman is abundant in the rivers of Java, but, accord- 
ing to Raflles, the animal much more resembles the croco- 
dile of Egypt than the alligator of America. This crocodile 
is mentioned by Thunberg and by Mandelslo, the latter of 
whom says that it was eaten by the natives. Of serpents 
there are said to be several poisonous varieties. Turtle and 
fish are abundant Honey and wax are also obtained. Silk- 
worms were once introduced by the Dutch, but this branch 
of industry did not extend among the natives. 

Minerals. — Few minerals are known to exist in Java. 
Iron is said to be found in small quantity, and indications 
of gold have been observed at several places. Salt is made 
of sea- water in some parts of the northern coast Saltpetre 
is extracted from the earth of some caves, and sulphur is 
found near the volcanoes. 

Political Divisions, Towns, ^.— The greatest part of 
the island is in possession of the Dutch. The districts situ- 
ated on both extremities of the island, as well as the whole 
of the northern coast, are immediately subject to them. 
But the southern coast and the adjacent countries, between 
lOS^'ao'and 112'' 20' £. long., with the exception of the small 
district of Pachitan, which has been recently ceded to the 
European government, is subject to two native princes, the 
Susuhiinan, or emperor, and the sultan. Their dominions 
extend more than 250 miles along the southern coast, and 
form about one-fourth of the whole island. 

1. The Dutch possessions are divided into 17 provinces. 
The country west of 108° SO' comprehends five of them. 
Bantam, Batavia, Buitenzor^, the Preanger districts, and 
Cheribon. The low and alluvial parts along the coast 
are of considerable fertility, but large tracts in the moun- 
tain-ranges still remain in a state of nature, and where the 
ground has been cleared of forests they are now over- 
grown with long and rank grass. The elevated plain of 
Bandung however is well cultivated and peopled. The 
Preanger districts are governed by native hereditary princes, 
who pay a tribute to the Dutch. The most considerable 
and remarkable towns in this country are on or near the 
northern shores. Sirang, or Ceram, where the governor of 
Bantam resides, is a thriving place some miles inland, and 
distant from the antient town of Bantam, which has been 
abandoned. Batavia, which once had a population of 1 60,000 
souls, contained in 1834 not more than 53,861 inhabitants, 
having been partly abandoned on account of its unhealthi- 
ness. [Batavia.] But its suburbs, situated at some dis- 
tance and on a higher level, have received a great part of 
the population. Of these suburbs Molenvliet is built in the 
Dutch fashion along a wide canal, and is mostly inhabited by 
Europeans; Ryswick, the seat of the general governor, 
contains a fine palace and beautiful square, called the Royal 
Place; Weltefreden, is the central point of the military 
force, with extensive barracks; and Noordwyck is inhabited 
by. the merchants and people in trade. Cheribon is a thriv- 
ing town, with a eood roadstead and 10,000 inhabitants ; it 
contains a beautiful mosque. In the interior of the country 
is Buitenzorg, a thriving and well-built village, 40 miles 
from Batavia and at the foot of the volcano of Pangerango. 
It contains the summer palace of the governor-general and 
many fine country-houses. A navigable canal unites it to 
the harbour of Batavia. The most considerable town in the 
Preanger districts is Chanjur. 

The Dutch possessions east of 108" 30' to the Strait of 
Madura contain the nine provinces of Tcgal and Brebcs, 
Pakalongan, Kedu, Sam&rang, Japara, Rembang, Gresek, 
and Surabaya. They constitute the most fertile part of the 



Dutch dominion8,'and contain the Vale of Kedi&t tke flats 
of Dem4k, and the Plain of Surabaya. The ehiel towns 
from west to east are the following:— Sara4rang, with more 
than 30,000 inhabitants, has an extensive commerce. Foreign 
vessels are permitted to trade to it. There is a military 
academy. Rembang has 8000 inhabitants and some trade. 
Surabaya is situated on the Straits of Madura* ivhich form 
an excellent and spacious harbour with good anchonuse, 
and secure against the violence of the sea and wind. Itis 
the most populous and thriving town of Java, and its popu- 
lation exceeded 80,000 souls in 1815. Its harbour is open 
to foreign vessels. In the interior, in the Vale of Kedu, 
are the extensive and admired ruins of the templea of Boro 
Bodor. 

The eastern peninsula, which extends to tlie Strait of 
Bali, is less fertile than any part of the island, heiug almost 
entirely occupied by mountains. It contains three prch 
vinces, Passaruan, Besuki, and Banyuwangi, of which tha 
last is noted for its coffee, which is stated to be superior to 
that of Mocha, and for the great quantity of sulphur which 
abounds here. Passaruan is a small town on the sea-ooast 

2. The dominions of the Susuhiinan, which contain a 
population of nearly one million, consist of two separate 
tracts. The largest lies between 108^ 30' and UO"* B. long^ 
and contains the fertile vale of Banyumas, with the town 
of the same name, which has 8000 inhabitants. From this 
the smaller portion is separated by the Vale of Kedil and 
some territories of the Sultan. It lies in the interior of Iho 
island, between 1 10** 30' and 111'' 20' £. long., and contains 
the residence of the Susuhiinan, called Sura-kerta, oo the 
Solo River, which has a population of 105,000 soula. 

3. The territories of the Sultan extend between I \9^^ and 
1 1 2** 20' £. long., and contain nearly 700,000 inhabitants 
In their eastern districts is the fertile plain of KedirL The 
capital is Yugya-kerta, a town with 90,000 inhabitanta. In 
its vicinity are the ruins of Brambanan, called ChandiSewu, 
or the Thousand Temples. [Bramranan.] 

Inhabitants. — The natives of Java belong to the videly 
spread race of the Malays. They are short, thiok-sel, and 
robust Crawfurd thinks that their me^um height b 
about four inches less than the average stature of Bute* 
peans. Their lower limbs are rather large and heavy, but 
not ill formed ; their arms are rather fleshy than muscular. 
The face is of a round form, the mouth wide, the teeth 
remarkably fine, the chin rather of a square form, the 
cheek-bones are high and the cheek consequently rather 
hollow. The nose is short and small, never promiDent» but 
never flat ; the eyes are small and always black. The com- 
plexion is generally brown, and darker than in the neigh* 
bouring islands. The hair is long, lank, harsh, and always 
black. They have very little beard. The Javanese are 
Mohammedans, but the creed of the Arabian prophet, which 
was introduced among them in the fourteentn century, has 
been much modified by the doctrines and ceremonies of 
Buddhism. Three different dialects of the Malay language 
are spoken on the island, but they have also an antient sacred 
language called Kawi, which contains a great number of 
Sanscrit words. The Javanese have a native literatutv. 
whioh however is not rich. They have also translations 
from the Sanscrit and Arabic; the latter are smidl in num- 
ber and solely on subjects of religion and jurisprudence. 
In civilization the Javanese are much superior to all other 
nations who inhabit the Indian Archipelago. This is cti- 
dently shown by the state of their agriculture, though it 
cannot be compared with that of the Hindus or Chinese. 
In the art of fishing they are very expert, like all the other 
nations of this part of Asia. They do not eat their fish in 
a fresh state ; it is almost always salted or dried. A pecu- 
liar preparation, called by the Malays blachang, and by the 
Javanese trasi, is a mass composed of small fish, chiefly 
prawns, which is fermented and dried in the sun. It u 
used as a universal sauee, more generally than soy with the 
Japanese; and as soon as Europeans have overcome their 
repugnance to it, they become as partial to it as the natives. 
In no kind of manu&cture are the Javanese distinguished, 
except in working gold. Their cotton-cloth is ooarse* bm 
of a substantial and durable texture ; a small quantity is 
exported. The raw silk, imported fVom Qiina, is manu- 
factured into a rich thick tissue, more distinguished how 
ever by the quantity of material which it contains, than by 
the beauty of the workmanship. The Javanese show als»<> 
considerable skill in the construction of their veiaeU a&ti 
boats, of which there is a great variety. 



J E A 



100 



J E F 



Jay. [Corvidjb, vol. viii., p. 69.] 

JAYADE'VA, a celebrated Hindu poet. We possess 
hardly any particulars respecting the circumstances of his 
life. It appears from a passage in his poems that he was 
born at Kenduli ; but tne position of this town is very 
doubtfuL Some commentators place it in Kalin^a, others 
in Burdwan ; but according to the popular tradition of the 
Vaishnavas, it was situate near the Granges. (Wilson, in 
Ai, Bes, XTL 52.) If the verse at the end of the ' Gtta 6o< 
vinda' is genuine, the name of Jayadeva's feither was Bhoja- 
deva, and that of his mother lUmSdevt. According to Sir 
William Jones, Jayadeva lived before C&lidSsfi (As. Res. 
iii. 183) ; but this is exceedingly improbable, both from the 
artificial construction of the verse and the whole tenor of the 
poem. Professor Wilson places Jayadeva in the 15tli century 
of the Christian sera {As, Res. xvi. 37); but Lassen, with 
greater probability, supposes that he lived in the middle of 
the 12th century. {Prolegomena to the • Gila Govinda,' 
pp. iv. V.) 

The only poem by Jayadeva which is extant is entitled 
' Gtta Grovinda ;' that is, * the poem in honour of Govinda,* 
one of the names of Krishna, we eighth (watar, or incarna- 
tion, of Vishnu. The poem is a kind of pastoral drama, in 
which the loves of Krishna and Rddha are described in a 
glowing and voluptuous manner. This poem has always 
been greatly admired among the Hindus ; and the majority 
of Hindu commentators contend that it is not to be under- 
stood in a literal, but in a figurative and alle^rical sense, 
and that the loves of Krishna and RSdha describe the 'reci- 
procal attraction between the divine goodness and the human 
soul.' Among the Europeans, Sir William Jones and Cole- 
brooke admit this allegorical mode of interpretation M<./?e^. 
iii. 183 ; X. 419) ; but we are inclined to believe that the ' Gita 
Govinda,' like the poems of Ha6z, is in reality what it pro- 
fesses to be, merely un amatory poem ; and that the allego- 
rical mode of interpretation is tne invention of commenta- 
tors and scholiasts. The question has been very ably dis- 
cussed by Lassen in his Prolegomena. 

An English translation of the ' Gtta Govinda' was pub- 
lished by Sir William Jones in the third volume of the As. 
Res. The original text was printed very inaccurately at 
Calcutta in 1808; a new and very accurate edition, with 
notes, and a Latin translation, edited by Lassen, was pub- 
lished at Bonn, 1836. 

JEAN I., a posthumous son of Louis X. Hutin, was born 
in 1316, and lived only eight days, but is numbered in the 
chronological order of kings. At his death his uncle and 
>egent Philippe le Long assumed the title of Philippe V. 

JEAN U., son of Philippe de Valois and of Jeanne of 
Burgundy, ascended the throne upon his father's death in 
1350. At the bennning of his reign he caused Raoul, 
high constable of France, to be beheaded without trial, 
on a suspicion of treason, and he afterwards invited King 
Charles of Navarre, with whom he had some differ- 
ences, to an interview at Rouen, and there arrested him and 
Sut to death several lords of his suite. The brother of the 
lin^ of Navarre and the relatives of the murdered lords 
applied to Edward III. of England for assistance. In 1355, 
Edward sent his son the Black Prince into France at the 
head of an army. After ravaging several provinces the 
Black Prince was met by King Jean near Poitiers, who 
with 80,000 men attacked the English, 10,000 in number, 
on the 19th September, 1356 : the French were com- 
pletely defeated, and Jean, after displaying much personal 
bravery and being wounded, was taken prisoner and con- 
ducted to London, where he was received by King Ed- 
ward with great honour. Negotiations followed: Edward 
offered to renounce his assumed claim to the French crown 
on condition of being acknowledged as absolute sovereign 
of NormaiMly, Guienne, Calais, and other lands which had 
been held in fief by the former kings of England. Jean 
wanted to gain time, but meanwhile his own country fell 
into a state of horrible anarchy. The citizens of Paris re- 
volted against the Dauphin Cbiarles, and drove him out of 
Paris, and soon after the peasants or serfs, so long op- 
pressed and brutalized by the feudal nobility, broke out into 
insurrection, plundered and burnt the castles of the nobles, 
and matisacred all within them, men, women and children, 
^ith circumstances of frightful atrocity. This servile war, 
called La Jacquerie, from Jacques Bon-homme, the nick- 
name given in derision to the French peasantry, lasted 
during the years 1357 and 1358, untU the Dauphin and 
Other groat lords, having collected their forces, fell upon the 



peasants and massacred them by thousands, without giving 
any quarter. In May, 1360, peace was concluded at Bretigny 
between France and England, Edward giving up his clainiN 
to Normandy aud France, and assuming the title of sove- 
reign Lord of Aquitaine, with the consent of the Dauphin, 
who promised to pay a large ransom for his father. Jean 
was then restored to liberty, but he found so great an op- 
position among his nobles to the fulfilment of the conai- 
tions of the treaty, and was perhaps also made so uncom- 
fortable by the confusion and wretchedness which prevailed 
in France, that he resolved, to the great astonishment of his 
courtiers, to return to England, to confer with Edward upon 
what was to be done. On arriving in London he took up hi> 
old quarters in the Savoy, and was received in the moii 
friendly manner by Edward. He soon after fell dangeroa^j 
ill, and died in London, in April, 1364. He was succeeded 
in France by his son Charles V. 

JEAN SANS PEUR. [Bouroogne.] 

JEAN DE MONTFORT. [Brktaone.] 

JEAN D'ANGELY, ST., a town in the west of 
France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of 
Charente Infferieure, in 45° 57' N. lat, and 0** 3r W. long. . 
240 miles in a straight line south-west of Paris, or 288 mi!a 
by the road through Orleans, Tours, Poitiers and Niort. 

This town is on the right bank of the Boutonne, an afflu- 
ent of the Charente, which here becomes navigable. In 
the dark ages succeeding the downfal of the Western Eed* 
pire, St. Jean d'Ang^ly, called in the barbarous Latin of 
the time Aneeriacum, was the residence of the Dukes of 
Aquitaine, who had a castle here. In the place of this 
castle, Pepin le Bref built a Benedictine monastery. In the 
religious wars of the sixteenth century, the town, then cf 
considerable importance, was besieged by the Huguenots 
under Count La Rouchefoucauld, a.d. 1 562 ; but though tb« 
majority of the inhabitants were of the Reformed faiSi, the 
siege was not successful. It fell however into the hands of 
the Huguenots some time after; aud though retaken, 
A.D. 1570, by the Catholic army under the Duke of Anjou 
(afterwards Henri III,), came again into the hands of the 
Huguenots. In a.d. 1621 it was taken from them by 
Louis XIU., who demolished the walls, and deprived the 
townsmen of their municipal privileges. 

This town appears to be declining. At the commeooe* 
ment of the present century the commune had 8000 inha- 
bitants: in 1831 it had 6031 (of whom 5326 were in the 
town), and in 1 836, 59 1 5. The chief trade is in timber and 
brandy. There are a colle^, or high school, a seminar? 
for the priesthood, an agricultural society, a theatre, and 
baths. 

JEDBURGH. [Roxburghshire.] 

JEDO. or JEDDO. [Japan.] 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS. From the American Re- 
volution of 1776 we may date the commencement of that 
struggle which has agitated and still agitates Europe ai.d 
the two Americas. By whatever words Uie character of thts 
struggle may be expressed,— whether under the name of po- 
pular rights against exclusive privileges, or self-govemmrnt 
or the government of the people, against absolute govern- 
ment or the government of a few, or by any other terms morv 
or less appropriate, — the contest is stiU goin^ on, openly and 
actively in those called free governments, silently and Ian- 
guidly in those where the sovereign power is opposed to the 
extension or introduction of the new doctrines. The con- 
test is between progress (not here considered whether a> 
right or wrong) and standing still; between change, will. 
out which there cannot be improvement, and a desire to 
resist all change, which can hardly end in keeping^ thiii^-. 
stationary, but almost necessarily leads to a backwarl 
movement The contest is not only for the practical appl.- 
cation of principles in government, which are vigorous U 
maintainea by the one party, and either not denied or 
fkintly opposed by the arguments of the other ; but also fi>r 
the free expression and publication of aU opinions on al. 
subjects affecting the moral and political condition v* 
society. 

There is no individual, either in America or in Suropc, 
who by his actions and opinions has had a greater inlluenri 
on this contest than Thomas Jefferson. During a long ani 
laborious life, both in official situations, which gave hixn op- 
portunities that his activity never let slip, and in privav 
life, in his extensive correspondence and intercourse wiih 
persons of all countries, he constantly, perseveringly, and 
honestly maintained what he conceived to be the principUs 



J E F 



102 



J E P 



that could benefit the social condition of man. His remarks 
on the politick troubles of France, of which he witnessed 
the beginning, are characterized by his usual closeness of 
observation, and by his sanguine anticipations of the benefit 
that would result from the people being called to participate 
in the exercise of the sovereign power. After all that has 
been written on the subject, they will still be read with 
interest 

He returned to America at the close of 1789, and early 
in the next year he was appointed secretary of state by the 
president, Greneral Washington. He held this office till the 
end of 1793, when he resigned. From 1793 to 1797 he 
lived in retirement. In 1 797 he was elected vice-president 
of the United States; and in 1601 was chosen president in 
place of Mr. Adams, by the House of Representatives, on 
whom the election devolved in consequence of the equal 
division of tlie electors' votes between Mr. Jefferson and 
Colonel Burr. He was elected a second time, and after 
fulfilling his term of eight years retired to his favourite 
residence at Monticello, near the centre of the state of 
Virginia. 

On Mr. Jefferson's retirement from the presidency of the 
United States he received, in the form of a farewell address, 
the thanks of the General Assembly of his native State, 
February 9th, 1800. After briefly recapitulating the lead- 
ing measures of his administration, most of which faction 
itself must allow were eminently calculated to promote the 
happiness of the nation and secure those repuulican prin- 
ciples on which the constitution was founded, the General 
Assembly conclude with bearing testimony to his unvarying 
singleness of purpose, from the days of his youth, when he 
resisted the governor Dunmore, to his retirement from the 
highest honours which the united nation could bestow. 
This address, which, in point of style, is more free from 
objection than most American productions of the same 
class, is such as few men on retiring from power have 
received, and it was offered for services which few have 
performed. 

In this document, among the advantages for which the 
nation was indebted to Mr. Jefferson's administration, the 
acquisition of Louisiana, and with it the free navigation of 
the Mississippi, are not forgotten. Mr. Jefferson early saw 
the importance of the United States possessing this great 
outlet ror the commerce of the Western states, and strongly 
urged it while be was secretary of state under Genersd 
Washington. The object was accomplished in 1 803, when 
Louisiana was purchased from the French for 16,000,000 
dollars. 

Mr. Jefferson himself thought that the most important 
service which he ever- rendered to bis country was his 
opposition to the federal party during the presidency of Mr. 
Adams, while he was himself vice-president of the United 
States. Himself in the Senate and Mr. Gallatin in the 
House of Representatives had alone to sustain the brunt of 
the battle, and to keep the republican party together. The 
re-action that ensued drove Mr. Adams from his office, and 
placed Mr. Jefferson there. Mr. Jefferson's administration 
was characterised by a zealous and unwearied activity in 
the promotion of all those measures which he believed to be 
for the general welfare. He never allowed considerations 
of relationship or friendship to bias him in the selection of 
proper persons for offices ; he always found, as he says, 
that there were better men for every place than any of nis 
own connexions. 

The last years of his life, though spent in retirement, 
were not wasted in inactivity. He continued his habits of 
early rising and constant occupation ; he maintained a very 
extensive correspondence with all parts of the world ; re- 
ceived at his table a great number of visitors, and was 
actively engaged in the foundation and direction of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, which was establibhed by the state of 
Virginia near Cue Tillage of Charlottesville, a few miles from 
Monticello. 

No person but Mr. Jefferson could have had influence 
enough to induce the legislature of Virginia to grant the 
necessary funds for the endowment of this university. 
Though often baffled, he finally succeeded, by the help of his 
friends in that body, in obtaining ample grants for the 
buildings, library, and the salaries of the professors. He 
planned the buildings himself^ and superintended their erec- 
tion ; drew up with fa^s own hand a well digested and copious 
catalogue of books for a library, a Urge part of which were 
purchaied in Burop^ and ready for um when the univexsity 



opened in 1825 ; and he went so far as to prerail with the 
visitors of the institution to send an agent to Europe to 
select four of the professors. This last circumstance would 
show that Mr. Jefferson did not cherish such an unreason- 
able hostility to Great Britain as his enemies have charged 
him with. 

The last letter in Mr. Jefferson's published correspon- 
dence, and it is probably the last that he wrote, is in reply to 
Mr. Weightman of Washington on behalf of tiie citizens of 
Washington, who had invited Mr. Jefferson to the celebra- 
tion of the fiftieth anniversary of American independence. 
His health would not permit him to accept the invitation. 
His reply is characteristic. The zeal for republican institu- 
tions which had animated him during a long life still glows 
warm and fresh in the letter of a man of tne aee of four- 
score and three, suffering under a painful medady. Hi5 
firm con>iction in the truth of those principles which he 
had maintained through life appears stronger as be ap- 
proaches the termination of his career. He died July 4tn, 
1826, the dav of the celebration, just half a century after 
that on which the Declaration of Independence was signed. 
Mr. Adams died on the same day. Mr. Jefferson is buried 
in the grounds near his own house. A simple inscription, 
which was found among his papers after his death, record- 
ing him as the author of the Declaration of American In- 
dependence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Free- 
dom, and Father of the University of Virginia, is placed uu 
his tomb. The fact of his having been ^president of the 
United States is not mentioned. 

The latter days of Mr. Jefferson were embittered by pecu- 
niary difficulties, which were owing in some measure to the 
neglect of his estates during his long absence on the public 
service ; and in a great deeree to an obligation which he 
incurred to pay a friend's debts (see an excellent letter to 
Mr. Madison, February 17th, 1826). 

In the 4th vol. of his Memoirs, &c., p. 439, are printed 
his ' Thoughts on Lotteries,* which were written at the timt* 
when he was making his application to the legislature ut 
Virginia for permission to sell his property by lottery, in 
order to pay his debts and make some provision for ki% 
family. The general arguments in defence of lotteries ar« 
characterized by Mr. Jefferson's usual feUcity of expression 
and ingenuity, and they are also in like manner pervaded 
by the fallacies which are involved in manv of his political 
and moral speculations. But this paper has merits which 
entitle it to particular attention. It contains a brief reca- 
pitulation of nis services; and is in fact the epitome of the 
life of a man who for sixty years was actively and usefull) 
employed for his country. ' I came,' he says, ' of age lu 
1764, and was soon put into the nomination of justices ot 
the county in which I live, and at the first election foUowioj* 
I became one of its representatives in the legislature ; I 
was thence sent to the old Congress; then employed ivM.- 
years with Mr. Pendleton and Wvthe on the revisal and 
reduction to a single code of the whole body of the BritLsL 
Statutes, the acts of our Assembly, and certain parts of the 
common law ; then elected governor ; next to the legisla- 
ture, and to Congress again; sent to Europe as minister 
plenipotentiary ; appointed secretary of state to the new 
government ; elected vice-president and president ; and 
lastly, a visitor and rector of the university of Virginia, lu 
these different offices, with scarcely any interval between 
them, I have been in the public service now sixty -one years, 
and during the far greater part of that time in foreign 
countries or in other states.* 

This is the outline of Mr. Jefferson's pubhc life ; to fill it 
up would be to write the history of the United States, from 
the troubles which preceded the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence to Mr. Jefferson's retirement from the presidency in 
1809. 

The paper from which wo have already made one extract 
presents us with his services in another point of view, still 
more interesting. It is an epitome of those great measures 
which were due mainly or entirely to his £in resolution, 
unwearied industry, and singleness of mind, in his pursuit 
of objects which he believed essential to the stability and 
happiness of his country. 

' If legislative services are worth mentioning, and the 
stamp of Hberality and equaUty, which was necessary to be 
impressed on our laws in the first crisis of our birth as a 
nation, was of any value, they wiU find that the leading 
and most important laws of that day were prepared by my- 
Belf» imd cairied chiefly by my efforto; supported, indeed 



JEN 



104 



J E R 



and ended in the complete subjug;ation and humiliation of 
the kingdom. Jena and its environs suffered considerably, 
and what is now called the Eichenplatz was the site of 28 
houses which were burnt on that occasion. 

JENESEI. [Siberia.] 

JENISEISK. [Siberia.] 

JENNER, EDWARD, M.D., was bom in 1749, at 
Berkeley, in Gloucestershire, of which his father was vicar. 
He was educated at Cirencester, and apprenticed to Mr. 
Ludlow, a surgeon at Sudbury. At the conclusion of his 
apprenticeship he went to London, and became a pupil of 
John Hunter, with whom he resided for two years while 
studying medicine at St. George's Hospital, and with whom 
his philosophical habits of mind ana his love of natural 
history procured him an intimate and lasting friendship. 
In 1773 be returned to his native village, and practised as 
a surgeon and apothecary till 1 792, when he determined to 
confine himself to medicine, and obtained the degree of 
M.D. at St. Andrew*s University. 

But the history of Jenner^s professional life is embodied 
in that of vaccination. While at Sudbury he was surprised 
one day at hearing a countrywoman sav that she could 
not take the smallpox because she had had cowpox ; and 
upon inquiry he learned that it was a popular notion in 
that district, that milkers who had been infected with a 
peculiar eruption which sometimes occurred on the udder 
of the cow were completely secure against the smallpox. 
The medical men of the district told him that the security 
which it gave was not perfect ; they "had long known the 
opinion, and it had been communicated to Sir Greorge 
Baker, but he neglected it as a popular error. Jenner 
during his pupilage repeatedly mentioned the facts, which 
had from the first made a deep impression on him, to John 
Hunter, but even he disregarded them ; and all to whom 
the subject was broached either slighted or ridiculed it. 
Jenner however still pursued it; he found, when in 
practice at Berkeley, that there were some persons to 
whom it was impossible to give smallpox by inoculation, 
and that all these had had cowpox ; but that there were 
others who had had cowpox, and who yet received smallpox. 
This, after much labour, led him to the discovery that the 
cow was subject to a variety of eruptions, of which one only 
had the power of guarding from smallpox, and that this 
(which he called the true cowpox) could be effectually 
communicated to the milkers at only one period of its 
course. 

It was about 1780 that the idea first struck him that it 
might be possible to propagate the cowpox, and with it the 
security from smallpox, first from the cow to the human 
body, and thence from one person to another. In 1788 lie 
carried a drawing of the casual disease, as seen on the 
hands of milkers, to London, and showed it to Hunter, 
Cline, and others ; but still none would either assist or en- 
courage him ; scepticism or ridicule met him everywhere, 
and it was not tin 1 796 that he made the decisive experi- 
ment. On the 14th of May (a day still commemorated by 
an annual festival at Berlin) a boy aged eight years was 
vaccinated with matter taken from the hands of a milkmaid ; 
he passed through the disorder in a satisfactory manner, 
and was inoculated for smallpox on the 1st of July follow- 
ing without the least effect. Jenner then entered on an 
extensive series of experiments of the same kind, and in 
1798 published his first memoir, 'An Enquiry into the 
Causes and Effects of the Variola) Vaccinae.' It excited 
the greatest interest, for the evidence in it seemed conclu- 
yet the practice met with opposition as severe as it 



sive 



was unfair, ana its success seemed uncertain till a year had 
passed, when upwards of seventy of the principal phy- 
sicians and surgeons' in London signed a declaration of their 
entire confidence in it An attempt was then made to 
deprive Jenner of the merit of his discovery, but it signally 
ftiiled, and scientific honours were bestowed upon him 
from all quarters. Nothing however could induce him to 
leave his native village, and all his correspondence shows 
that the purest benevolence, rather than ambition, had 
been the motive which actuated all his labours. * Shall I.' 
he says in a letter to a friend, 'who, even in the morning of 
my life, sought the lowly and seauestered paths of life, the 
Talley and not the mountain — shall I, now my evening is 
ftst approaching, hold myself up as an object for fortune 
and for fame ? My fortune, with what flows in from my 
profession, is amply sufficient to gratify my wishes.' Till 
the last day of his life, which terminated suddenly in 1823, 



he was occupied in the most anxious labours to diffuse the 
advantages of his discovery both at home and abroad ; and 
he had the satisfaction of knowing that vaccination had 
even then shed its blessings over every civilized nation of 
the world, prolonging life, and preventing the ravages of the 
most terrible scourge to which the human race was subject. 

Jenner *s other works all evince the same patient and 
philosophical spirit which led him to his great discovery. 
The chief of them was a paper 'On the Natural History of 
the Cuckoo,' in which he first described that bird's habit of 
laving its eggs singly in the nests of smaller species, to 
whom it leaves the office of incubation and of rearing fh^ 
young one, which, when a few days old, acquires the sole 
possession of the nest by the expulsion of its rightful 
occupants. Indeed he gained so much credit by this paper, 
that he was recommenaed not to send his account of >ar- 
cination to the same Society, lest it should injure the »cien- 
tific reputation which he had already obtained. 

The life of Jenner has been written by his friend Dr. 
Baron of Gloucester, in 2 vols. 8vo. Five medals hn'«* 
been struck in his honour, of which three were produce i 
in Germany, and a statue is erected to him in his native 
county. But it is remarkable that the only public testi* 
menials awarded by his country to the man whose unai'itrd 
intellect and industry have added more years to the liu> 
of men than the united labours of any century, were grants 
of 1 0,000/. and 20,000/., which were voted to him by the 
House of Commons in 1802 and 1807. 

JENYE. [Hindustan, p. 216.] 

JENYNS, SOAME, bom 1704, died 1787, enjoyed a 
considerable reputation in his lifetime from the liappj 
accident of uniting good birth and fortune with a creditablt- 
share of literary accomplishment and success. His fami'j 
property was at Bottisham, near Cambridge ; he was edu- 
cated at St John*s College ; elected M.P. for the county in 
1741 ; for the borough of Dunwich in 1754; for the tovn 
of Cambridge in 1761, which last he represented until hi^ 
withdrawal from public life. In 1755 he was made a lunl 
of trade, and he held that ofiice in spite of political chanenes 
until its abolition in 1780, being a steady supporter of all 
existing administrations. As a versifier he is elegant and 
spri(;htly ; sometimes rather free : his poems, whi(£ cousbt 
of 'The Art of Dancing,' 17 28, and 'Miscellanies,' 1770. lu\e 
found admission into the 2nd and 3rd editions of Johnson^ 
Poets. His prose works are: — 1. * A free Inquiry into the 
Nature and Origin of Evil,' 1756. This unsatisfactun- 
attempt to solve one of the most difficult of moral problem^ 
was very ably and severely criticised by Dr. Johnson in the 
' Literal^ Marine/ and this rebuke Jenyns seems never 
to have forgiven. (See Boswell's Life, under the abo\e 
year.) 2. * View of the Internal Evidence of the Chribtiau 
Religion,' 1776, for the divine origin of which he argues 
from its utter variance with the principles of human reason. 
This was a curious ground for a friend to take ; and thous^h 
the book obtained much praise, there were many also wLu 
regarded it as the work of a disguised ' enemv. This doa 
not seem to have been the case ; Jenyns, though once a. 
sceptic, was in the latter part of his life a professed, and, sj 
Boswell, who was no friend to him, believed, a sincere 
Christian. 3. Dissertations on various subjects, 1 7^*2. 
These are political and religious. His prose writings ha\e 
obtained much praise for elegance of style, art, shrewdness 
of remark, and aptness of illustration ; but his talent vas 
better suited for the lighter and more showy parts of litera- 
ture than for metaphysics and controversial theology. He 
published some pieces not here mentionetl. His Works arc 
collected in 4 vols. 8vo., 1790-3. with a Life, by Mr. Cole. 

JER-FALCON, or GYR-FALCON, the English name 
of the Faico Islandicus of Latham, Ger/aut of the French, 
Hebog chwyldro of the Antient British. [FalconidjE, vol- 
X. p. 182.1 

* JERBOA. [Murid;e.j 

JEREMIAH (Heb. JjrTDT; LXX. 'Iipi jiiac), one of the 

• • . 

prophets of Judah, the writer of the ereater part of the book 
in the Hebrew canon which bears nis name, and of the 
whole of the book, succeeding it in that canon, called • Tlie 
Lamentations.* 

He was of the sacerdotal family, being the son of Hil- 
kiah, a priest, whose residence was at Anathoth in the land 
of Benjamin, about three miles north of Jerusalem. This 
we learn from the general title to his book of Prophecies 
(chap, i., ver. 1), and that title sets distinctly before us the 



J E R 



106 



J E R 



way, where at that time lived St Gregory of Nazianzus, 
a celebrated preacher. At Rome he became secretary 
to Pope Damasus. There appear to be circumstances 
in the life of Jerome at this period ivhich are not cleared 
up. It is however certain that Sericius, the successor 
of Damasus, had not the same esteem for him ivhich 
Damasus had« and that Jerome left Rome and returned 
to the neighbourhood of Jerusalem. There he took up his 
abode in a monastery at Bethlehem. 

In this retirement he employed himself in writing on the 
questions wh ch then divided the opinions of Christians, 
and here it is believed he died, at the age of eighty years. 

Many of the writings of Jerome are come down to us. 
Several of them are merely controversial ; but there are others 
of a more sterling and lasting value. These are, his treatise on 
the Lives and Writings of the elder Christian Fathers, and 
his Commentaries on the Prophetical Books of the Old Tes- 
tament, on the Gospel of St. Matthew, and several of St. 
Paul's Epistles. But what may be regarded as his greatest 
work is a translation of the books of both the Old and New 
Testament into LAtin, which translation has been always 
highly valued in the Latin Church, and which is that known 
in the Church by the name of the Vulgate. It is a question 
amongst the learned how far, and whether dt all, he embo- 
died an older Italic version in his translation. If it was 
the first effort at bringing the Scriptures within the reach 
of the great multitude who knew no other language but 
the Latin, it was a great and noble work, which ougt to 
place its author, high amongst the benefactors of mankind. 
Bishop Warburton says of Jerome, that * ho is the only 
father that can be called a critic on the sacred writings, or 
who followed a just or reasonable method of criticising.' A 
treatise of his was one of the first books printed in England. 
The best edition of his works is that of Vallarsius, in 10 
foUo volumes, printed at Verona, 1734 — 40. 

JEROME OF PRAGUE. [Huss] 

JERSEY, an island in the English Channel, about 18 
miles south-east of Guernsey, measuring in a straight line 
between the nearest points of the two islands; between 49° 
9' and 49'' 16' N. lat, and 1° 68' and 2" 14' W. long. Its 
form approximates to a quadrangle, having its sides facing 
the four cardinal points. Its greatest length from east to 
west is about 12 miles; its greatest breadtn Arom north to 
south about 7 miles. Of its area we have no account : the 
population in 1831 was 36,582. 

The surface of the island has a gradual slope from north 
to south. On the north side the coast is abrupt, rising to the 
height commonly of 100, sometimes of 200 fbet, and broken 
by a succession of small bays and coves, one of which, 
Bouley or Boulay bay, has been several times surveyed, 
in order to the formation of a naval station, for which its 
easy access and good anchorage seemed to offer consider- 
able facilities. A pier on a limited scale has been erected 
here by the States of Jersey. On the east side of the 
island are two bays, St. Catherine on the north-east, where 
the coast is abrupt ; and Grouville on the south-east, with 
a low shelving beach. On the west side is the wide shallow 
bay of St Ouen, with a shelving sandy beach, skirted in 
nearly all its extent by ledges of rocks. On the south side 
of the island the character of the coast is less uniform : at 
the bottom of the deep bays of St. Aubin and St. Brelade 
it is low and shelving, with a broad belt of sand nearly a 
mile wide in St. Aubin*s bay, and drv at lowwater. Tlie head- 
lands at the south-west point of tne island, and between 
the before-mentioned bays, are lofty and abrupt ; between 
St. Aubin*s bay and the south-east point of the island the 
coast is low, but skirted by extensive ridges of rocks. St. 
Aubin's bay, on which stand the towns of St. Helier and 
St. Aubin, is the most frequented ; but most of the bays 
afford anchorage. 

Groups of it)cks surround the island at various distances 
from it ; there are also many banks and shoals. 

The surfkce of the island is everywhere undulating. 
The valleys generally run from north to south ; they are 
narrow at the north end, where the high ground forms an 
almost unbroken hill, and grow wider as they approach the 
southern coast, where they expand into several flats of 
good pasture land. A few valleys open to the eastern and 
western sides of the island. The principal water-courses 
flow from north to south ; they are more considerable than 
from the size of the island would be supposed, and serve 
to give motion to several mills. The valleys watered by these 
streams are 'aa rife in beauty as wood, pasturage, orchard, 



a tinkling stream, and glimpses of the sea can make thflm.' 
(Inglis's Channel Islands.) 

The high land in the northern part of the island oonsisti 
for the most part of granitic rocks; the southempart of a 
mass of schistose rocks incumbent upon them. The high 
rocks which stretch away to sea all round Jersey seem to 
be of granitic formation. The rocks along the northern coast 
consist for the most part of sienite ; they present perpen- 
dicular iaces to the sea, and are everywhere intersected by 
perpendicular veins running north and south, which have 
formed many remarkable caverns where they have been ex- 
posed to the action of the sea. The sienite is quarried ou 
the northern coast ; part of the stone is used on the island 
part is exported to Guemsev and England, and, in time of 
peace, to France. No metallic traces, excent of iron, hart 
been observed in Jersey ; the schistose rocas have not af- 
forded any slates fax economical purposes; nor does th« 
island yield any lime. Jersey was until of late years til 
provided with roads, for the old roads, though numerau^ 
are narrow and inconvenient The new roads, which arc 
also numerous, are wide and well constructed, and traverse 
the island in many directions. 

The climate of Jersey, from its insular situation, is niildrr 
than that of other places under the same latitude, and thit 
mean annual temperature is higher than that of any part J 
England. Snow and continu^ frost are rare, but there .^ 
much rain, and the dews are very heavy. High winds art- 
prevalent and violent ; gales frequently blow, especially fru^- 
the west; a perfectly calm day even in summer is ran. 
The predominant diseases are rheumatism, chiefly clironic, 
liver complaiiAs, indigestion, dropsy, hypochondriasis, an i 
remittent, typhoid, and intermittent fevers. RheumatisLi. 
the most prevalent disease, is ascribed to the humidity it 
the atmosphere. 

The state of agriculture in Jersey is backward, vhich i< 
partly owing to the minute subdivision of property, ari&x::c 
from the custom of gavelkind. Rents are about 4/. li» 
per English acre for the average of good land, and abcTe 
5/. for the best The expenses of the former are howe^a 
light, and the productiveness of the soil great* Wheat g 
the principal grain crop ; barley is grown, and some oatj : 
parsnips are extensively grown and used for fattening hogs 
and bullocks. Potatoes for exportation are widely and m- 
creasinglv cultivated. Lucerne is one of the moat valued 
crops. A considerable portion of the land is laid out u. 
orchards: the apples are converted into cider, which consti- 
tutes the most important produce of the island ; then follor 
potatoes, lucerne, and wheat The principal manure u 
vraie or sea- weed, either flresh, or after it has been burti 
for fUel ; fresh vraic is preferred for grass land, vratc ashes 
for other crops. Fallows are seldom seen. The wheat har 
vest commences about the beginning of August The com- 
mon English fruits are raised in Jersey, and the melon and 
the grape grow in the open air. 

The cow is an object of great attention in Jersey. The 
breed is one variety of that known in England as the Al- 
dernev, but is considered to be deteriorating. Jersey butter » 
in high esteem ; and great quantities, fresh and salt, are 
exported. A few sheep are kept only by the poorer classes 
who have right of common. Little attention is paid to 
horses : the breed was crossed with the Cossack horses dur- 
ing the stay of some Russian troops in the island in the 
year 1 800. Of game there are the hare and the rabbit, and 
the red-legged partridse. Toads are numerous, as well as 
snakes and lizards. The fish caught in the island are simi 
lar to those of Guernsey. - [Gtubrnsky.] 

Jersey is divided into twelve parishes. The parishes vtt 
subdivided into * vintaines * (* scores '), supposed to be ^» 
called from having originally contained twenty houses. Of 
these vintaines there are from two to six in each parish, and 
in all fifty-two. 

There are three towns in the island, St Helier and 
St Aubin [Aubiw, St.], both on the Bay of St Aubin. 
and Gorey, on the east coast St. Helier is toward the 
south-east point of the bay, and fVonts the sea. In 
external appearance it is much on a level with EnglL^h 
country towns of the same size; except that Uie ramparts 
of Fort Regent, overtopping the buildings, give to tbt* 
place the appearance of a continental town. The houses 
m the more central parts of the town are chiefly inhabit e-i 
by the shopkeepers ; those in the outskirts, extending to the 
foot and up the slopes of the surrounding heights, ar« 
tenanted by the more opulent raerchanti^ uA by the nit* 



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108 



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Barnegat, Tomsbay, and Shark Inlet North of the line 
drawn from Bordentown to Shrewsbury the country is 
hilly, but the hills are of moderate elevation, and the wide 
valleys between them have a good loamy soil. At the 
eastern extremity of this tract, and immediately on the 
sea-shore, are the Neversink hills, which, though only 281 
feet above the sea-level, are the highest eminences on the 
Atlantic shores A-om Florida Cape (25'' 50' N. lat.) to this 
point (40" 25'). The hilly tract covers somewhat more than 
one-fourth of the surface of New Jersey. The most nor- 
thern portion is divided between a marshy and a moun- 
tainous tract: the former lies along the banks of the river 
Hudson, and extends about 10 miles from them on an 
average; it is of moderate fertility. The mountainous 
tract occupies the remainder, and contains two ridges, which 
traverse the north-western comer of the state in a direction 
south-west and north-east. The southern chain is called 
the Blue Ridge, and the northern the Kittatinny Moun- 
tains; in the latter is Shooley's Mountain, 1 100 feet above 
the sea. These ridges are mostly covered with forest trees, 
and the country between them has a good soil. 

The large rivers of this state are those which constitute 
its boundary, the Hudson [New York] and the Delaware 
[Dblawarb]. a canal has been cut between these two 
large rivers, called the Morris canal, which traverses 
the northern districts of the state. It leaves the Delaware 
at Philipburgh, opposite Easton, and runs in the valley 
between the Blue Ridge and the Kittatinny Mountains 
north-east ; it is then carried through a depression of the first- 
mentioned ridge, and along the Passaik river eastward and 
southward to Newark ; it tiien crosses that river and passes 
through the marshes to Jersey city, opposite New York, where 
it joins the Hudson. Its length is somewhat more than 100 
miles. Among the minor rivers the Rariton is the largest. It 
traverses the hilly district and falls into Amboy Bay, which 
is a good harbour for vessels of middling size. The Rariton 
is navigable for 16 miles from its mouth. Newark Bav also 
receives the Hackensack and the Passaik, of which the 
former is uavigable for 16', and the latter for about 10 miles 
from its mouth. The Maurice river, which empties itself 
into Delaware Bay not far from Cape May, the southern 
extremity of the state, is said to be navigable for ves- 
sels of 100 tons to a distance of 20 miles f^m its embou- 
chure. 

The difference in climate between the southern and nor- 
thern districts is very great, and depends mainly on the 
difference of elevation. The level sandy plains of the 
southern districts approximate to the temperature of 
Eastern Virj^nia, and admit the cultivation of cotton, while 
the mountamous northern districts experience early and 
severe winters, and in this respect resemble Vermont and 
New Hampshire. The vegetable productions are seldom 
injured by drought or excess of rain. 

Wheat, rye, Indian com, oats, barley, buck-wheat, flax, 
and potatoes are the common crops ; buck- wheat is in vejry 
general cultivation. The cotton grown in the southern dis- 
trict is consumed for the domestic manufactures. Apples, 
pears, peaches, plums, and cherries are the common fruit- 
trees, and they succeed exceedingly well. The Jersey cider 
is noted for its superior quality. In the mountainous parts 
and salt-marshes near the sea-coast great numbers of cattle 
are raised. Sheep are also kept in great numbers. The sea 
abounds in fish, and the inhabitants of the coast derive a 
great portion of their subsistence from the fisheries. Hie 
tbrests are composed of oak, hickory, chesnut, poplar, ash, 
&c. The larger wild animals have nearly disappeared, and 
only the racoon and the red and grey fox abound. Iron 
abounds in the mountainous and hiUy district, and bog iron 
is found in the marshes along the sea. There is also 
copper, and, in the primitive rocks of the mountainous dis- 
tricts, gold, silver, and galena. 

The inhabitants amounted in 1630 to 320,823. The state 
is divided into 14 counties and 120 townships. The prin- 
cipal occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture ; but the 
surplus population has lately turned to manufacturing in- 
dustry, ana in some branches a considerable progress has been 
made, though the distress of late years nas caused a de- 
pression. Brides numerous iron-works, several glass-houses, 
tanneries, gunpowder-mills, and cotton manufactures are 
established, mostly in the hilly country, which is the most 
populous. 

Trenton, on the Delaware, the capital and the seat of 
government, ia a small place, with about 4000 inhabitants. 



and some cotton manufactures. The largest towns are m 
the hilly district, where New Brunswick, on the river Ra- 
riton. at the head of tide-water, contains 8000 inhabitant?, 
and has some commerce, and a college ; andNewark« on the 
Passaik river, with about 1 0,000 inhabitants, carries on a con- 
siderable trade with New York, and has manufacture^ of 
carriages, shoes, and saddles. Patterson, on the Passaik, 
which forms near the town a cataract 70 feet high, is tlit: 
principal manufacturing town of the state, and contaim 
near 8000 inhabitants. The principal articles made here 
are iron and brass wire, and cotton-cloth* Perth Am boy, 
situated where the Rariton falls into Amboy Bay, ha« a 
harbour, but only 1000 inhabitants. It is the oldest settle- 
ment in the state. South Amboy, on the opposite side of 
the bay, has a population of near 4000. The towns rf 
Shrewsbury and Freehold, both on the eastern shores, hare 
some commerce, and each of them about 5000 inhabitants. 
At Princeton, between Trenton and New Brunswick, there 
is a college, called Nassau Hall, one of the oldest establuh 
ments in the United States, and also a theological seminary. 

That none of the maritime towns of this state have rL«eD 
to importance is easily accounted for by the vicinity of New 
York and Philadelphia, to which the produce of the country 
is sent. This produce consists of live cattle, fruit, iruo. 
butter and cheese, hams, flax-seed, cider (of wbic^ that 
of Newark is the best), lumber, and some manu&ctures» 
especially leather, glass, cotton-cloth, and iron-ware. 

Besides the canal already described, the Delaware and 
Rariton canal, which is 38 miles long, runs from near 
Trenton to New Brunswick. The Camden and Amboy 
railroad, which is 61 miles long, forms a line of communi- 
cation between Pennsylvania and New York, passing by 
South Amboy. The Patterson and Hudson River railroad, 
which is 14 miles long, connects Patterson with Jersey city. 

New Jersey was first settled by the Dutch in 1612, in 
those places contiguous to the Hudson river. The Swedes es- 
tablished themselves here in 1 628, but their settlements soc:; 
fell into the possession of the Dutch, who were supplantrl 
by the English in 1664. New Jersey was then a part ci 
New York, from which it was definitively separated n 
1 736. It declared itself early against England in the revo- 
lutionary struggle, and published its present constitution 
on 2nd July, 1776, two days before the declaration of inde- 
pendence by the Continental Congress. The legisla- 
ture consists of a legislative council of 14 members. aji<l 
of a general assembly of 50 members. The judges L<jU 
office for a fixed number of years. New Jersey sends t^o 
members to the senate at Washington, and six to the houx.- 
of renresentatives. (Darby*s View cf the United Stai* », 
and Warden's Account of tie United States,) 

JERUSALEM, the chief city of Palestine, in Syrii. 
situated in 31" 47' N. lat. (according to NiebiAr), 35" 1? 
£. long. ; 38 miles east from the nearest point (near A-h- 
dod) towards the Mediterranean, and 27 miles west from 
where the river Jordan enters the Dead Sea. 

The name is written D^ltflT by the early Hebrew writer*. 
and OwtOVX* by the later; and signifies the abode ^ cr 

• — T X 

(according to another derivation) the people qf peace^ At 
present the city is known throughout Western Asia by the 
Arabic name of El kuds, which signifies ' holiness.' By the 
Greek and Latin writers it is called Hieros6lyma, (Stiabo. 
p. 760 ; Tacitus, Hiet. v.) 

As the capital city of the Hebrews, and the cbief seat of 
their worship, as well as from its connection with the early 
history of Christianity, Jerusalem has always been held in 
great veneration by both Jews and Christians ; and, from 
the same causes, even the Mahommedans regard it with 
interest and respect Hence the numerous pilgrimages 
and travels which have in all ages been made to the holy 
city, and hence the various contests of the middle age«, be- 
tween the European Christians and the Moslems, for its 
possession. 

The situation of Jerusalem is rather singular, and ofler« 
many advantages, particularly in a military point of view, 
which were probably considered more than adequate to 
compensate its disadvantages as the seat of a metropolitan 
city, for which many think that Samaria offers a preferable 
situation. But whatever were its advantages or disadi-an- 
tages, the metropolitan character was fixed to it beyond 
all possibility of alteration by the foundation there of the 
only temple for the formal worship of God which the whole 
eountiy contained. 



J E 9 



110 



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the ffreat exploit of bis life, by intercepting and defeating 
the Spanish fleet off Cape St Vincent, in February 14, 1 797. 
The disproportion of force was greater, it is said, than any 
modem oflicer had yentured to seek an encounter with, the 
Spaniards having nearly double our number of ships, and 
more than double the number of guns and weight of metal. 
However, Jervis, repeating Rodney's method of breaking the 
line, gained a complete victory, and captured four sail of the 
line. In this celebrated engagement the services of Nelson 
were pre-eminent The actual loss sustained by the enemy 
was of less importance than the lustre cast on the British 
arms bv a victory achieved against such odds. Thanks, 
couched in the roost flattering terms, were voted by both 
houses of parliament ; and Sir J. Jervis was raised to the 
peerage by the title of Earl of St Vincent and Baron Jervis 
of Meaford, and received a pension of 3000/. Shortly after, 
his nresence of mind and moral courage were severely tried 
by tne breaking out of a branch of the Channel mutiny in 
his fleet; which however was speedily suppressed by his 
judicious and decisive severity. Having suffered for some 
time from ill health, he returned home in 1799; but in 
April, 1 800, took command for a short time of the Channel 
fleet, on the resignation of Lord Bridport He was made 
first Lord of the Admiralty in February, 1801, on the for- 
mation of the Addington ministry; and having through 
life had a sincere dislike of peculation and jobbing, at once 
set vigorously to out down extravagant expenditure and to 
reform abuses. This of course made him very unpopular ; 
and he was accused of rashness, and of crippling the re- 
sources of the country by a false economy. Charges of this 
sort were then very sure to be made against those who 
exerted themselves to reform old and lucrative abuses. Mr. 
Pitt partook of the dissatisfaction, and at his return to 
office, in May, 1804, placed Viscount Melville at the head 
of the Admiralty. Earl St Vincent again took command of 
the Channel fleet in 18 06, in Fox's administration, but held 
it only for a year. His last appearance in parliament ap- 
pears to have been in 1810, in the debate upon the king's 
speech, when he spoke strongly in censure of the conduct 
of the war by ministers. He was appointed Admiral of the 
Fleet on the day of George I V.th's corronation, July 1 9, 1 82 1 , 
and died March 15, 1823, in the 90th year of his age. 
Havinff no children, the earldom became extinct : but the 
title of Viscount, by special grant, descended to his nephew 
Mr. Ricketts. A public monument was erected in honour 
of him in St Paul's cathedral. 

Earl St Vincent*s professional characteristics were courage, 
coolness, and decision, amounting almost to sternness of 
character : these, united with great skill and indefatigable 
activity, rendered him an admirable officer. He was very 
independent; and the disposal of his patronage, in which be 
paid great and unusual consideration to the claims of de- 
serving officers, did him honour. 

JESUITS, SOCI'ETAS JESU, is the name of a cele- 
brated religious order which was formed towards the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Ignatius or Inigo Loyola was a 
Btscayan officer of noble birth, in the Spanish army at the be- 
^nning of the reign of Charles V. Being severely wounded 
in the defence of Pamplona, then besieged by the French 
and the Navarrese, he underwent a long and tedious con- 
finement previous to his recovery. Loyola was a man of 
enthusiastic mind; he had been fond of the world, and de- 
voted to gallantry and pleasure; but now, in his forced 
retirement, he was struck with the precariousness and futi- 
lity of those pursuits, and he resolved to devote himself to 
a life of piety and religious labour, for the purpose of re- 
claiming the minds of his fellow-creatures fi*om vanity and 
sin. Musing on this subject, he conceived the plan of estab- 
lishing a religious order, which should be entirely devoted 
to the four following objects: 1. The education of youth. 
2. Preaching, and otherwise instrurting grown-up people. 
8. Defending; the Catholic faith against heretics and unbe- 
lievers. 4. Propagating Christianity among the Heathens 
and other infidels by means of missionaries. Ignatius, hav- 
ing begun to promulgate his views, and to attract attention 
by preaching against the loose morality of the times, fell 
under the suspicions of the Inquisition, and was imprisoned, 
but atterwards released. He then undertook several pil- 
grimages, and at last repaired to Paris, where he studied 
and took holy orders. It was at Paris in 1 534 thit he and 
six of his friends and fellow-students entered into a solemn 
compact to nromote Loyola's object, the foundation of a new 
itligious order. These first companions and fellow-laboujren 



wera Francis Xavier, Lainei, Salmeron, Bobadilla, Rodri- 
guez, and Le Fevre. They were afterwards joined by tfa tt 
more : Lejay, Codur, and Brouet Ignatius with hia frie n U 
repaired to Rome in 1537, where he laid before Po^e 
Paul III. an outline of the institutions and regulations •: 
his intended order. Loyola had been a military man, ai.i 
he based his rules unon the principle of a strict aubordmi- 
tion, carried througn several graaations, terminating v.i 
the prsDpositus generalise or eeneral superior, who wa^ t- 
have absolute sway over the wnole Society, and from wh w 
decisions there was to be no appeal. The general was to u 
subject to the pope only. Most of the old monastic ovU:t 
had a considerable share of democracy in their institutu*i.» 
they assembled in chapters and elected their local super.*. % 
and decided upon other questions concerning their com Li \- 
nity by a majority of votes, and although they had also ilxxt 
respective generals residing at Rome, yet their author : • 
over the distant convents of the various provinces was \trt 
limited. Their chapters occurred frequently, and th>j 
generals and provincials were mostly changed ayery thrt^ 
years. All this gave them something of a popular cbaraiU r ■ 
they had their canvassines for elections, their ncrsonal »ra* 
bition, and intrigues. But Loyola's projtetea order v.^ 
strictly monarchical, and therefore adapted to be a m -.« 
efiective support to the Roman see, at a time when supi>^ r. 
was most wanted in consequence of the spreading of ti.'^ 
Reformation. Besides this* the wealthier of the mona^.: 
orders, such as the Benedictines, employed their leisure i= 
scientific and speculative studies, living retired and kin.?- 
ing little of political afiairs ; and the mendicant orders. <.^ 
friars, had degenerated from their first seal, and had It- 
come obnoxious by the sale of indulgences, and despised i. ' 
their corruption, ignorance and vulgarity. The prelates i 
the court of Rome, such as Bembo and Leo X, him^t/. 
spoke with open scorn of the firiars, and called them h>; • 
crites. Another advantage of the proposed conetitution t.: 
the Jesuits was, that they were not bound to keep a). - 
nical hours in the choir like other monks, and iheiv- 
fore had more uninterrupted leisure for study or b...*:- 
ness. 

Pope Paul III., after deliberating with his cardinals, socf 
of whonn were not favorable to Loyola's plan, approved • f 
it and it was decided that the new order should be cat.i- . 
the Society of Jesus, that the members should wear n. 
monkish garb, but dress in black, like the secular pricsi^ 
and should in fact differ essentially from the monastic orders 
then existing. The bull of the pope authorizing the ntw 
Society was issued in 1540, and in it by a remarkable pn- 
vilege, the general of the Jesuits was authorised to is^ut 
such regulations as he judged fit, and to alter the exiMi.u 
ones according to time, place, and circumstances. Tvx 
original 'Constitutiones' of Ignatius were written in 8pani-n, 
but afterwards translated into Latin. The first edition ^'t 
them appeared at Rome, • Constitutiones Societatis Je:«u.' 
1658, after the death of the founder, who expired on iht- 
31st July, 1556. He left also a mystical tieatise call. : 
• Exercitia Spiritualia.* At his death the Society was 
already established in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Germain, 
and had above one hundred schools, besides numerous mis- 
sionaries in the East and in Africa and America. Ignatius 
was succeeded as general of the Society by James Lainez. .i 
man of more extensive information and greater elasticity uf 
character than his predecessor. It is to Lainez that the 
principal share in framing the • Constitutiones * is attribute.!, 
and that work bears the impress of a master mind. Cardi- 
nal Richelieu said that it was a model of administrative 
policy. The Constitutiones are divided into ten parts, sub- 
divided into chapters. Part i., • De admissione ad pruba- 
tionem,' concerns the mode of admission of applicants /♦•r 
the noviciate; the qualifications required iti the applicant, 
such as health, no grievous deformity or mutilation, or oth<T 
physical imperfection; certificates of good oonduet ami 
temper, natural abilities, and fourteen years of ago complete. 
Birth, wealth, and other accidental circumstances are to he 
considered as null where the physical and mental qualifira. 
tions fail; but should they be united with these in the 
same individual, they render him more acceptable. Then 
comes a list of absolute impediments to admission, such as 
having comniitted murder, apostacy, and other grievous 
ofiences, having been subjected to a degrading sentence, 
having belonged to some monastic order, being marrie<l! 
and lastly, labouring under insanity or decided weakness of 
intellect. Defects of temper, obstinacy, iigudicioas enthu- 



J E S 



112 



J E S 



gavo tbcin a house in Paris which they made into a col- 
lege, called the College of Clermont, and he bequeathed 
them also 36,000 £cus in his will. 

During the war of the League the Jesuits, Uke the other 
niunastio orders, with the Sorbonne, and the Parliament of 
Paris, showed themselves opposed to the claims of Henri IV. 
as bem^ a heretic Even after the abjuration of that prince 
a fanatic of low birth, called BarriSre, conspired to murder 
him, but was discovered, and it was found tnat a Capuchin, 
a Carmelite monk, a curate, and a Jesuit rector of the 
college at Paris were cognizant of and accessory to the con- 
spiracy. Soon after another fanatic, Jean Chatel, attempted 
his life, and actually wounded Henri. This young man 
had studied under the Jesuits, but it was never proved that 
they had instigated him to the deed. It is true that among 
the papers of a Jesuit called Guignard some satirical ana 
abusive expressions against the king were found, which 
seemed to imply an approbation of the crime. Chatel 
was broken on the wheel, and Guignard was hanged ; and 
the Parliament of Paris, already instigated against the 
Jesuits by the university, decreed their banishment in 1594, 
which sentence however did not extend to the jurisdictions 
of the parliaments of Bordeaux and Toulouse. But at the 
end of 1603 Henri IV., at the pressing request of the pope, 
recalled the Jesuits, saying to the president, De Harlay, 
who remonstrated against this measure, that ' the Jesuits 
ought no longer to be charged with the crimes of the 
League, which were the error of the times ; and as every 
state thought them useful in the education of youth, he 
should not shut the door against them, especially as he 
would not appear to mistrust his own born subjects.' On 
the 2nd of January, 1604, the parliament of Paris registered 
the kind's letters patent for the restoration of the Jesuits. 
From that time they remained in France, where they 
greatly extended the number of their colleges and pupils, 
though always seen with a jealous eye by many, till their 
final expulsion in 1 764. Their disputes with the Jansenists, 
which were carried on with great bitterness on both sides, 
are mentioned in the articles Arnauld and Jansenists. 

The Jesuits found their way into England under Eliza- 
beth, in whose reign several of them were implicated in 
conspiracies against the queen, for which they were exe- 
cuted. It ought to be noticed however, that De Thou, 
who is no friend to the Society, states that the conspira- 
tor Parry, who is said to have been encouraged in his at- 
tempt by a Venetian Jesuit, met at Paris the Jesuit Vatz, 
who caruestly dissuaded him from his purpose, quoting 
the opinions of other learned men of the Society, who de- 
clared that no reason, political or religious, could justify an 
attempt against the life of a sovereign, however heretical. 
This and other similar instances prove that in so numerous 
a body as that of the Jesuits' society men of various tem- 
pers and opinions must be found, some of whom, through a 
strained casuistry or fanatical zeal, arrived at totally dif- 
ferent conclusions from those of the more sober and more 
honest part of their community. 

In the reign of James L the Jesuit Garnet was tried for 
liaving participated in the Gunpowder Plot ; and after ex- 
hibiting throughout his examination a great aptitude for 
equivocation, he was condemned and executed. A full in- 
vestigation of this curious trial is given in vol. ii. of the 
• Criminal Trials,' published by the Society for the Diffusion 
of Useful Knowleage. 

The missions of the Jesuits form an important part of the 
history of their Society. The first attempts by Xavier were 
premature. He had more zeal than information, and the 
accounts of his numerous conversions ought to be received 
with caution. The arms of the Portuguese effected more 
conversions by force in India than Xavier's persuasion, who 
himself confesses that he could not understand nor be un- 
derstood by the natives, though he could baptize them. In 
Japan, where he went unprotected by a Portuguese force, 
he failed ; but he served as a pioneer to prepare the way 
for others bettor qualified for the task, and the Jesuits 
fomiod in time numerous Christian congregations in Japan. 
Tlie history of the Japanese Christians, and their extermi- 
nation in 1637, is found in Bartoli, Hisioria delta Com- 
pu^ma di Gesu, * II Giappone, seconda parte dell' Asia ;* 
and it forms a narrative of considerable interest, written 
apparently with great simplicity. The author does not dis- 
guisu \\ie faults committea by the Christians, which contri- 
buted to then- nun. 

In China the Jesuits were likewise successful, and theu: 



establishment there has been more durable. Bartoli. in 
another part of the same work, ' La Cina, terza parte dtU 
Asia,' gives an account of their settlement in that empire, 
and of their progress ; and further information is found m 
the * Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses.' [Haldb, Du.] Be- 
tween the years 1581 and 1681, one hundred and twenty-six 
European Jesuits were employed in the missions of Chin^ 
many of them men of information, to whom Europe is in- 
debted for the first authentic information respecting t}:^ 
internal condition of that vast emuire. The generals of v^v 
Society chose men acquainted witn mathematical and tne- 
chaniod sciences, which they knew were in request a: 
Pekin, and thus they obtained a footing and an influence at 
the emperor's court which no other Europeans ba7e ev^r 
acquired. Although persecutions burst out against tl? 
Christians of China, yet the Jesuits never entirely lost the r 
hold there, and their house at Pekin has continued to ei:?: 
till our own times. [Amiot, le Pers.] 

From India Jesuit missionaries found their way ir:i" 
Abyssinia, where Portuguese travellers had penetra! -\ 
many years before [Alvarez], but the Jesuits went farther 
into the country, especially in its southern parts, than a: \ 
other Europeans, either before or after them. Psez a: ^ 
Lobo visited the sources of the BahrelAzrek, or Abyssinui: 
Nile, and Father Fernandez proceeded as far as Nam, 
about 8' N. lat. [Tellez.] * 

In Paraguay the Jesuits had an open field for the dis- 
play of their abilities and principles. Their missioDar:ei 
went to South America after the country had been dera^- 
tated by the Spanish conquerors, who hunted the Indians 
like wild beasts. The Jesuits judged that the poor nativL3 
might be converted by milder means, and be made Chr.>t- 
ians and happy at the same time. They obtained ftt>m th< 
court of Spain a declaration that all their Indian prosehtcsi 
should be considered free men, and that the Jesuits shoula 
have the government of the communities of converts whiLi. 
they should formin the interior of the country. And the 
Jesuits did form a flourishing community of Indian conven% 
on the banks of the Paraguay and the Parana, who a^^ 
said to have amounted to l>etween one and two buiid:L« '. 
thousand, and they governed them for a century and a h-i i 
in peace and happiness, keeping them in the condition J 
docile but contented pupils, directing their labours, and in- 
structing them in the useAil arts, but not in the reflnement> 
or luxuries of Europe. There were no taxes or law-suits ;.; 
Paraguay ; each able-bodied man had a moderate ta&k : - 
perform, and the produce of their common labour provided 
for the wants of all. Writers of very different opinions, Ray- 
nal, Montesquieu, Robertson, Muratori, Southey, and others, 
have done justice to the paternal administration of tr? 
Jesuits in Paraguay. 

Other accounts of that remarkable colony are found m 
numerous works, in the 'Letters from Paraguay,' in 'b< 
various histories of the * Jesuits' Missions,' &c. Ajid it i* 
a remarkable instance of political injustice, that the \er. 
benefits which the Jesuits were imparting to mankind I'u 
South America should have been made the cause or prett.\i 
for their ruin. In 1 750, Spain, by a treaty with Portuic/. 
thought proper to give up seven districts of Paraguay r.- 
the latter power, in exchange for a territory which the Por- 
tuguese had occupied on the left bank of the river Li 
Plata, and the Spanish government ordered the Jesuits ani 
their Indian pupils to abandon their homes and remove :> 
some other part of the Spanish territories. The father? 
in vain remonstrated against the injustice and cruelty of 
expelling men firom the fields which they had by their IuIm.lt 
reclaimed from the wUdemess ; the harsh mandate Vi^* 
repeated, and the Jesuits were prepared to obey. But ti j 
natives refused to submit, and resisted the Portuguese ar 1 
Spanish forces which were sent against them, and alihoi.^ ; 
a subsequent change in the diplomatic relations of the i\k . 
countries left the Indians in possession of their country, \e: 
the Jesuits were falsely accused of having encouraged "v v..\ 
was styled the rebellion. The Spanish government, nti.: 
mature investigation, acquitted them, but the Portuiru- - 
minister Pombal, a harsh and unprincipled man, bcJicNt. : 
or affected to believe in the rebellious spirit of the latlur> 
whom he wished to expel from Portugal, because he >v.». 
jealous of their influence, and had found them repeated! v s!. 
the way of his plans and schemes at home. An atteiiu 
by some noblemen to murder the king, Joseph of Portui; ., 
was charged upon the Jesuits, because Father Malagna.i, 
one of the Society, was the confessor of some of the guilt i. 



J E S 



114 



J e: s 



and professors, tut still the method and the discipline of 
the Society were in most instances continued, heing found 
too useful to he ahrogated. 

The general of the Society, Father Ricci, was confined in 
the castle of St. Angelo, being suspected of still assuming in 
secret his former authority over the dispersed Jesuits, and 
also, but apparently without foundation, of having concealed 
sums belonging to the Society. Nothing however having 
transpired against him, he was treated with some courtesy 
and attention, but was kept in confinement till his death, 
in November, 1775. On his death-bed, before receiving the 
sacrament, he signed a solemn though mild protest on be- 
half of the extinct Society, the conduot of which, he said, to 
the best of his knowledge, had not afforded grounds for its 
suppression, nor had he himself given any reason for his 
imprisonment: he ended by forgiving sincerely all those 
who had contributed to both. His remains were ouried with 
all due honour in the church of the Gesii, among those of 
his predecessors. 

After the Society had been suppressed for about 30 years, 
several attempts were made at the beginning of the pre- 
sent century to re-establish it. Many persons in high sta- 
tions, frightened at the convulsions which agitated the 
world, imagined that had the Jesuits continued they might 
have proved a powerful means for maintaining order and 
preventing revolutions by the moral influence which they 
had over youth. In 1801, Pius VII. issued a brief, allowing 
the Jesuits of Russia to live as a Society, and to have colleges 
and schools. Another brief, dated 30th July, 1 804, allowed, 
at the request of king Ferdinand of Naples, the opening of 
schools and colleges by the Jesuits in the kingdom of the 
t*wo Sicilies. Lastly, after his restoration, Pius VII. issued 
a bull, in August, 1814, solemnly re-establishing the Society 
as a religious order, under the constitutions of St Ignatius, 
and unoer obedience to the general chosen by it, to be 
employed in educating youth in any country of which the 
sovereign shall have previously recalled or consented to 
receive them ; and Pius began by restoring to them their 
house of the Gesil, and afterwards the Roman college. The 
Jesuits have colleges now also in the Sardinian states, in 
Modena, and in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and like- 
wise at Freyburg in Switzerland, where they have a fine 
college, attended by pupils from France and other coun- 
tries. In France they had re-introduced themselves in a kind 
of clandestine manner after the Restoration, upon which a 
great outcry was raised, and they were finally expelled in 
1 830. Botn the expectations of their friends and the fears 
of their enemies appear to have been exaggerated, as cir- 
cumstances have cnangcd too much in Europe to allow the 
Jesuits to resume anything like their former influence. In 
Spain Ferdinand restored them, but after his death the po- 
pulace of Madrid, excited by the declamations of the ultra- 
liberals against the monks, took it into their heads, during 
the prevalence of the cholera, that the Jesuits and other 
monks had poisoned the springs. Under the influence of this 
delusion they repaired to the convents, and particularly to 
that of the Jesuits, and murdered the inmates in their cells. 
Since that time the legislature has suppressed all monastic 
institutions in Spain. 

In Russia the Jesuits were expelled by a ukase of the 
emperor Alexander, in June, 1817, upon the charge of in- 
triguing and of making proselytes among the members of 
the established Greek church. 

The act of the lOlh Geo. IV., c. 7, which is entitled • An 
Act for the Relief of his Majesty's Roman Catholic sub- 
jects,* forbids Jesuits, or members of other religious orders, 
com muni ties, or societies of the Church of Rome, bound by 
monastic or religious vows, from coming into the realm, 
under pain of benig banished from it for life ; except na- 
tural born subjects, who were out of the realm at the time 
of the passing of the act. Such religious persons may how- 
ever enter the United Kingdom on obtaining a licence in 
writing from one of the principal secretaries of state, who 
in a Protestant, and may stay such time as such secretary 
shall permit, not exceeding six months, unless the licence 
is revoked before the end of the six months. The act also 
makes it a misdemeanor in any Jesuit, or member of other 
religious body described in the act, to admit, or to aid in or 
consent to the admission of, any person within the United 
Kingdom to be a member of sucn body; and any perhon 
admitted or becoming a Jesuit, or member of other such 
body within the United Kingdom, shall, upon conviction, 

bo bani»hed from th« United Kingdom for lifi;. It is how- ( 



ever provided that nothing in this act shftlt aSecft any reh 
gious order, community, or eatablishment OORsisting o. 
females bound by religious or monastic tows. 

Of the bitter polemics And the multifarious charrr's 
against the Jesuits we have not space here to Speak at any 
length, but we will refer our readers to the principal work« 
among a most voluminous mass of writings, both in atta^ k 
and defence of the Society. The polemical works on xh-- 
subject are innumerable, but a gooa history of the Jesur« 
is still wanted. The ' Histoire G^n^le des J^uites,' I-. 
La Coudrette, is a work of considerable research and extcii- 
sive information, hut the author was a party writer a^in *. 
the Society ; and his own assertions, whenever thej are n : 
supported by authentic proofs, must not be implicitir 
trusted. 2. The femous ' Lettres Provinciales,' by Pascal 
had great success at the time, but the charges which h«> 
brought against the Jesuits, though founded upon ih^ 
notions of some individual casuists belonging to the ord*^. 
cannot in fairness bear against the body of the SociHv, 
which did not countenance their extravagant doctrin-^ 
Voltaire himself, no friend to the Jesuits, acknowled^-i 
this; and Father Daniel, in his ' Entretiens de Cleani.^* 
et d'Eudoxe,' has refuted most of Pascal's argumen'*. 

3. Arnauld, a polemical writer of the Jansenists' party, wrou- 
' La Morale Pratique des J6suites,* in which also charts < 
against individuals are eonstrued into general ebarj.*- 
against the whole Society, and some real ftnts and do* > 
ments are mixed up with party bitterness and exaggeratior. 

4. ' Extrait des Assertions dan^ereuses et pemicieuse^ on 
tout genre que Ics soidisant J6smtes ont, dans tous les tem^. 
perseveramment soutcnues, ensei^n^es, et publi6es dn'» 
leurs livres, avec approbation des Snp^rieurs et Gr6n^rau\.' 
This book seems to come directly to the purpose hy appeal in? 
to numerous passages extracted from Jesuit writers. Bu^ 
then there is a * R^ponse aux Assertions,* in 3 vols. 4t.», 
1763, in which the author of the previous work is charj-i 
with no less than 758 fedsifications and alterations of i!:*- 
texts quoted by him, and the advocate of the Jesuits pro- 
duces in every instance the original text and confronts it 
with the corresponding one in the assertions. In order • > 
judge correctly one ought to refer to the original warK^ 
These are the most weighty authorities against the Jesur^ 
Among the defenders of the Society must be mentior^-! 
• Apologie de llnstitut des J6suites,* 2 vols. 8vo., whirl: :< 
a standard work in their defence. Numerous declamat n 
works and satirical pamphlets have been publi^ed aga?' >: 
the Society, most of which are contemptible in point of ar- 
gument The famous * Monita Secreta,* of preten-i:'. 
private instructions given to the higher and most tr^ : 
members of the order, are now generally acknowled^e<i \ 
be spurious. The more substantial charges brought aga. •-* 
the Society may be classed under the following heads :— 
1. Antisocial and immoral principles found in some worki -.t 
Jesuit casuists, such as Escobar, Mariana, Sanchex, B^ul.^. 
Busenbaum, &c. It does not appear however that tr. 
Jesuits in general, either individually or as a body, act.-; 
upon these obnoxious principles, which, on the contn-..^. 
were censured and repudiated by the Society, llbe doctn:, : 
of their most illustrious moralists, of Father Bourdalouc, t 
Cardinal Sforza Pallavicino, of Bellarmino, and others, ar. 
free from such stains. 2. General latitudinarianism in ir.. 
ethics and moral practice of the Jesuits, not so much w.'K 
regard to their own conduct, which, with very few indjN- 
dual exceptions, is acknowledged to have been pui-e jr-1 
freer from scandal than that of most other monastic order-, 
but with regard to the lay persons whose consciences tlr.^ 
directed, or to their proselytes in distant countries, such :> 
China, where they are accused of winking at several suy- r- 
St itious and idolatrous practices among the new convtr - 
and for which they were in fact censured by the p.: 
himself. [Clement XL] Their doctrine of probabil:-' 
their attaching too great an importance to tne merit ' 
good works, and their bias towards casuistry and equiviM m 
tion, have been often animadverted upon. 3. Great a • 
bition of ruling over the consciences of the people. T.-.' 
institutions and practice of the Society certainly tendttl : > 
keep the world in subjection, by means of early disci i»l • » 
and persuasion, to the spiritual authority of the Ri»u... i 
Catholic church, and to the temporal authority of the i - 
spcctive sovereigns. That this should have excited t;? 
animosity of those who dissented from that church, of vi h « i 
the Jesuits were the firmest support--that the ProlestanTi 

for imtasee should bare had no ftiendl/ feeling fox ihejt 



J E S 



116 



JEW 



Oriental philology, Kircher, Ignazio Rossi, Amiot, Gkiubil, 
&c. The * Fasti Societatis Jesu,' the * Acta Sanctorom S. 
J./ the numerous letters and memoirs of the various mis- 
sions, may be consulted in order to judge of the value of 
Jesuit learning and labour. 

JESUITS' BARK. [CiNcnoNA.1 

JESSULMER. [Hindustan, p. 221.] 

JESUS. [Christ.] 

JESUS, son of Siracht was a learned Jew of Jerusalem, 
who employed himself in collecting sayings of wise men, 
from which, with additions of his own, he formed the book 
of EccLssiASTicns. (Ecclenasticw, ch.l.,ver. 27.) We know 
little of him but what we can gather from that book. Ac- 
cording to Bretschneider, he composed it about 180 B.c. ; 
a date which is rendered probable by the fact that, in enu- 
merating the illustrious men of the Hebrew nation, the last 
he mentions is the high-priest Simon, the son of Onias, of 
whom he speaks in terms which make it probable that he 
had seen him ; while he does not mention the Maccabees. 

Another Jesus, a grandson of the former, and whose 
father's name is also supposed to have been Sirach, trans- 
lated the book of Ecclesiasticus into Greek, probably about 
1 30 B c. ; fbr he states in his prologue to the book that he 
went into Egypt in the reign of Euergetes (Ptolemy VII., 
Euergetes II.), and there executed the translation. 

This is the general opinion ; but Jahn thinks it probable 
that Jesus composed the book of Ecclesiasticus about b.c. 
292 — 280; that the Simon, son of Onias, whom he praises, 
was the first of that name, not the second ; and tnat his 
grandson executed the translation under Ptolemy Euer- 
getes I., who reigned b.c. 247 — 222. He founds this opinion 
chiefly on the character of Simon 1. agreeing with the eulogy 
of the writer belter tlian that of Simon II. 

(Bretschneider, Liber Jesu SiracidcB; Homers Introduc- 
tion, vol. iv. ; Jahn, Introd. in Lib. Sac, Vet, Fasd.) 

JESUS COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, was founded in 
1496, by John Alcock, bishop of Ely, who had obtained 
from King Henry VII. a grant of the nunnery of St. Ra- 
degund, then lately suppressed ; all the lands which had 
been bestowed upon that monastery were given as an en- 
dowment, and the buildings were converted into a college. 
It has sixteen foundation fellowships, open to natives of 
England and Wales, without any restriction or appropriation 
whatsoever ; five of the original foundation, four founded by 
Dr. Fuller, master of the College, and the rest by various 
benefactors. Six of the fellows are required to be in priests' 
orders. On every vacancy of a fellowship the master and 
fellows nominate two candidates, of whom the bishop of 
Ely elects one. There is one fellowship, founded by James 
Stanley, bishop of Ely, to which the bishop has an exclu- 
sive right both to nominate and appoint The mastership 
of this College is in the absolute appointment of the bishop 
of Ely. Various scholarships, exhibitions, and smaller 
foundations, of different annual values, from 70/. to 3/. 6^. 8 J., 
have been bestowed on this C!ollege from time to time by 
ilifferent benefactors. It has also some annual prizes of 
value. The total number of members upon the boards of 
this College, on March 12, 1838, amounted to 179. Its 
patronage consists in the rectories of Graveley and Harlton 
in Cambridgeshire, of Stanley Regius in Gloucestershire, 
Tewing in Herts, and Cavendish andWhatfield inSuflblk; 
and in the vicarages of All Saints and St. Clement's in 
Cambridge, those of Comberton, Fordham, Guilden Mor- 
aen, Hinxton, Swavesey, and Whittlesford, in Cambridge- 
shire; of Elmstead in Essex, and of Hundon in Suffolk. 
(Lysons's Cambridgeshire, pp. 118, 119; Comb. Univ, Ca- 
lendar for 1838.) 

JESUS COLLEGE. OXFORD, owes ito foundation to 
the zeal of Hugh ap Rice, or Price, a native of Brecknock, 
who, when far advanced in life, meditated the establishment 
of a college which should extend the benefits of learning to 
the natives of Wales, an advantage which, previous to his 
time, had not been provided for at Oxford. With this in- 
tention he petitioned Queen Elizabeth that she would be 
pleased to found a colleee on which he might bestow a 
certain property. Her Majesty accordingly granted a 
charter of foundation, dated June 27, 1571, prescribing that 
the college should be erected by the name of 'Jesus Col- 
. «ege, within the City and University of Oxford, of Queen 
Elizabeth's foundation ;' the Society to consist of a princi- 
pal, eight fellows, and eight scholars ; and for their mainte- 
nance Dr. Price (for he had now become a Doctor of Civil 
Law) was permitted to settle estates to the yearly value of 



160/. To this the queen added a quantity of timber from 
her forests of Shotover and Stow. The foundex^s estates, 
which he conveyed June 30, lay in Brecknockshire ; and he 
bestowed upwards of 1 500/. upon the building, leaving be- 
sides some money, which was suffered to accumulate, and 
which, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
amounted to 700/. Hugh Price, who was a prebendary uf 
Rochester and treasurer of St. David's, died in August, 
1574. In 1589 the Society procured another charter of the 
queen, empowering them to bold possessions to the value of 
200/. per annum, and to appoint commissionera for th« 
drawing up of statutes. 

King Charles L in 1636 founded a fellowship to be hdd 
by a native of Guernsey or Jersey ; Bishop W estphalinj: 
and Sir John Walter founded one for a native of England ; 
Bishop Rowlands, Dr. Francis Mansell, Dr. Tnoma: 
Gwynne, and others, added fellowships and scholarships for 
natives of different districts of Wales, or for schools in tlse 
principality x and Sir Leoline Jenkins, who was almost a 
second founder, bequeathed to the College divers lands ami 
tenements for au^enting the then sixteen fellowships and 
sixteen scholarships, and for founding two additional fellov- 
ships and scholarships. One fellowship was afterwaris 
adaed, by a decree in chancery, out of the residue of Sir 
Leoline*s personal estate. So that the Society at present 
consists of a principal, nineteen fellows, and eighteen 
scholars. 

Several exhibitions have likewise been founded by differ- 
ent bene&ctors, of which twenty-four are for natives of 
North Wales, by the Rev. Edmund Meyrick, MA., trea- 
surer of St David's ; three for Caermarthenshire, by Bloom ; 
two for Brecknockshire, or Radnorshire, by Powell; one 
for a native of Ruthin, or diocese of St. Asaph, by Bishop 
Parry; one for Caernarvonshire, by subscription, to be 
called Mr. Asshetou Smith's ; two by Le Hunt ; four by 
the Grocers* Company ; two by the Salters' Company ; and 
some connected with the Cowbridge School foundation by 
Sir Leoline Jenkins. 

The patronage of this College consists in the rectories of 
Longworth and Remenham in Berks ; of Ashton Clinton in 
Buckinghamshire ; of Bagendon, or Badgington. in G)oa- 
cestershire ; Scarthe in Lincolnshire ; Brandeston and Fur- 
thoo in Northamptonshire ; Rotherfield Pipard and Wig- 
ginton in Oxfordshire ; Nutfield in Surrey; Tudington in 
Worcestershire ; Llandyssil in Cardiganshire ; Clynno^ Vavr 
and Llan Wuda in Caernarvonshire ; and Llandon in GU- 
morgan shire ; with the vicarages of Shipston-cum-Tidming- 
ton in Worcestershire, and Holywell in Flintshire; the 
impropriation of Badgworth, and the chapelry of CbarltDn 
Kings, in Gloucestershire; and the impropriations of 
Holyhead, Bodedern, and Uandrygarn with Bodwrog, in 
Anglesey. 

The present number of members upon the books of this 
College is 149. 

(Gutch's Colleges and Halls; Chalmers's HisL qf the 
Univ. ; Octford Calendar, 1838.) 

JET, a variety of coal, which occurs sometimes in elou- 
gated rentform masses, and sometimes in the form of 
branches, with a woody structure; fracture conchoidal; 
soft and brittle ; sp. gr. but little greater than that of water ; 
lustre brilliant and resinous ; colour velvet black ; opaque. 
It is found in Saxony, and also in the Prussian amber- 
mines, in detached fragments. The finer sorts are used for 
the manufacture of ornaments and trinkets, and the coarser 
kinds as fuel ; it bums with a greenish flame and a strong 
bituminous smell, and leaves a yellowish ash. 

JETHOU. [GUBRKSEY.] 

JETSAM. [Flotsam.] 

JEWELL, JOHN (bom 1522, died 1671), one of the 
fathers of the English Protestant church. He was bora in 
Devonshire, and educated in grammar-schools in that 
county, till at the age of thirteen he was sent to Oxford, 
where he was entered at Morton College, under the tuition 
of John Parkhurst, who was afterwards the Protestant 
bishop of Norwich. When eighteen, he was admitted B. A. , 
and at that early age he became a college tutor. Henry VHI. 
was still upon the throne, and it was hazardous for any one 
to make himself conspicuous either as an opposer of the 

Srinciples of the Reformation or as an advocate of them, 
ewell therefore kept himself quiet, contenting himself wiih 
inculcating Reformation principles privately in his lectuix>s 
to his pupils; but when King Henry was dead, and tho 
ecclesiastical policy of the country became more decidcdiv 



JEW 



118 



JEW 



ingwaA eontinuQd througli to' the opposite 'surface. The 

Eiece of stone, or hole, as it is called, is also turned with a 
ollow or countersink to receive the oil necessary for the 
lubrication of the pivot. A piece of brass, one end of which 
is shaped to fit the hollow, is charged with fine diamond- 
powder, the finger being applied to the other end, and by 
pressing it against the stone, and at the same time b^ a mo- 
tion of the finger giving every possible change of position to 
the brass which is compatible with keeping it in the hollow 
of the stone, from which it should not be suffered to slip, the 
stone is beautifully polished. The stone is afterwards de- 
tached firom the lathe, and its flat or parallel surfaces po- 
lished by rubbing it with all the rapidity of which the hand 
is capable on a piece of plate-glass, previously charged with 
a small quantity of diamond-powaer and oil. When an 
end-piece is required the same process is gone through, ex- 
cept that the drilling is omitted, and the spherical side of 
the stone is polished by usin^ a piece of brass with a hollow 
end to suit the convexity of the stone. The jeweller also 
makes use of a small spirit-lamp to heat the cement when 
he applies it for the purpose of securing the stones upon 
the chucks in the l^the, and after one side of a stone has 
been made true by turning, and the hole drilled partly 
through the stone as before stated, it is reversed, and 
fixed perfectly true on the chuck by keeping the cement 
so warm that the stone may be moved by the pressure of 
a piece of wood or metal, which the workman makes use 
of for that purpose, by apply in jf it to the edge or surface of 
the stone, as required* while the lathe is in motion. Another 
and very ingenious mode of changing the surface of the 
stone for the purpose of completing the operation of drilling 
without detaching it from the cement is the following: — 
A hollow chuck is made to fit upon the lathe, into the ex- 
terior edge, of which a groove is turned to receive a lid or 
cover, which is turned true, and so formed upon the edge 
that it will snap tight into the before-named groove with 
either of its sides outwards, a small piece being taken out of 
its edge to allow of the insertion of any small tool to remove 
the cover in the same way as the cover is removed from a 
watch-barrel. A small hole is made in the centre of this 
cover, over which the stone is cemented, and when the 
drilling on one side is completed, the cover, and with it the 
stone, is removed, and by snapping in the cover the con- 
trary side outwards the other surface of the stone is pre- 
sented to the operator, and the act of drilling is repeated ; 
for the cover and groove being turned perfectly true, the 
centre of motion of the stone is not affected by the reversing 
of the cover. 

The end-pieces, when real diamonds are used, are what 
arc called rose diamonds, and are procured from Holland, 
where they are cut. 

JEW'S-HARP, a musical instrument of the simplest 
and rude&t kind, consisting of an iron frame, resembling in 
form the handle part of an old-fashioned corkscrew, in the 
centre of the upper and wide part of which is riveted at one 
end an elastic steel tongue, the extremity of which, at the 
free end, is bent outwards to a right angle, so as to allow 
the finger easily to strike it wlien the instrument is placed 
to the mouth and firmly supported by the pressure of the 
parallel extremities of tlie frame ac'iainst the teeth. 

Professor C. Wheatstone has shown that the sounds of 
the JewVharp mainly depend on the reciprocation of 
columns of air in the mouth of the performer, and that 
these sounds are perfectly identical with the multiples of 
the original vibrations of the instrument. Hence its scale 
must necessarily bo very incomplete; but by employing two 
or more instruments, the defioienoies are supplied. A few 
years ago, an ingenious foreigner, M. Eulenstein, exhibited 
in London, at the Royal Institution, his very extraordinary 
talcni on the Jew's-harp. He used sixteen instruments of 
ditlercnt sizes, and was thus enabled to mwlulate into every 
key, and to produce effects not only original, but musical 
and agreeable. 

JEWS (loviaJoi and JUD^EI in Greek and in Latin), in its 
widest acceptation, is used as synonymous with Hebrews, or 
Israelites, but in a more restricted sense it means the inha- 
bitants of the kingdom of Judaea as it existed in the time of 
Jesus Christ, and whose descendants are now scattered over 
all the world. The history of this people previous to the 
time of Christ is contained in the Old Testament and in 
Josephus. Their great ancestor Abraham, called * the He- 
brew' (Genesis, xiv. 13), by birth a Chalda)an, emigrated. 
about im years b.c, with his wife Sarai, his nephew Lot, 



and hifl niuneroufl Bervants and flocks, into tha land of 
Canaan, the modem Palestine, where he settled. [Abra- 
ham.] At an advanced age his wife bore him a son, Isak' . 
from whom the Hebrews are descended. Abraham's elUK-: 
son Ishmael, whose mother was an Egyptian and a s!a\ t% 
settled in the wilderness of Arabia. Isaac married Rebe-r j 
by whom he had two sons, Esau and Jacob, the former if 
whom was a hunter, and gave up his birthright to L > 
younger brother Jacob. Jacob, sumamed Israel, or * t..- 
strong ' (Genesis, xxxii. 28), had twelve sons, namely Ke-.- 
ben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Aab-'^ 
Issachar, Zabulon, Joseph, and Benjamin. From tiic^. 
were descended the twelve tribes of Israel, or of the Hel r- ^^ 
nation. One of Jacob's sons, Joseph, came by a siniri. .r 
course of vicissitudes to be first minister to one of :1. 
Pharaoh kings of Egypt, and he settled his brethren ir. 
fertile district of that country, where his and their desctL .■ 
ants throve and multiplied so as to form in the cour^ - 
about two centiuries after Joseph's time a very nunieri^t 
colony sulnect to the Egyptians, by whom they were d- 
liked as aliens, and treated with great harshness. Be:. - 
driven to despair, they found a leader in one of their c ..:.• 
trymen, Moses, who, acting under the special direction a 
God, led them out of the land of Egypt, to return to iUr * 
their ancestors, Canaan, the possession of which Go4i h. 
promised to the posterity of Abraham. The nuniber (if ' 
Israelites at their departure from Egypt is stated n 
Exodus (xii. 37) at six hundred thousand men, hv-. < 
women and children, with their flocks and herds of c:i: . 
Being pursued by the Egyptians, tbev crossed on dry lan-l ' . 
northern extremity of the western of the two great gui:> ) 
which the Red Sea terminates, now called the gulf of bo 7 
and entered the peninsula of Sinai, Jn Arabia. The wii;c > 
of the sea, which, at the command of the Lord, had di\iu . 
and made a passage for the children of Israel on drr hn i. 
returned at the same command, and overwhelmed tl-j 
pursuers. 

The departure of the Israelites from Egypt took i»!a' ^. 
according to most clwonologists, in 1491 b.c. [Exo;.;v 
On Mount Sinai Moses received from God the law of '. ' 
Ten Commandments, and from that time the Israel:: ' 
were taught to consider themselves as being under the im- 
mediate government of the deity, who, from time to time, (l . c 
known his will to them tlurough their leader Moses. The h • ', 
of Moses called Exodus and Leviticus contain the civil u --» 
and social regulations, as well as therites and religious cert Li • 
nies. Other laws which were successively promulgati^ i.-r 
found in the following books of Numbers 9Lnd Deuieron • - 
so as to form a complete body of institutions for the Hei.: . 
community. Of these laws some were temporary direc;. 
suited only to the nomadic state in whicii the Is>rat'..' ^ 
spent many years in the wilderness; others are enaotn.c:. - 
intended for an agricultural people with settled habitat 
and for the time when they should become possessed oi u 
promised land of Canaan. Sanitary regulations concern. ., 
diet, cleanliness, and decency form an important par* ■ • 
the code, and are admirably adapted to the people, cou:.'r.. 
and climate for which they were intended, llie pi ;:• 
system was founded upon equality, without any distaic. . 
of castes; the whole nation was to be one great b<.wiv n 
husbandmen cultivating their ovra property. Tlie i-^ 
could not be alienated in perpetuity ; every fiftieth year ; 
jubilee was to take place, when all estates which had ! .« ' 
alienated were to revert to their original owners, and -: 
burthens, debts, and other engagements were to cease. 

One tribe, the descendants of Levi, was set apart i\ r :. 
ligious service : they had no tract of country saiMenci ' 
them, but were to dwell by themselves in separate tovi.- • 
villages, scattered tlurough the territory of the other ii:L't- 
Out of this class the otliciating priesthood was chuM n. •> 
well as the scribes and keepers of records, the jud^i>. i- . 
perhaps also the physicians. They were in fact the lea .- 
tlas| of the nation; they read the law to the people. . ; . 
they attended by rotation on the officiating priests in ti.. 
Tabernacle. One-tenth of the whole produce of the I. 
possessed by the other tribes was assigned to the Lo\,\ 
for their maintenance. Each tribe bad its own chieftain • 
prince, and the heads or elders of each family const it ir 
the provincial assembly. On occasions of great emergt i. . 
national assemblies were held, probably consisting^ of p^ • 
gates from each tribe, and their resolutions were ratified ' • 
the general voice of the people expressed by acclamai. s. 
Tliis took place repeatedly during their encaxnpmcnt in u.i 



JEW 



120 



JEW 



phaniah, Jeremiah, and Habakkuk. Daniel and Ezekiel 
belong to the period of the Captivity. 

The captivity of Judah lasted seventy years, after which 
Cyrus, having conquered Babylon, allowed the Jews to re- 
turn to their own country. They assembled for that pur- 
pose to the number of 42.360, under Zerubbabel, a de- 
scendant of their kings, and on arriving in Judsea were 
joined by Uiose of the common people and cultivators of the 
soil who had remained in their native country. They began 
lebuilding Jerusalem and the Temple, and their neighbours 
the Samaritans, who inhabited part of the territory of the 
finrmer kixigdom of Israel, offered to join them in the fur- 
therance ofthe great national work ; an offer however which 
was contemptuously rejected by the Jews, who looked upon 
the Samaritans as alien colonists, although the Samaritans 
themselves asserted their descent from the tribes of Ephraim 
and Manasseh. When the Assyrians led the ten tribes into 
captivity, they probably took away only the higher class of 
people, as the Babylonians did with those of Judsea, and did 
not depopulate the whole country ; besides which, during 
the course of more than two centuries, and particularly after 
the subversion of the Assyrian empire, many exiles or de- 
scendants of exiles may have fbund their way back to their 
native land. The fact that the Samaritans have preserved 
the ' Pentateuch* in the original characters, while the Jews 
on their return from Babylon adopted the Chaldcean form 
of letters, is strongly in fkvour of their Israelitish descent, 
though they may have been mixed by alliance with Assyrian 
and 6ther colonists. The Jews however always showed a 
deadly animosity against the Samaritans, whom they in- 
sisted on considering as aliens and idolaters, although they 
in reality acknowledged the law of Moses. 

The character of the Jews themselves had undergone a 
considerable change during their Babylonish captivity. 
They had become more exclusively attached to their country 
and their laws, and we hear no more of their proneness to 
idolatry after that epoch, as in former times. They strictly 
avoided intermarriage with foreigners, and assumed in 
every respect that unsocial spirit towards all exeept their 
own community for which they have been so often re- 
proached« Adversity had soured their minds* while the ex- 
p«;ctations of a Messiah who was announced by their prophets 
roused the national pride. The doctrine of the immorta- 
lity of the soul, which is not mentioned in the Mosaic law, 
was also introduced, especially among the great sect of the 
Chasadim, or Pharisees. 

Under the mild rule of the Persian kings the Jews en- 
joyed many of the advantages of independence united with 
security. They were allowed the management of their 
internal affairs, and the high-priest was their chief magis- 
trate. In this manner they lived quietly and unnoticed, 
but yet thriving, for about two centuries, till Uie year 
333 B.C., when Alexander, after gaining the battle of Issus, 
appeared in Syria. Jerusalem made its submission, and 
was spared by the conqueror. After Alexander's death, 
Judsea fell under the dominion of the Ptolemies, who 
showed fovour to the Jews, and planted colonies of them m 
their capital Alexandria, and at Cyrene. The high-priests 
continued to have the direction of the internal administra- 
tion of the country. From the Ptolemies Judcea passed 
under the rule of the kings of Syria, under the reign of An- 
iiochus the Great, 198 b.c. Antiochus visited Jerusalem, and 
confirmed the privileges which the Jews had enjoyed under 
the Ptolemies ; but under the reign of his second son An- 
tiochus Epiphanes, owing to the intrigues of several aspirants 
to the high-priesthood, an insurrection broke out in Jeru- 
salem, whieh was put down by Antiochus with great 
slaughter of the inhabitants. Antiochus now attempted 
what no one had attempted before him, to force the Jews to 
renounce their God ana worship Jupiter of Olympus, whose 
statue was erected on the altar of the Temple. The Jews 
generally refused. Great cruelties were committed by the 
officers of Antiochus against the recusants in every part of 
Judflaa, until a spirited resistance begun by Mattathias, and 
continued under his son Judas, styled Maccabee, had the 
effect of delivering the country from the hateful oppression 
of the Syrians. [Maccabees.] The Maccabees were a 
family of heroes. After the death of Judas and two of his 
brothers who fell in battle, Jonathan, another brother, con- 
tinued the struggle, and having formed an alliance with 
Rome, was left at last in quiet poisession of Judeea. A 
revolution in the kingdom of Syria added to his strength 
and importance. Alexander Balas, who claimed the crown 



of Syria, offered Jonathan the high-priesthood and e?;/gttp- 
tion from all tribute and taxes, besides other advantlgesf. if 
he would support him against his rival Demetrius. Junj- 
thaii assentea, and Balas having seated himself on tik 
throne, 150 B.C., presented Jonathan with a purple rohf, 
and appointed him meridarch of Judsea, a title wbirh. 
under his successors, was changed into that of king. Witb 
Jonathan begins the dynasty of the Asmonseaus, or * Ill'.i»- 
trious,' which ruled Judsea for about a century, and under 
which the country resumed a decree of independence and 
splendour, which it had not experienced since the reigns uf 
David and of Solomon. [Asiconxan s.] 

The last of the Asmonseau dynasty were put to death bv 
Herod son of Antipater the Idumean, who, with the sup- 
port of the Romans, became king of Judaea, 38 b.c. [Hebod 
THE Great.] He died in the same year that Christ wm 
bom, although in the common chronology the birth of Chrut 
is placed four years later. With Herod the independence ol 
Judsaa may be said to have expired. His son Archelauf 
was appointed ethnarch of Juosea Proper, Idumosa, and 
Samaria; his brother Herod Antipas had Galilee and 
Persea ; to Herod Philip were given the provinces of Tia- 
chonitis, Batansea, and Gaulonitis, east of the Jordan, and 
another Philip had Itunea. Thus the dominions of llatul 
were dismembered between four of his sons, who ai'c arcurd 
ingly styled Tetrarchs in the New Testament Arcbeh.b 
was summoned to Rome after a reign of nine year). 
to answer certain charges brought against him by his s-Jt- 
jects, and was banished by Augustus to Vienne in Gaul. 
Judsea thus became a Roman province, or rather a distrii t 
dependent on the great province or prefecture of S>ria. 
though administered by a special governor, a man usual h 
of the Equestrian order. This is the state to which Judxi 
was reduced in the time of our Saviour. The Jews howcvtr 
continued to enjoy the exercise of their religious and mun.- 
cipal liberties. 

Under the reign of Claudius, Herod Agrippa, grand^'ti 
of Herod the Great, who had been already appointed In 
Caligula ethnarch of Galilee, was appointed king of Judxi 
and all the former dominions of his grandfather, but he diti 
three years after, at CsBsarea in Palestine, a J>. 44 : this is tl •• 
Herod mentioned in chapter xii. of the Acts, His son, calii i 
likewise Herod Agrippa, was then a minor, and Judaea n*- 
lapsed into a Roman province. In a.d. 53 Claudius p\t 
to Agrippa the provinces east of Jordan, which had belongs i 
to Philip the Tetrarch, and Nero added to them part • : 
Galilee. But Judsa and Samaria continued to be adm. 
nistered by Roman procurators. Herod however wa» en- 
trusted by the emperor with the superintendence of tb- 
Temple and the right of appointing and deposing the hii:!'- 
priest at Jerusalem, and he occasionally resided in that cn), 
while the Roman governor generally resided at CsDsorc^ 
This second Herod Agrippa is the one mentioned in J*s. 
XXV., xxyi., there styled King Agrippa^ whom St. Paul ad 
dressed in so impressive a manner in his defence. Agrippa 
was present at the final catastrophe of Jerusalem. 

A succession of more than usually rapacious Roman 

fovernors, Felix, Albinus, and Florus, had driven lU 
ews to the verge of despair. A tumult, which broke 



out at GsBsarea between the Greeks and the Jews, follow cl 
by fresh exactions and cruelties of Florus, who seemed t* 
wish to drive the people into insurrection, led the way to an 
open revolt against the Romans. Agrippa, who, with biiN 
sister Berenice, happened to be at Jerusalem, remonsUtited 
with the people on the rashness of the attempt, but in vain. 
and he witharew to his own dominions. A party called the 
Zealots, or fanatics, now obtained the ascendency over the 
minds ofthe people, and the feeble Roman garrison was over 
powered ana massacred. At the same time the Greeks of 
CflBsarea massacred all the J ews in that city, and the Roman 
governor Florus took no notice of the transaction. 

Other cities of Palestine and Syria followed the example 
of CsBsarea by a wholesale butchery of the Jews. The Jett> 
retaliated in those towns of Palestine where they wc^' 
the majority bv murdering the Svrians and Greeks. 
Cestius Gallus, the prefect of Syria, who had winked atthu 
exactions of Florus, now advanced against Jerusalem 
with one legion and many auxiliaries, but he was obliged 
to retire, and was completely defeated by the insurgents 
in his retreat, with the loss of nearly 6000 men. "The 
revolt now became universal throughout Judsaa and Gal- 
ilee. Nero, who received the news in Achaia, sent for 
Yespasian^^an officer of tried abilities, and gave him tlie 



JEW 



122 



JEW 



knowledge a descendant of Hai^ the bondwoman as tbe 
greatest of prophets, and Mohammed treated them without 
mercy in Arabia, where they were at that time numei'ous. 
But under the Cahphs his successors they were protected 
on the easy terms of paying tribute, and as they made no 
resistance, they experienced not only protection but even 
encouragement from their new masters, whom they fol- 
lowed through their tide of conquest along the coast of 
Northern Africa. They also contributed materially to the 
triumph of the Crescent in the Spanish Peninsula. 

In Spain, under the Gothic kings, the Jews had expe- 
rienced the first of those sweeping proscriptions, which they 
were doomed to suffer in every country of Christian Europe. 
A series of oppressiYO laws was passed against them under 
the significant title of * Statutes against Jewish Wickedness, 
and for the General Extirpation of Jewish Errors.' At 
last King Sisebut commanded them either to forsake their 
religion or to leave the country. Many tied, others were 
thrown into prison, and 90,000 are said to have received 
baptism. The fourth council of Toledo mitigated the rigour 
of the laws against the Jews by declaring * that men ought 
not to be compelled to believe by force, although all who had 
once embraoea the faith must be constrained to adhere to it.' 
But the eighth council of Toledo, a.d. 653, reinforced the 
former statutes against the Jews, and following councils 
enacted more rigorous laws. One hundred lashes on the 
naked body, chains, mutilation, banishment, and confis- 
cation, were the punishment of those who observed Jewish 
practices and rites. AU converted Jews were put under 
the strictest surveillance. The acts of the twelfth council 
of Toledo concerning the Jews are a complete model of 
ecclesiastical intolerance and refinement in persecution. 
Under King Egica, while the Saracens were spreading 
along the shore of Africa opposite to Spain, a general con- 
spiracy of the Jews was reported, and another council passed 
a decree to disperse the whole race as slaves, confiscate their 
property, and seize all their children under seventeen years 
of age, to be brought up as Christians. Many escaped to 
return with the Saracen invaders, and the munificence of 
the Mohammedan princes towards them indicates that 
by their knowledge of the country the Jews had been 
highly instrumental in advancing the conquest. In Moorish 
Spain the Jews had really a golden age, which lasted for 
centuries. There they cultivated science and learning; 
and the names of Benjamin of Tudela, Isaac of Conlova, 
Hasdai, the confidant of Abderrahman, and a host of others, 
attest their proficiency. Rodriguez de Castro {Bibliotheca 
Espanola) and Vicente Ximeno (Escritoret del Reyno de 
Valencia) give notices of the writings of the Spanish Jews. 
At the same time they were thriving in the East under the 
caliphs of Bagdad, whose favour they enjoyed, at least till 
towards the end of the tenth century. 

Charlemagne protected the Jews like his other subjects : 
they filled municipal offices; they were physicians and 
bankers ; and Isaac, a Jew, was chosen by that emperor as 
his ambassador to Harun al Rashid, caliph of Bagdad, a 
mission which was considered of the greatest importance at 
the time. The Jews enjoyed the same or even greater 
intluenoe under Louis le Debonnaire and Charles the Bald, 
but towards the end of the latter reign the clergy began 
afresh to show their hostility. The Council of Meaux re- 
enacted the exclusion of the Jews from all civil offices ; but 
it was under the third or Capet dynasty that the Jews 
suflfered real persecution in France. Philippe Auguste, 
pressed by the wants of an empty exchequer, and perhaps 
also by the reports of fenatics, who charged the Jews with 
all sorts of crimes, banished, a.d. 1180, all the Jews from 
his dominions, confiscated their property, and declared all 
debts due to them to be annulled. About twenty years after- 
wards the Jews were allowed to re-enter France, which they 
did in great numbers. This was the beginning of a series 
of alternate proscriptions and relaxations, continued under 
the following reigns for about two centuries, until they 
were finally expelled under Charles VI. 

In Germany about the same age they suffered under 
sudden bursts of popular fanaticism. They were massacred 
at the cry of * Hep,' * Hep,' the initials of the words ' Hiero- 
aolfma est perdita.' St Bernard and Pope Eugenius III. 
loudly reprobated these atrocities. In Italy the Jews seem 
to have enjoyed greater, though not always uninterrupted 
security, but their safest asylum was Poland, where Casimir 
the Great allowed them considerable privileges, and where 
they formed the only middle order between the nobles and 



the serfs. It was in Spain and Portngal, after tWeacpulsion 
of the Moors, that the proscription of the Jews was mo?t 
sweeping and eflectual. The regular Inquisition establit^hiNi 
under Ferdinand and Isabella undertook the task of puni^i;- 
ing all relapsed converts. As for the unconverted Jews, xlw 
edict of 1492, made at the instigation of the Inquisr.:ir 
Torquemada, banished them all from the kingdom. Tiie 
number of Jews thus expelled from Spain has been vague ;> 
estimated at half a million, and even 800,000. They wer« 
allowed to carry away or sell only their moveables. Few >.f 
them consented to embrace Christianity in order to remat:). 
Soon afterwards they were driven away from Portu«:ai 
also with circumstances of still greater barbarity. Mar.> 
perished, and others took refuge on the African coast 1 i< 
expulsion of the Jews and that of the Moors or Moriscs^-i 
drained Spain of its most useful subjects. 

Througnout the dominions of the Sultan the Jews wc.v 
allowed to settle and follow their trades, though lookc i 
upon with scorn by the Osmanlees. In the regencies .f 
Barbary they settled likewise in great numbers. 

During the eighteenth century a milder spirit of tolera- 
tion manifested itself towards the Jews in several count r^i^ 
of Europe. Maria Theresa and Joseph I. gave them Qi\uu 
rights and subjected them to the same laws with the Chr •> 
tians. Frederic, called the Great, was not so hberal towar s 
them, for he laid them under peculiar restxictions and < v 

Sualifications. In Holland they have long formed a \\,A • 
ourishing, numerous, honourable, and intelligent oomu.)- 
nity. 

Napoleon in 1806 assembled a sanhedrim at Paris, at ' 
submitted to them twelve questions concerning the tr-^t 
and social doctrines and discipline of the Jews. T(«« . 
answers being found satisfactory, an ordinance was i>s(;-. 
giving the Jews a regular organisation throughout Fraii.i. 
and placing them on the same footing as other Frenchint.! . 
This system has remained unaltered. The king of Pru>% . 
and other German powers have followed the example. \\. 
Russia the Jews are subject to many restrictions, a: . 
especially the Rabbins. 

The Jews in France are reckoned at 50,000; in It.*, 
about 36,000 ; in the Austrian empire 520,000 ; in Pru.^^ . 
135,000, in the rest of Germany 138,000; in Holland a..^ 
and Belgium 80,000; in Great Britain 30,000; in Ru:-u 
and Poland 658,000; in the Turkish dominions they bi^ 
been vaguely estimated at 800,000; in Persia they are tt^ 
and oppressed. There are communities of them at Bokh. . 
and other parts of Tartary, in India, and even in China. 1'. 
the United States they are reckoned at about 5000. 

(Jost, Altgemeine GescMchte des Ivraelitiichen Fo/a •; 
Millman, Hiatnry of the Jews ; Josephus ; Baspage ; &• :. 
Geschichte alter Ibestandenen undnocnBestehenden Be!}j- 
sen Sekten der Juden; Beugnot, Les Jutfb tTOca't »' 
Lindo's Jewish Calendar contains a CSuronological Ta 
in which some of the dates differ from some of those gi> 
in this article.) 

It does not appear at what time the Jews found tl: 
way to this island, but they were settled here in the Sa\ 
period, and as early as a.d. 750. From the time of 
Conquest the Jews in England rapidly increased in num^ 
Under the first three Norman kings they lived undisiun 
so far as we are informed, and apparently acquired ct<. 
wealth. But under Stephen and his successors they &:.' 
fered grievously from the rapacity of the kings and t>; 
bigoted intolerance of the people. The cruel per>»4:*« 
tions which they experienced from all persons, both t 
and ecclesiastic, poor and rich, are fully attested, not ' 
their own writers, but by the evidence of their entMi. - 
Finally, in the reign of Edward I., about a.d. 1290. all .. 
Jews were banished from the kingdom. Their numU-r^ 
that time are conjectured (but on what grounds we are ^ 
aware) to have been between 15,000 and 16,000. It . 
not till after the Restoration, a-IX 1660, that the Jews u^ 
settled in England ; and though under the Protectorate ; 
had entered into negotiations with Cromwell to obtain ; 
mission to enter the island, nothing seems to have V 
done in the matter, and those who have investigated ■ 
subject brmg forward no proof of leave being fori:., 
granted to them t» return. After the Restoration it >t> . 
probable that they came in gradually without either i 
mission or opposition, and since that time foreiftr. J 
have been on the same footing as other aliens witf^ rtrs 
to entering the country. In the year 1753 an\».-i 
passed to enable Iboreign Jews to ba natunUsed 



i .» 



t' 



i.c 



J O A. 



124 



JOB 



petrated she repaired to Naples, and thence issued orders 
for the apprehension of the murderers. Torture was em- 
ployed to find out the conspirators, hut the result of the 
interro^tories was kept secret. Many persons, high and low, 
were put to a cruel death, hut puhlic opinion still impli- 
cated the queen herself in the conspiracy. The same year 
Joan married her relative Louis, prince of Tarentum. Louis, 
king of Hungary, and hrother of Andreas, came with an 
army to avenge his brother*s death. He defeated the 
queen's troops, entered Naples, and Joan took refuge in 
her hereditary principality of Ptovence. She repaired to 
Avignon, and there, before Pope Clement VI., she protested 
her innocence and demanded a triaL The pope and his 
cardinals acquitted Joan, who, from gratitude, gave up to the 
papal see the town and county of Avignon. A pestilence 
m the mean time had frightened away the Hungarians from 
Naples, and Joan, returning to her kingdom, was solemnly 
crowned with her husband in 1351. Joan reigned many 
years in peace over hei^ne dominions. Having lost her 
second husband in 1362, she married a prince of Majorca, 
and on his death she married, in 1 376, Otho, duke of Bruns- 
wick ; but having no children by any of her husbands, she 
gave her niece Margaret in marriage to Charles, duke of Du- 
razzo, who was himself related to the royal dynasty of Anjou, 
and appointed him her successor. Soon afterwards the 
schism between Urban VI. and Clement VU. broke out, 
and Joan took the part of the latter. Urban excommuni- 
cated her, and gave the investiture of the kingdom to Charles 
Durazzo, who, with the darkest ingratitude, revolted against 
his sovereign and benefactress : with the assistance of the 
pope he raised troops, defeated the queen, and took her pri- 
soner. He tried tomduce Joan to abdicate in his favour, but 
the queen firmly refused, and named as her successor Louis 
of Anjou, brother of Charles V., king of France. Charles 
then transferred Joan to the castle of Muro, in Basilicata, 
where he caused her to be strangled or smothered in her 
prison, in 1382, thirty-seven years after the death of her 
first husband Andreas. 

JOAN IL, daughter of Charles Durazzo, and sister of 
Ladislaus, king of Naples, succeeded the latter after his 
death in 1414. She was then forty-four years of age, and 
already noted for licentiousness ana weakness of character. 
After her exaltation to the throne she continued in the 
same course, only with more barefaced effrontery. She 
however married, from political motives, James, count de 
la Marche, who was allied to the royal family of France ; 
but the match, as might be expected, proved most unhappy. 
James was obliged to run away in despair from Naples, 
and retired to France, where it is said that he ended 
his days in a convent. Meantime unworthy favourites ruled 
in succession at the court of Joan. One of them, Ser 
Gianni Caracciolo, of a noble family, saw his influence 
disputed by the famous condottiere Sforza Attendolo, who, 
together with many barons that were jealous of Caracciolo, 
took the part of I^uis of Anjou, a grandson of that Louis 
to whom Joan L had beoueathed the crown. The queen 
sought for support in ^onso of Aragon, king of Sicily, 
whom she adopted, and appointed her successor. Alfonso 
came to Naples, but the fickle Joan having made her peace 
with Sforza, revoked her adoption of Alfonso, and ap- 
pointed Louis of Anjou as her successor. Alfonso was ac- 
cordingly obliged to return to Sicily. The favorite Caracciolo 
was soon after murdered in consequence of court jealousy 
and intrigue. Louis of Anjou died also, and was followed 
to the grave by Joan herself, who, on her death, appointed 
Ren6 of Anjou as her successor. She died in 1435, leaving 
her kingdom in great disorder, and with the prospect of a dis- 
puted succession and a civil war. [Alfonso V. of Arason.l 

JOAN OF ARC. [Arc. Joan of.] 

JO A'NNINA, or YA'NIN A, a city of Albania, situated 
in a valley in the heart of that province, on the south-western 
bank of a lake, from which a subterraneous stream flows 
into the Kalami, the Thyamis iOvafug) of the antient 
Greeks. Joannina is in 39* 47' N. lat., 20"" 53' E. long., ac- 
cording to the map prefixed to Colonel Leake s ' Travels in 
Northern Greece ' (London 1895). Its site is about 1000 
feet above the level of the sea. 

The origin and early history of this town are very ob- 
scure. In the later period of the Lower or Byzantine 
Empire it gradually rose to be the chief city of that part 
of Greece which lay to the west of Mount Pindus. It is 
probably not very far from the site of the antient Dodona. 
In the seventh and following centuriesi to the eleventh, the 



country around became a field of contention between the 
Byzantine Greeks and the Wallachians and Sdavonians, 
large colonies of whom settled in the district; but Joannina 
seems to have continued in the hands of the Greeks till the 
vear 1082, when it was taken by the Normans under Bir- 
hemond (son of Robert Guiscard), who defeated the empen^r 
Alexius (^mnenus under the walls of the town. In the 
wars which subsequently desolated Western Greece it 
passed into the hands of the Prankish princes of the loniau 
Islands, and in aj>. 1431 or 1432 into those of the Turkfr. 
In A.D. 1611 an unsuccessful attempt of the Albanian 
Greeks to throw off the Turkish yoke occasioned the expul- 
sion of all Greeks from the old town, now termed the Ca»- 
tron (Kocrrpoy), or fortified part of Joannina. This led to 
the extension of the city along the banks of the lake oq 
each side of the Castron, and subseauent tranquillity tended 
so ^ to its increase, that under tne sway of the late AIi 
Pasha it contained a population of more than 40,000 inha- 
bitants, chiefly Greeks, the remainder Moslems and Jewv 
It had two citadeU (the Castron and the fortress of Lita- 
rltza), three palaces, nineteen mosques, five tek&, or Turki^^b 
monasteries, six Greek churches, one of them metropolitan, 
and two Jews' synagogues. There were an hosiptal, capable 
of receiving 150 patients, a prison, and two endowed o^l- 
leges or schools, one of 300 scholars and one of 100, a: 
which the antient languages were taught, and to which ex- 
cellent libraries were attached. There were several smaller 
schools. The Greek spoken at Joannins was purer than u: 
Greece Proper. The town was commercial rather than ma- 
nufacturing : the chief commerce was carried on with Cou- 
stantinople, Russia, Venice and Malta, and with the smaller 
towns and villages of Epirus, of which Joannina was the 
mart. The place was well supplied with turkeys aitU 
fowls, turtle-doves and beccaficos; fish and wild-fowl from 
the lake, and game from the neighbouring mountaiK?t, 
Little animal food was consumed, and ducks and geesv 
were scarce. The climate is variable, and fevers, especiall) 
nervous, are common. The plain round Joannina yiel(I> 
firuit and grain of most kinds in vast abundance. 

The lake of Joannina is in its greatest length twelve ur 
fourteen miles measured from north-west to south-east : tic 
greatest breadth is about five miles, the least about half j 
mile to a mile. It is bounded on the north-cast by the 
Mitzik61i mountains (a branch of Pindus), which ri»e «i .; 
very steep ascent to the height of 2500 feet above the lake . 
on the south-east by a rocky mountain of moderate heigLt 
crowned with the extensive ruins of an antient Epirote cir}. 
which Colonel Leake considers it probable was Uie antiei:: 
Dodona. On the south-west side of the lake is the plaui i>f 
Joannina, and beyond that a range of low vine-covertrj 
hills. Opposite the town of Joannina is a small island 1 1 
which is a fishing village, containing, in Ali's time, aU>u: 
two hundred houses : on this bland were several convents, &t. 
quently used as state prisons ; Ali. who had a house ou it. 
kept a herd of red deer. The lake abounds with fish, amo;u 
them are pike, perch, carp, tench and eels: some of ihi.- 
are of great size, sometimes weighing 24 or 25 lbs. a\uii(i.. 
pois ; the eels are very fine, and sometimes of six or sc'\v. 
lbs. weight Myriads of wild-fowl breed in the covert .i 
the lofty reeds which surround the lake. 

The lake is very commonly represented as divided into tw 
parts, the north-western part being called the Lake of La.- 
sista, the south-eastern that of Joannina. But the midi.t 
nart is rather a marsh than a lake, and is traversed by tu 
long channels which connect the two portions of the'lak. 
The Lake of Lapsista is much reduced in its dimensions .: 
summer, and maize is grown on the desiccated ground. 1* 
waters of both lakes are absorbed by subterranean chauncN . 
that which communicates with the river Kalamt\ is ia t!.. 
Lake of Lapsista. 

JOB, the Book of, is one of the poetical books of ih 
Old Testament. Its title is taken from the patriarch J. , 
QVK) whose story it relates. Some critics have suppoMri^ 
from the nature of the exordium, that Job was not a ro^: 
person, and that the narrative in the book is fictitious. H. 
appears however to be referred to as a real person by £-:■ - 
kiel (ch. xiv., ver. 16), and Jameg (ch. v., ver. 11); and ib* 
style of the book has all the circumstantiality of a nsal luc- 
rative. It has been inferred from his longevity (chap. xIil. 
16), his holding the oflice of priest in his own futnJ* 
(chap, i., 5), his allusion to no other species of idolain 
than the worship of the heavenly bodies (chap. xxxi. *i6-i<si» 
the silence of the book respecting the history of the Isatk- 



J O H 



126 



J O H 



while the mmeulous darkness struck fe&r into the hearts 
of those who were employed in the work of death, he en- 
tered into conversation with Jesus, who commended to him 
the care of his mother Mary. This dying request of our 
Lord the apostle seems to have regarded to a sacred ii^jutic- 
tion, for he took her from that time to his own house. 

After the resurrection of Jesus he was again distinguished 
by his notice : and when Jesus had ascended to heaven, 
and the interests of the Qospel were committed especially 
to those who had been chosen by him out of the world, 
John became one of the leading persons in the church ; 
acting in concert with the other apostles, and especially 
Peter and James, till the history in the 'Acts of the Apostles* 
ceases to notice what was done by the other apostlesi and 
is confined to the travels and labours of Saint Paul. 

Saint John's labours in the church were chiefly among 
the inhabitants of Syria and Asia Minor, and no doubt he 
had a large share in planting Christianity in those provinces, 
where for a time it nourishdl greatly. But Christian anti- 
quity does not present to us many particulars i)f the labours 
of the ilpostles, and we learn from it respecting John little 
more on whidi dependence may be safely placed, than that 
he resided at Ephesus in the latter part of nis life, and died 
in extreme old age. 

Two pleasing stories are related of him by early Christian 
writers, deserving of regard : one, that when too feeble to do 
more, he Was wont to be carried into the assemblies of Chris- 
tians at Ephesus, saying, as he went along, ' My little chil- 
dren, love one another.* The other respects his conduct to 
a young man who had joined a party of banditti. But when 
we read in those writers that he was thrown into a cauldron 
of boiling oil and came out unhurt, distrust arises, and we 
question the sufficiency of the evidence. 

There is however little reason to doubt that he was at one 
period* of his life banished to the island of Patmos, and that 
there he wrote the book called the * Apocalypse,' or ' Revela- 
tion.' 

There are also preserved three Epistles of his : but the 
most valuable of his writings which have descended to 
our time is the * Gospel according to Saint John.' This 
Gospel is unlike the other three in several respects, and is 
supposed by those who have considered it to have been 
written with some especial purpose, either as a kind of sup- 
plement to the other Evangelists, which was the opinion 
of Eusebius, or with a view to the refutation of certain 
erroneous notions respectina^ our Saviour which had begun 
to prevail before the long life of Saint John was brought to 
a dose. But with whatever design it was composed, it 
must ever be regarded as amongst the most valuable testi- 
monies to the life, character, and doctrine of Jesus. 

JOHN, king of England, sumamed Sansterre, or Lack- 
land, a common appellation of younger sons whose age pre- 
vented them from holding fiefs, was the youngest of the 
five sons of Henry II. by his queen Eleanor of Guienne, 
and was bom in the King's Manor House at Oxford, 24th 
December, 1166. In his youth he was created by his father 
earl of Montague in Normandy; and in 1176 he was con- 
tracted in marriage to Johanna (or Hadwisa, as she is 
called by some authorities), the youngest daughter of 
William earl of Gloucester (son of the great Earl Robert, 
natural son of Henry I.), who thereupon made Johanna his 
sole heir. The marriage was actually celebrated, 29th 
August, 1189. Henry, having after his conquest of Ireland 
obtained a bull from the pope authorising him to invest any 
one of his sons with the lordship of that country, conferred 
the dignity upon John in a great councU held at Oxford 
in 1178. In March, 1185, John went over to take into 
his own hands the government of his dominions ; but the 
insolent demeanor of the prince and his attendants so 
disgusted and irritated the Irish of all classes, that his 
father found it necessary to recal him in the following De- 
cember. John however wi^ his father's favourite son, in 
part perhaps from the circumstance that his youth had 
prevented him from joining in any of the repeated rebellions 
of his brothers ; and it is said, that a suspicion began to be 
at last entertained by Richard, when, of the five brothers, 
he and John alone survived, that Henry intended to settle 
the crown of England upon the latter. According to this 
story, it was chiefly to prevent such an arrangement that 
Richard, joining Philip of France, flew to arms in January, 
1189; but if so, it is difficult to account for the fact that 
John himself was found to be upon this occasion in confe- 
deraej with his elder brother, a discovery which ww only 



made by their heart broken father upon his deathbed* 

[H^NRT II.] 

No opposition was offered by John to the accession of 
Richard, who endeavoured to attach him by the gift of such 
honours and possessions as amounted almost to sharing the 
kingdom with him. In addition to his Norman earldom of 
Mqptague, and that of Gloucester, which he acquired by 
his marriage, those of Cornwall, Dorset, Somersetp Notting- 
ham, Derby, and Lancaster were bestowed upon him. «o 
that there was thus placed under his immediate jurisdiction 
nearly a third of England: Richard however had not been 
long absent when his ambitbus brother proceeded to ta^e 
his measures for at least securing the crown to himself in 
case of the king's death, if not mr an eltflier seisure of it. 
The person next in the regular line of successioli was jlr- 
thur, duke of Brittany, the son of John*s elder brother 
Geoffrey, an infant of little more than two years old at the 
accession of Richard, who however recognised him as his 
heir, and had desired that lua rights should be maintained 
by William de Longchamp, the bishop of Ely, whom dohng 
his absence he left in charge of the government. John ac- 
cordingly directed his first efforts to the removal of the 
bishop, which, having obtained the co-operation of a stroo; 
party of the barons, he at length accomplished by actual 
force, in October, 1191. When the intelligence of Richards 
captivity arrived in 1193, John at once openly took steps 
for the immediate usurpation of the throne. Hepaixing m 
haste to Paris, he secured the aid of Philip Augustus by 
the surrender of part of Normandy, and then, returning to 
England, proceeded to collect an army for the maintenance 
of his pretensions. In this attempt however he was succe&ft- 
fully resisted by the loyal part of the nobility ; and he also 
failed in his endeavours to induce the emperor, by tho 
promise of a large bribe, to retain his brother in prison. 
On the return of Richard to England, in March, 1194. 
John's castles and estates were seized by the crown, and be 
and his chief adviser, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, were cliaiged 
with high treason. John fled to Normandy, whither be 
was followed by the king at the head of an army; but the 
traitor made his peace by an abject submission, and, hij 
mother seconding his supplications for pardon, he was al- 
lowed to retain his life and his liberty, and even lestored 
to some measure of favour, though the restitution of his 
castles and territorial possessions was for a time firmly re- 
vised. Even that however was at length granted to hn 
iniportunities and those of his mother ; and it is further 
said, that Richard, when on his deathbed^ was induced tu de- 
clare John his successor. 

John was present when Richard expired at Chalux, 6th 
April, 1199, and before visiting England he hastened to se- 
cure the submission of the various continental territorieii of 
the crown. Upon repairing to Anjou, and the other original 
possessions of the Plantagenets, he found Uie prevalent 
feeling strongly in favour of his nephew Arthur; but bodi 
in Normandy, and also in Poitou and Aquitaine, where his 
mother's influence was predominant, his pretensions men 
readily acknowledged. Meanwhile in England, by the ac- 
tivity of the justiciary Fitz-Peter, a unanimous resolution 
to receive him as king had been obtained from a irreat 
council held at Northampton. Soon after this John mad« 
his appearance in person ; and he was solemnly crowned a; 
Wratminster, on the 26th of May, the festival of the Ascen- 
sion. The years of his reign are reckoned from Aseension- 
day to Ascension-day. 

Philip Augustus having, for his own purposes, espoused 
the cause of Arthur, whom he had got into his possession, 
soon overran both Normandy and Anjou; but in May, 
1200, John purchased a peace by a heavy pecuniary pay- 
ment and the cession of several towns and other territories 
to the French king, who on his part relinquished such of 
his conquests as were not thus permauently made over to 
him, and also compelled Arthur to do homage to his uncle 
for Brittany. The next year John, having beoome tired of 
his wife, or never having been attached to her, procured a 
divorce on the plea of consanguinity, and married Isabella, 
daughter of Aymar count of Angoullme, who had already 
been betrothed, and even privately espoused, to Hugh couni 
of La Marche. The complaints of the count in consequence 
of this injury gave Philip such a pretence as he wanted for 
renewing the war : he immediately took Arthur again by 
the hand, and putting him forward as the legitimate lord 
of the old fiefe of the Plantagenets, rapidly obtained pee 
sessioQ of all the mosl important towna and places d 



J O H 



128 



J O H 



disastrous circumstances, the barons coneregated in London 
resolved, after much debate, upon the (Ksperate expedient 
of offering the crown to Louis, the dauphin of France, as 
the only chance left to them of preserving any part of the 
nationad liberties. Accepting the invitation, Louis set sail 
from Calais with a fleet of six hundred and eighty safl, and, 
on the 30th of May, 1216, landed at Sandwich. John 
retired to the west at his approach, and the French prince, 
after attacking and easily reducing the castle of Rochester, 
immediately marched to the capital. The fortune of the 
contest now turned. The people in all parts of the country 
eagerly rallied around Louis ; even his foreign auxiliaries, 
most of whom were Frenchmen, began to quit the standard 
of the English king, and either to join that of the invader 
or to return home. At this critical moment arrived the 
news of the death of John's powerful friend Pope Innocent 
IIL (16th July). Still however most of the places of 
strength were m his hands ; and some months were spent 
to little purpose by the adverse party in attempts to reduce 
Dover, Windsor, and other castles which were occupied by 
nis garnsons. Meanwhile, m tne disappointment produced 
by the protraction of the war, jealousy of their foreign allies 
was beginning to spread among the insurgents ; and it is 
very doubtful what the issue of the struggle might have 
been if the life of John had been prolonged. But on the 
14 th of October, as he was attempting to ford the Wash at 
low-water, from Cross-keys to the Foss-dyke, and had 
already got across himself with the greater part of his army, 
the return of the tide suddenly swept away the carriages 
and horses that conveyed all his baggage and treasures; 
on which, in an agony of vexation, he proceeded to the Cis- 
tercian convent of Swineshead, and was that same night 
seized with a violent fever, the consequence probably of 
irritation and fatigue, but which one account attributes to 
an imprudent indulgence at supper in fruit and new cider ; 
another to poison administered to him by one of the monks. 
Although very ill, he was conveyed the next day in a litter 
to the castle of Sleaford, and thence on the 16th to the 
castle of Newark, where he expired on the 18th, in the 
forty-ninth year of his age, and the seventeenth of his 
reien. 

AH our historians paint the character of John in the 
darkest colours ; and the history of his reign seems to prove 
that to his full share of the ferocity of his race he conjoined 
an unsteadiness and volatility, a susceptibility of being 
suddenly depressed by evil fortune and elated beyond the 
bounds of moderation and prudence by its opposite, which 
give a littleness to his character not belonging to that of 
any of his royal ancestors. He is charged in addition with 
a savage cruelty of disposition, and with the most un- 
bounded licentiousness : while on the other hand so many 
vices are not allowed to have been relieved by a single good 
quality. It ought to be remembered however that John 
has had no historian ; his cause expired with himself, and 
every writer of his story has told it in the spirit of the op- 

Sosite and victorious party. In res^ to what has generally 
een accounted the act most decisive of the baseness of his 
character, his surrender of his kingdom in vassalage to the 
pope, we may observe that Dr. Lingard has lately advanced 
some considerations tending to show that it does not deserve 
to be viewed in the light in which it has been usually re- 
garded. 

The children of John by his queen Isabella of Angouldme 
were: — 1. Henry, who succeeded him as Henry III.; 
2. Richard, born January 5, 1208, created earl of Cornwall 
1226. elected king of the Romans 1257, died 2nd April, 
1272 ; 3. Joan, married June 25, 1221, to Alexander if. of 
Scotland, died March 4, 1238; 4. Eleanor, married, first, 
1235, to WilliAm Marshall, earl of Pembroke, secondly, 
1238, to Simon Montfort, earl of Leicester; and 5. Isabella, 
i9om 1214,maxried 20th July, 1235, to Frederic 11^ emperor 
of Germany, died 1st December, 1241. Several natural 
children are also assigned to him, none of whose names 
however make any figure in our historv. 

JOHN OF GAUNT. [Edward IIL ; Hewry IV.] 

JOHN, Kings of Portugal. [Portugal.] 

JOHN OF SALISBURY finds a place, and very de- 
servedly, m every catalogue of learned Englishmen. His 
ffira was the reign of King Henry II., which, according to a 
very eommon but an incorrect mode of speaking, is called 
a dark age ; for an age cannot possibly be dark which had 
such men living in it as this John, Peter of Blois, Thomas 
i Becket, and many others, especially historians, whose 



writings still remain to show what kind of men they were, 
and to attest the great extent of their reading and the 
general intellectual power which they had acquired. John 
had studied at Oxford, but he visited also the universities 
of France and Italy. In fine, if we may trust Leland, an 
excellent authority, he was intimately acquainted with the 
Latin and Greek writers ; he had some knowledge of He- 
brew ; he was skilled in the mathematics and every branch 
of natural philosophy, as he was also in theology and 
morals ; he was an eloquent orator and an eminent poet 
Leland further says of him that he was possessed of the 
most amiable dispositions, ever cheerful, innocent, and 
good. 

He was much connected with Becket, archbishop of Can- 
terbury, the murder of whom is one of the dark stains on the 
reign of Henry II. Peter of Blois, in the twenty-second of 
his Epistles, which are collected and printed, calls John the 
eye and hand of the archbishop. John became himself 
bishop of Chartres in 1 164. He died in 1182. 

His principal historical writings were Lives of two arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, Anselm and Thomas k Becket. But 
the work by which he is best known to scholars, for the 
curious matter which it contains can scarcely be said tu 
have found its way into the vernacular literature of bis own 
or any other country, is entitled ' Polycraticon, de Nugi^ 
Curialibus et Vestigiis Philosophorum,' in which he de- 
scribes the manners of the great, speaking not iuifr«- 
(juently in the style of sharp satire. There is an edition of 
it at Paris, 1513, and another at London, 1595. A large 
catalogue of his writings may be seen in Pitz and othtrr 
writers of that class. 

Mr. Berington has devoted several pages to John of 
Salisbury in his 'Literary History of the Middle Ages,' 
1810, pp. 315-320. 
JOHN HYRCA'NUS. [Hyrcanus, John.] 
JOHN I., a native of Tuscany, succeeded Hormisdas in 
the see of Rome, a.d. 523. He was employed by King 
Theodoric on a mission to the Emperor Justin of Constan- 
tinople ; but after his return, from some unknown cause, 
he incurred the displeasure of Theodoric, and was put in 
prison, where he died, a.d. 526. 

JOHN 11. succeeded Boniface 11. a.d. 532, being elected 
by the clergy and the people of Rome, and confirmed by 
King Athalaric, for which confirmation a certain payment 
was fixed by an edict of the same king. He died in 535. 

JOHN HI., a native of Rome, was elected to succeed 
Pelagius I. in the year 560, and was confirmed by tb« 
exarch of Ravenna in the name of the Emperor Justinian. 
Two French bishops, of Embrun and of Gap, having been 
deposed by local councils, appealed to John, who ordered 
their restoration, which Gontram, the Burgundian king, 
enforced in opposition to the French clergy, who asserted 
their independence of the Roman see. (Dupin, De Antigua 
Eccles. Discipl,) John died in 574. 

JOHN IV., a native of Dalmatia, succeeded Se%*ertnu$ 
in 640. He condemned the heresy of the Monothelites 
[EtJTYCHiANs], and died in 642. 

JOHN v., a native of Syria, succeeded Benedict II. in 
686, and died after a few months. 

JOHN VI., a native of Greece, succeeded Sergius L in 
702. In a council which he held at Rome he acquitted 
Wilfred, archbishop of York, of several charges brouj^t 
against him by the English clergy. He died in 705. ^ 

JOHN VII., also a Greek, succeeded John VI- and died 
in 707. 

JOHN VIIL, who has been styled the IX. by those who 
believed in the' story of Pope Joan, whom they style 
John Vin. [Joan, Pope], succeeded Adrian II. in b72. 
He crowned Charles the Bald emperor, and after him al<^i 
Charles the Fat. He confirmed the exaltation of Photius 
to the see of Constantinople. He had disputes with the 
marquises of Tuscany and the dukes of Spoleto, and dieil 
in 882, after a busy pontificate. 

JOHN IX. was elected in 898, held two councils at 
Rome and Ravenna, and died about the year 900. 

JOHN X. succeeded Lando in 915. He crowned Bo- 
rengarius as king of Italy and emperor. The Saracens 
from Africa, who had landed in Italv and fortified theni< 
selves near the banks of the Liris, made frequent irruptions 
into the Roman territorj-. John, united with Berengariu^ 
and the dukes of Benevento and Naples, marched in person 
agamst them, and completely routed and extenninateU 
them. The famous Marosia, a Roman lady of Tory loo3« 



•r o H 



130 



and completed in 1635» from a design furnished by Inigo 
Jones. 

Among the greater benefkctors to this Collec^e, after the 
founder, were Dr. John Buckeridge, bishop of Ely, and the 
Archbishops Laud and Juxon, all of whom were presidents, 
and the last two successively; Dr. Richard Rawlinson, 
and Dr. William Holmes, the last of whom was also presi- 
dent from 1728 to 1748, from whom and from whose widow, 
who followed up her husband's intentions, the College re- 
ceived no less a sum than 1 5,000/. 

Among the more eminent members of this CJollege, be- 
side those already mentioned, were Archbishop Tobie If at- 
thew, and Peter Mews, afterwards bishop of Winchester, 
who were also presidents ; Sir William Dawes, afterwards 
archbishop of York; Campian, the celebrated Jesuit; Sir 
James Wnitelocke ; Shirley, the dramatist ; Sir Bulstrode 
Whitelofcke; Sir John Marsham, the chronologist; Dr. Ed- 
ward Bernand ; Sherrard and Dillenius, the botanists ; and 
Dr. Tucker, dean of Gloucester. 

From the founder's endowment, and by means of other 
beneAustions, this College is possessed of the following liv- 
mgs: — ^the rectoriei of Aston-le-Wall, Creek, and Bast 
Farndon, in Northamptonshire; Baynton in Yorkshire; 
Bardwell in SuiTolk; Barfreston in Kent; Belbroughton in 
Worcestershire ; Cheam in Surrey ; Codford St. Mary in 
Wilts; Handborough and Tackley in Oxfordshire; Kingston 
Bagpuze in Berks ; Sutton in Bedfordshire ; Leokford and 
South Wamborough in Hampshire; Winterbume in 
Gloucestershire ; and Cranham in Essex ; the vicarages of 
Chalfont St. Peter in Buckinghamshire; Charlbury and 
Kirtllngton in Oxfordshire ; St Giles's in the suburbs of 
Oxford ; Fy field and St. Lawrence Reading in Berkshire ; 
St Sepulchre's, London; Linton in Herefordshire; and 
Stoughton Magna in Huntingdonshire ; and the curacies of 
FVenohay in Gloucestershire, and Summer-town Chapel in 
the suburbs of Oxford. 

The present number of members of this College, depend- 
ent ana independent, is 226, exclusive of the choir. 

(Gutch's Colleges and Halls of Oxford ; Chalmers's 
Hist qfthe Univ.; Oxford Univ. Calendar for 1838.) 

JOHN'S COLLEGE, ST., CAMBRIDGE, was pro- 
jected and begun by Margaret countess of Riehmona, a 
short time before her death, which happened in 1 509. It 
was completed by her executors, under the authority of a 
papal bull and the royal mandates of ber son and grandson 
King Henry VII. and King Henry VIII., which gave them 
the power of suppressing a decayed hospital dedicated to 
St. John, at that time existing on the same site. The Col- 
lege, then consisting only of the present first court was four 
years in building : the fabrio is said to have cost between 
four and fire thousand pounds. The statutes of the College 
were given bfr Henry VIII. ; but these having become con- 
fhsed and ambiguous, owing to various changes, erasures, 
and marginal notes, Queen Elizabeth gave the College a 
new set of statutes. 

The original endowment was for fifty fellows ; but part of 
the foundAtion-estates having been seized by King Henry 
Vin., the funds were found to be sufiieient for thirty-two 
only. These fellowships are (by letters patent from Geo. IV. 
on the petition of the college, and in pursuance of a power 
to that effect said to be reserved to the crown by the statutes 
of Henry and Elizabeth) now open to natives of Encj- 
land and Wales, without any restriction or appropriation 
whatsoever, one only excepted, which is in the appointment 
of the bishop of Ely ; but the bishop is required, agreeably 
to an arrangement between James Stanley bishop of Ely, 
and the executors of the countess of Richmond, to elect ac- 
cording to the statutes in every respect. 
' There are also twenty-one fellowships founded by dif- 
ferent benefactors, which have all the privileges of the 
former, and give an equal claim to the coUe^^'e patronaj^e. 

Besides these there are numerous scholarships, exhibi- 
tions, &c. belonging to this college : the former amount to 
no fewer than 114. 

The present buildings consist of the first court, a second 
eourt of large dimensions, and a third, which contains the 
library. A handsome new court has recently been built by 
Rickman on the opposite side of the river Cam, and is con- 
nected with the old buildings by a bridge. 

This being a divinity college, all the fellows are obliged 
to take priest's orders within six years from the degree of 
M.A., except four, who are allowed by the master and 
•eniors to remain laymen; two for the practice of phytic. 



JO H 

I 



and two for law. The rest must proceed to the degree <•' 
B.D. at the regular time. The electors to fellowsbi])s .in 
the master and eight senior resident fellows. The vis:: .> 
is the bishop of Ely. The number of persons on t:.- 
boards of this college, March 1 2th, 1838, was 1096. Ti.^ 
schools of Pocklington and Sedburgh in Yorkshire, Shrev.x. 
bury in Salop, Rivington in Lancashire, Stamford in Lir.- 
oolnshire, and Aldenham in Herts, are in the patronage •! 
this college : the benefices in the gift of this college are tl^ 
rectories of Hougfhton Conquest with Houghton Gildapi.. 
Marston Mortaine, and Mapersfaall, in Bedfordshire; tfi 
vicarages of Aldworth and Sunninghill, in Berks; the nt- 
tories of Brinkley and Fulbourn, and the chapel of H*.t(.- 
ingsea, in Cambridgeshire; the rectory of Aberdaron ," 
Caernarvonshire; those of Morton in Derbyshire and M?r 
wood in Devonshire; of Fratring cum Thorin^on, La«f> : ! 
Morton, Oakley Magna, and Warlev Magna, in Easex ; m 
vicarage of Hormead Magna, and the rectories of Honne .! 
Par\'a and Lilly, in Herts; of Freshwater in Hants; t!: 
vicarages of Higham and Ospringe, and the rectories vf 
Murston and Staplehurst, in Kent ; the vicarage of Barr n 
on Soar, and the rectory of Medboum cum Holt, in Lei' • - 
tershire; the vicarage of Minting, in Lincolnshire; ^K^ 
rectories of Thurston cum Snoring, Holt, Ditchinghi-. 
Fomset, Sterston, South, and Aldburgb, and the \-icar , 
of Cherry Marham, in Norfolk; the rectory of Ufford rr ^ 
Bainton, in Northamptonshire; the vicarage of N"". 
Stoke, and the rectory of Souldern, in Oxfordshire; th 
rectories of St Florence, in Pembrokeshire ; of Barr v 
Cockfield, and Ley ham, in Suffolk; of Wootton Rivera. 
Wilts; of Brandeston, and Holme including the \icar . 
of Holme in Spalding-Moor, and the vicarage of Mar. 
cum Grafton, in Yorkshire. (Lysons's Magna Brifi" . 
*Cambr.,* and the Cambr. Univ. Calendar tat 1838.) 

JOHN'S, ST. [Newfoundland.] 

JOHN'S, ST. [New Brunswick.] 

JOHN'S, ST., RIVER. [Maine.] 

JOHNSON, SAMUEL, the son of Michael Johnson. * 
bookseller at Lichfield, and Sarah, his wife, was born * 
Lichfield on the 18th of September, 1709. As a chilrl :• 
was afflicted with the king's evil, which disfigured his fj ^ 
and impaired his eyesight, and he was taken to Qi.te 
Anne to be touched. His education was commenc<^'<l . i 
Lichfield, whence he was removed to a school at Stourbnd^^ 
and in 1 728, two years aAer he had left Stourbrid-^'e. ' 
was placed at Pembroke College, Oxford. Young Johr.^■ 
had early shown a vigorous understanding and an eagcnu^ 
for knowledge : though he had poverty to contend with a; : 
a natural indolence, and was also subject to perio^i: ' 
attacks of morbid melancholy, he acquired a large fund ( 
information at the university. Necessity compelled bin * 
abandon the hope of taking a degree; his aebts. 1h.^..: 
small, were increasing ; remittances from Lichfield cti. 
no longer be supplied ; and he Quitted college and retunit 
to his father's house. In the December following (17? 
his father died in such pecuniary distress, that Jobn^ 
was soon afterwards glad to become usher of a sch<>i .. 
Market Bosworth, in Leicestershire, to which, it apj-- .'^ 
from his diary, that he went on foot: • Julii 16,* he wrj.-. 
* Bosvortiam pedes petii.' But finding the drudger}- of*\. 
employment intolerable, he sought other means of obi...: 
ing his bread, and procured temporary employment 
translating for a bookseller in Birmingham. Durmj . - 
residence in this town he became intimate with the fai: 
of a mercer named Porter, whose widow he subseqiit i : 
married (1736). Mrs. Porter was more than twenty >i - 
older than himself, but he was fondly attached to her . > 
she added to other powers of increasing his happinefcs * 
possession of 800/. With this capital he establi^hiwi 
school, but his advertisements proauced few scholars ' 
scheme failed, and he left Staffordshire with his p:- 
Garrick to seek his fortune in the metropolis. His pn «>| •^ • 
must have been very gloomy : he had nothing but litfr* : 
to trust to for subsistence, and those were times whet; r 
condition of literal^ men was most miserable and def^m ! 
In the reigns of William, of Anne, and George L, sucte^ - 
writers were rewarded by private munificence and pi. 
situations. But such patronage was now at an end : 
the year in which Johnson left his home formed part . ■ t 
interval which elapsed before a new source of remuner:-.' 
arose — before the number of readers became lari:r. 
readers there were still but few ; the prices therefore • 
booksellers could afford to pay to auttiors were ncces:^a. 



J O H 



132 



J O I 



from familiar objects. His wit may be described as logical, 
and chiefly consisted'in dextrously convicting his opponent 
of absurdity. Conscious of his power, he was fond of dis- 
pute, and used to argue for victory. Scarcely any of his 
contemporaries except Burke was a match for him m such 
discussions. His written style was eminently periodic ; and 
in order to construct every sentence into a balanced period 
he frequently introduced superfluous and high-sounding 
expressions ; hence his general style was pompous, heavy, 
bombastic, and diffuse. He was also fond of words of Latin 
derivation, to the exclusion of more familiar words of Saxon 
origin. A good burlesque of his style may be seen in the 
' Rejected Addresses.* 

Johnson's strong and penetrating intellect did not fit him 
for poetry. His 'Irene' is deservedly forgotten. His 
< Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal ' contains some 
nervous thoughts expressed in harmonious verse. His 
* Imitation of the Tentn Satire of Juvenal ' is a fine poetical 
declamation, though deformed by occasional tautology. 
Among his smaller pieces the two most remarkable are 
his verses on the opening of Drury-Lane Theatre in 1747, 
1747, and the stanzas on the death of Mr. Levett ; the latter 
of which is, in our opinion, the most poetical of Johnson's 
productions. His tale of ' Rasselas' holds an intermediate 
place between his poetry and his prose. It is characterized 
by a tone of pleasing melancholy, and the style, though 
somewhat artificial, is elegant and harmonious. 

His prose works consist of short pieces, his Dictionary ex- 
cepted. His ' English Dictionary' was a work of great labour, 
and the quotations are chosen with so much ingenuity, that, 
though necessarily mere fragments, they are amusing to 
read. Dr. Robertson, the historian, said that he had read 
Johnson's Dictionary from beginning to end. It is however 
in some respects a very defective work. Johnson had scarcely 
any knowledge of the Anglo-Saxon, and no knowledge of 
any of the cognate Teutonic dialects ; accordingly theety- 
mulogical part is not of much value ; the e^mologies being 
blindly copied chiefly f^om Skinner and Junius. His 
definitions are constructed without sufficient consideration, 
and without any systematic plan. He also frequently errs 
in tracing the successive significations of a word. Between 
1750 and 1760 he published the 'Rambler' and the 'Idler,' 
periodical essays in the style of the ' Spectator.' Johnson 
was as little fitted for this species of composition as for 
poetry ; his serious essays generally consist of trite morality, 
and his attempts at facetiousness arc ponderous and clumsy. 
His edition of Shakspeare was published in 1765; the pre- 
face is one of his ablest productions, particularly that part 
which relates to the unities and dramatic illusion. He nad 
not sufiicient antiquarian knowledge or poetical feeling for 
commenting on Shakspeare ; his notes are not numerous, 
and though marked with his strong sense are only occasion- 
ally valuable. In 1775 he published the account of his 
journey in the Hebrides, an entertaining and even an in- 
structive work, though it discusses with needless solemnity 
subjects familiar to every inhabitant of the country, 
but Strang to a townsman like Johnson. His ' lives 
of the Poets,* published in 1781, are a useful and interesting 
contribution to English biography and criticism, and are too 
well known to require specific notice. The criticisms in 
this work are sometimes biased bv political, religious, and 
even personal antipathies, as may be seen in his unfavour- 
able judgment of Milton's poetry, dictated by his dis- 
like for the republican and non -conformist; and his cap- 
tious censure of Gray, which evidently proceeded from his 
jealousy of a successful contemporary. His judgments 
of the general character of a poet are however more fre- 
quently correct than his criticisms upon particular passages 
and expressions. His verbal oritidsms on poetry are for tke 
most part the mere cavillings of a prosaic grammarian. 

A complete list of Johnson's works is prefixed to Bos- 
weirs 'Life;' but from what has been stated, it sufficiently 
appears that his intellectual efforts were desultory and un- 
connected, and took the form of Essays, Lives, Critical 
Notices, Prefaces, &c. He had no comprehensive or pro- 
found acquaintance with any department of human know- 
ledge ; he did not attempt any systematic investigation of 
any considerable branch of metaphysical, ethical, political, 
or iBsthetical science. Even as a grammarian, his acquire- 
ments were shallow and limited , of physical and mathe- 
matical science he was quite ignorant It may however be 
remarked that he had adopted that theory of ethics which 
is now commonly known by the name of utilitarian, as 



may be seen from his review of Soame Jenyna's • Inquiry 
into the Origin of Evil,* his ablest speculative production. 
Johnson here says of this ^eory, that it affords * a criterion 
of action on account of virtue and vice, for which he ha.* 
often contended, and which must be embraced by all i(ho 
are willing to know why they act or why they forbear, t>j 
give any reason of their conduct to themselves or others* 
From his habit of writing for the booksellera, he had ac 
cjuired a power of treating the most heterogeneous sub- 

i'ects with scarcely any preparatory knowledge; witnt>« 
us papers on the construction of Blackfriars Bridge, ai.d 
his argument, dictated to Boswell, on a question of Scotc:i 
law. In English literature his reading was extensive, i^r- 
ticularly in the writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries ; but he seems to have known little aibout tLc 
writers of the age of Elizabeth: his 'lives of the Poeu' 
begin with Cowley. He had not studied attentively the 
works of any of the chief English philosophers, as Bacau, 
Hobbes, Locke ; his theological learning was scanty ; ik r 
was he well versed in the political history or laws of b> 
country. He had a fair acquaintance with the ordiu^m 
Latin classics ; of Greek he knew but little. He could rt- j ' 
French and Italian; but he seems to have been nearl. 
ignorant of the modem literature of foreign countries. 

Johnson's opinions were regarded by many of his con- 
temporaries with a sort of superstitious reverence, aiid cwa 
his style was considered worthy of imitation. lu the pre- 
sent generation his credit has perhaps fallen lower than t! 
deserves. Many of his works will long continue to be iv&<:. 
if not for their intrinsic value, at least ftom the vigour U 
thought which they display. 

(Murphy's Life, in preface to Works; Boswell's Lt/\ 
Croker*s edit, including two curious vols, of ' Johnsonian^ :' 
Memoir by Walter Scott, Prose Works, vol. iii.; £Vf/v. 
Review, vol. liiL A brief but elaborate and able chanrur 
of Dr. Johnson has been written by Sir James Mackintu^L. 
and will be found in his Life, vol. ii., p. 166.) 

JOINT. (AsTicuLATiON.] Everything that need lo 
here said on Joints is contained in the article referred to. 

JOINT STOCK COMPANIES , [Bank, Banker. 
Banking; Partnership.] 

JOINT TENANCY signifles joint ownership of two cr 
more persons in land, or other property, as goods and chai- 
tels. It differs from Tenancy in Common [Common, Ti- 
NANCY in] and Coparcenership [Parceners] in the follow- 
ing essentials : joint tenants are severally seised or posse&^.^I 
of the undivided whole of the land or other property i'> 
which they have a joint interest, and also of their seven l 
shares, which shares are always equal shares, inasmuch as 
joint tenants take by purchase only, and by a joint title, 
the estate or interest must be limited to the several persc-ns 
by the same deed or instrument, and such estate or interot 
must vest in them at the same time, except (according to 
the more common opinion) the estate be limited to take elfc> : 
under the Statute of Uses or by devise, in which casea the ci.n- 
temporaneous vesting of the several parts is not necessan - 
the whole estate car property will go to the survivors an.i 
survivor of the point tenants, if the jointure continue uut.: 
such survivorship ; which is the important characteristic iji* 
a joint tenancy. It is a consequence of the mode in wbicL 
joint tenants are legally considered to be seised or possesse<l« 
and of the rigbt to the whole which accrues to the survivors 
and survivor, if no separation of the joint tenancy has he%.^ii 
made before such survivorship takes place—Uiat they cannot 
grant, or bargain and sell, or surrender or devise to ea<-h 
other ; they cannot exchange with each other, nor can one* 
make a feoffment to another. But any joint tenant m »v 
transfer his interest to any one of his companions by ic- 
lease, or rather he can by such instrument put an end t.> 
his interest ; and any joint tenant may convey his share t ♦ 
a stranger by pant; or he may compel his companions lo 
make a partition, by statute. Every person to whom ti-.i 
inteitest of a joint tenant is transferred becomes, as to such| 
share, a tenant in common with the remaining joint tenan :-. 

A joint tenant cannot dispose of either the whole or t::c» 
part of the property in which he is jointly interested ct>!'- 
sistently with the proper notion of ajoint tenancy, by a wi J 
made during the continuance of the joint tenancy, ev. n 
though he should happen to be the survivor; because ui\t } 
he has survived he has nothing to dispose of by will. But 
by severing the joint tenancy he acquires the power of d ** 
posing of his share by will. By a recent act (1 Vic', 
c. 26), a person may by a will, madeaoooxding to the pro> i^ 



J O M 



134 



JON 



nty» and simplicity of Louis, who however esteemed and 
.oved Joinvifle for his sincerity and abilities, as much 
as Joinville cherished Louis's honesty and goodness 
of heart, of which he gives numerous and affecting 
proofs in his narrative. Joinville, after his return to his 
native domain, did not forsake the king, but frequently 
repaired to his court, and continued to enjoy Louis's confi- 
dence. When Louis, in 1269, set out on his second expedi- 
tion, in whieh he died at Tunis, he invited Joinville to 
join him, but he excused himself. Joinville kept away 
from the corrupt court of Philip le Bel, but afterwards 
he is said to have joined the army which Louis X. collected 
at Arras against the Flemish. He died not long after ; but 
the precise epoch of his death is not known. Joinville 
and nis predecessor Villehardouin are among the oldest 
of the French chroniclers who wrote in the vernacular 
tongue. 
JOLIBA. [QtjORRA.1 

JOMELLI, NICOLO, one of the few celebrated com- 
posers of the early part of the last century, whose works 
justify the encomiums bestowed on them, was bom in 1714» 
at Aversa, accoi*ding to Mattel— at Avellino, says Burney — 
both places being near Naples. He was initiated in music 
by the Canon Muzzillo, and afterwards studied at one of 
the Neapolitan conservatories, first under Feo, then as the 
pupil of Leo, confessing himself chiefly indebted to the 
latter for havine inspired him with a true feeling for the art. 
Subsequently however, when he turned his attention to 
sacred music, he derived considerable improvement in the 
more elaborate branches of composition by his intercourse 
with the learned Padre Martini. 

Jomelli produced his first opera at Naples, being then 
only twenty-three years of age, and so speedily acquired 
fame, that in 1 740 he was summoned to Rome, where he 
composed two operas, and was warmly patronized by the 
Carainal Duke of York. Next year he proceeded to Bo- 
logna, and brought out his ' Ezio.' He then returned to 
the papal capital, and produced one of his finest works, 
' Didone.* This led to his being invited to Venice, at that 
time the great theatre for the display of musical excellence, 
where his * Merope' for the Teatro Fenice, and a 'Laudato' 
for the church of Santo Marco, well sustained his reputa- 
tion. The failure of his * Armida,* in the following year, 
at Rome, determined him to visit Germany, and at Vienna 
lie formed an acquaintance with Metastasio, which ripened 
into a friendship of the closest kind, that death only termi- 
nated. To the enlightened conversation and judicious cri- 
ticisms of the Imperial poet he always confessed his obliga- 
tions, and to which he ascribed much of the success of his 
later productions. He set the * Achille in Scire,' and got 
up afresh the * Didone,' of his illustrious friend, both of 
which were received by the Germans with enthusiasm. 

Metastasio, speaking of Jomelli, in several letters, says, 
' He is of a spherical figure, pacific disposition, with an en- 
gaging countenance, most pleasing manners, and excellent 

morals He is the best composer for words of whom 

I have any knowledge If ever you should see him, 

you will be attached to him; he is certainly the most 
amiable gourmand that ever existed.' 

At Vienna Jomelli remained two years, where he devoted 
no inconsiderable portion of his time to the beautiful and 
accomplished empress Maria Tlieresa, to whom he gave 
instructions in music. He was afterwards recalled to 
Rome, and there produced several operas, also his famous 
oratorio 'La Passione.' The duke of Wiirtemberg now 
prevailed on him to visit Stuttgard, in which city he resided 
nearly twenty years, and composed an incredible number of 
Italian operas, most of them however now forgotten ; but 
his * Missa pro DeAinctis,' or ' Requiem,' there produced, 
will always be known and remain as a monument of his 
genius. When the duke of Wiirtemberg was obliged to 
reduce his establishment, Jomelli went to Naples, where 
the ill success of two new operas operated so poweifuUy on 
his sensitive mind, that an attack of paralysis was the con- 
sequence. F^rom this however he sufficiently recovered to 
compose a Cantata and a ' Miserere,' the latter being by 
manv considered the finest of his works. He died at 
Naples, in 1774. 

Jomelli has been not unaptly called the ' Gliick of Italy.' 
He possessed the deep feeling and vigour that characterized 
the German composer, and is nearly as nch in accompani- 
ments. Indeed in his admirable, his marvellously affecting 
•cena, ' Berenice, ove sei?* in the serious opera of 'Lucio 



Vero,' he not only left at an unmeasurable distance all 
former and contemporary composers* but gave b'irth to a 
work which has never yet been surpassed, if ever equalled, 
and which must transmit his name to posterity, so long as 
a taste for what very nearly approacnes the sublime ia 
music shall exist. We hardly need mention his ' Cbocomie/ 
it is familiar to all ; and though not of so high an order of 
composition as some of the above-named worka» yet it» 
great and long-continued popularity is an incontostable 
proof of its originality and other sterling merits. 

JONAH (niV^ Iwvac), waa one of the twelve minor 

T 

Hebrew prophets. He is mentioned in 2 Kings, xiv. 
25, where we are told that Jeroboam IL 'restored the coa>t 
of Israel from the entering of Hamath unto the Sea of the 
plain, according to the word of the Lord God of IsraeU 
which he spake by the hand of his servant Jonah, the son bX 
Amittai, the prophet, which was of Gath-hepher,* or Gituh- 
hepher {Joshua, xix. 13), a city near the eastern boundary 
of the tribe of Zebulun, which formed a part of the king- 
dom of Israel, and afterwards of Galilee. From this pa^ 
sage most critics have supposed that Jonah lived under 
Jeroboam II., who reigned from 823 to 782 B.C. Bishop 
Lloyd places him near the close of Jehu's reign, or the be- 
ginning of that of Jehoahaz. The book of Jonah, with the 
exception of the highly poetical prayer in chap, iii., is en- 
tirely narrative. It may be divided into two porta. The 
first (chaps, i. and ii.) relates the attempt of Joc^h to evade 
God's command to preach to the people of Nineveh by 
fleeing to Joppa, and there embarking in a ship sailing f\>r 
I Tarshish ; his being thrown into the sea and swallowed by 
a fish, in the belly of which he remained three days and 
three nights ; and his deliverance from the fish, waich at 
the command of the Lord vomited him out upon the dry 
land. The second part gives an account of his second com- 
mission to Nineveh, where the king and people repented at 
his preaching (chap, iii.) ; his anger because Grod« upon the 
people's repentance, did not execute the judgments which the 
pcophet had predicted, and the striking reproof which Jonah 
received (chap. iv.). The history of Jonah is referred to in 
several passages of the New Testament (Matt, xii. 39-41 ; 
xvi. 4 ; Zjuke, xi. 29, 30, 32), from which it appears impro- 
bable that the book of Jonah is to be considered merely a 
parabolic story, as some have supposed. The canonical 
authority of the book is generally admitted. 

Bochart supposes that the fish which swallowed Jonah 
was a species of shark (Bocharti Opera, torn, iii., p. 74i^ 
and Townsend endeavoui*s to identify it with the idol-fi>h 
worshipped at Ascalon under the name Derceto. 

(The Introductions of Home and Jahn ; C^met*» Dic- 
tionary ; Townsend* 8 Old Testament arranged in Chron*- 
log ical Order ; Rosenmiiller's Scholia ; and list of comm cn- 
tators in Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica.) 

JONATHAN APPHUS was the youngest brother of 
Judas Maccabffius, on whose death he was chosen com- 
mander of the Jewish forces. After carrying on the war 
with some success for a few years, he made peace with 
Bacchides, the general of Demetrius Soter. At the com- 
mencement of Alexander's insurrection [Albxakdek 
Balas], Jonathan's alliance was warmly courted both \>y 
Demetrius and by Alexander. He joined the latter, by 
whom he was appointed high-priest (b.c. 1 53). He con- 
tinued in great favour with Alexander during that kind's 
life, and defeated Apollonius, the governor of CcBle-S>Tra, 
who had espoused the cause of Demetrius Nicator. He 
also laid sieze to the Syrian garrison in the castle on Mount 
Zion. On the accession of Demetrius Nicator, Jonathan 
succeeded in obtaining the confirmation of his power ; but, 
disgusted by the faithless treatment he idTterwards received 
from Demetrius, he joined the insurrection of Trypho in 
favour of Antioohus Theos, whose cause he supported v^itb 

freat success. He also confirmed the alliance made by 
udas with the Romans. Trypho had put Antiochua on 
the throne with the purpose of afterwards usurping it him- 
self. Dreading the powerful opposition of Jonathan, he 
took him by treachery and put him to d^th, in B.G. 144. 

(1 Maccabees, chape. ix.-xiL; Josephus, AnHquUits qf 
the Jews, book xiii., chaps, i-vi ; Jahn's Hebrw> Common- 
toealth, vol. i.) 

JONES, INIGO, who has been styled the Boglish Pol- 
ladio, and who forms an epoch in the history of architecture 
in this country, was born in the neighbourhood of St. 
Paul*8 in London, where his father was a respectable cloth* 



JON 



136 



JON 



eonBisting chiefly of translations from the Asiatic Ian- I 
guages. 

In 1774 Mr. Jones was called to the bar. Feeling the 
importance of devoting his whole time to his legal studies, 
he left all his Orients hooks and MSS. at Oxford, and 
diligently attended the courts of common law. During this 
time he wrote an essay on the law of bailments, which has 
since been re-published. The work is characterized by 
Jones's usual perspicuity and ease of expression ; so far as 
concerns the arrangement and matter, we are not aware 
that it contains anyUiing original, and it is sufficient to read 
it to be convinced that the author had not a mind adapted 
to seize with precision the fundamental principles wnich 
ibrm the science of law. Jones's extravagant panegyric on 
Blackstone is sufficient to show in what manner he had 
studied law. 

In 1780 he became a candidate to represent the University 
of Oxford in parliament, but finding that he had no hope 
of success in consequence of his opposition to the ministers 
of the day, and his condemnation of the American war, he 
withdrew from the contest. His opinions on political sub- 
jects are given in his ' Enquiry into the Legal Mode of Sup- 
pressing Riots,' in his * Speech to the Assembled Inha- 
bitants of Middlesex/ &c., in his ' Plan of a National De- 
fence,' and in his ' Principles of Grovernment;* which are 
printed in the* eighth volume of his works (8 vo. edition). 
After an interval of six years, when he had acauired great 
reputation in his profession, he again resumed nis Oriental 
studies, and employed the leisure hours of the winter of 
1780-1 in translating some antient poems of the highest 
repute in Arabia, which are callea MoallakaU or 'sus- 
pended,' because they are hung up in the Temple of Mecca. 
In 1783 he was appointed, through the influence of Lord 
Ashburton. a judge in the supreme court of judicature at 
Fort William in Bengal; on which occasion he was 
knighted. A few weeks after he married Miss Shipley, the 
eldest daughter of the bishop of St. Asaph. 

Sir William Jones arrived at Calcutta at the close of the 
year ; and from this time to that of his death, a period of 
eleven years, he devoted all his leisure time to the study of 
Oriental literature. Almost immediately after his arrival 
he induced those persons who had paid attention to Oriental 
literature to unite in forming a Society * for inquiring into 
the history and antiquities, the arts, sciences, and literature 
of Asia.' To the ' Asiatic Researches,' which were pub- 
lished by this Society, of which Sir William Jones was the 
first president. Oriental scholars in Europe are indebted 
for much of their knowledge of the literature and antiqui- 
ties of the Hindus. Sir William Jones contributed the fol- 
lowing treatises to the first four volumes of the 'Asiatic 
Researches :' eleven * Anniversary Discourses ' on the dif- 
ferent nations of Asia, &o. ; 'A Dissertation on the Ortho- 
graphy of Asiatic Words in Roman Letters ;' * On the Gods 
of Greece, Italy, and India ;' • On the Chronology of the 
Hindus ;' • On the Antiquity of the Indian Zodiac ;' * On 
the Second Classical Book of the Chinese ;' • On the Mu- 
sical Modes of the Hindus ;' • On the Mystical Poetry of 
the Persians and Hindus,' containing a translation of the 
Gltagovinda by JayadSva; 'On the Indian Game of 
Chess ;• • The Design of a Treatise on the Plants of India ;' 
and many other treatises of less importance. 

The study of Sanskrit principally engaged the attention 
of Sir William Jones during the first three or four years of 
his residence in Bengal. When he had attained sufficient 
proficiency in this language he proposed to the government 
to publish a copious digest of Hindu and Mohammedan law ; 
he offered to superintend the compilation, and to translate 
it This offer was willingly accepted, and Sir William Jones 
laboured for many years on the work. It was unfinished at 
the time of his death ; but has since been completed under 
the superintendence of Mr. Colebrooke. The laws of Manu, 
on which the whole svstem of Hindu jurisprudence is 
fcunded, were translated by Sir William Jones, and pub- 
lished separately in 1794. Those who are interested in 
Hindu literature are also indebted to Sir William Jones 
for a translation of Sacontalil, a dramatic poem by Cdlid^, 
which appeared for the first time at Calcutta in 1789 ; and 
also for a translation of the HitopadSsa, which appears to 
have been the original of the celebrated collection of Persian 
fiibles known under the name of Pilpay or Bidpai. [Bidpai .] 
But whUe he was indefatigable in the pursuit of literature, 
he never neglected his duties as a judge ; and * the in- 
flexible mtegrity,' remarks Lord Teignmouth, • with which 



he discharged the solemn duty of this station, will long hm 
remembered in Calcutta, both by Europeans and natives.' 
He died at Calcutta, on the 27th of April, 1 794, after a few 
days' illness. 

A mere catalogue of (he writings of Sir WiUiam Jones 
would show the extent and variety of his knowledge. He 
had a wonderful facility for Uie acquisition of Umgnages ; 
his knowledge of Latin and Greek was extensive, though 
not profound; his acquaintance with Arabic, Persian, aod 
Sanskrit has seldom tteen equalled, and scarcely, if eTer, sur- 

Sssed by any European ; he was fiuniliar with Turkkb and 
ebrew ; and had learned enough of the Chinese to enable 
him to translate an ode of ConfUcius. He was also well se- 
quainted with most of the modem languages of Europe, — 
French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and German; and 
had studied less critically numerous other languages. Ha 
knowledge of science was not so extenidve or accurate : be 
had however made some progress in mathematics ; was well 
acquainted with chemistry ; and had studied botany during 
the latter years of his life with the neatest diligence. But 
though the attainments of Sir William Jones were tu 
various and extensive, he does not appear to have possessed 
any originality. He neither discovered new truths nor 
placed old ones in a new light. He possessed neither tbo 
power of analyzing nor of combinine and oonstmcting. For 
language, as a science, he did nothing: he only collected 
materials for others. His writings on Oriental literatutt 
are interesting and instructive ; but neither they nor any 
of his other works are distinguished by any originaUty ^f 
thought or power of expression ; his style is weak, and h:^ 
judgment frequently defective. His literary attainmenl^ 
were certainly such as few men, perhaps none, have ever 
made; yet with every disposition to admire and honour 
him for what he has done, we cannot assign him a high in- 
tellectual rank. Doubtless he weakened his powers by dif- 
fusing them over so large a surface, instead of concentrating 
them on a few objects. His personal character must alwajs 
command our respect ; he was an indefiitigable scholar, an 
affectionate sou, a faiUiful friend, a uaefhl citisen, and an 
upright iudge. 

In addition to the works which have been already men- 
tioned. Sir William Jones published a translation of Issus; 
and also translations of two Mohammedan law tracts *05 
the Law of Inheritance, and of Succession to Property of 
Intestates;' * Tales and Fables by Nizami;' *TwoH>idiis 
to Pracriti ;' and ' Extracts fk'om tne Vedas.* 

A complete edition of the works of Sir William Jonc> 
was published in 6 volumes, 4to., 1799, and in 13 volumes^ 
8vo., 1807, with his life by Lord Teignmouth. 

JONES, JOHN PAUL, was born 6th July, 1747. ac- 
cording to the < EncyclopsDdia Americana* at Arbingland 
(Arbigland?), according to other accounts in the parish cf 
Kirkbean, in Kirkcudbright, Scotland. The name of hts 
father, who was a gardener, was Paul; the addition of 
Jones was assumed by the son after he grew up in life. 
He went to sea at the age of twelve, and after making many 
voyag^es to America and other parts, was in 1768 made 
captain and supercargo of a vessel which he had shortly 
before brought safe into port, having, at the request of those 
on board, when he was sailing in her as a passenger, taken 
th^ command on the death of the captain and mate. 
Having in a few years made a good d^ of money, he 
settled in Virginia in 1773, on a property which fell to him 
4)y the death of an elder brother, who had been for some 
years established there as a planter. After the declaration 
of their independence by the colonies, be ofl^red his services 
in the war against his native country, in which he soon 
greatly distinguished himself. On being appointed to the 
command of the Providence, he cruised among the West 
India Islands, and, as it is stated, made sixteen prizes in 
little more than six weeks. In May, 1777, he proceeded, 
by order of the Congress, to France, where he was imme- 
diately appointed, by Franklin and his brother commis- 
sioners, to the command of the Ranger, in which the next 
year he sailed upon a cruise to the coasts of Britain, and, 
after making a descent by night at^Whitehaven, where he 
spiked the gims of the forts and set fire to one or two ves- 
sels, besides plundering the house of the earl of Selkirk on 
the opposite coast of Scotland, returned to Brest with 'Im^ 
prisoners, and the boast that he had for some time kept 
the north-western coast of England and southern coast of 
Scotland in a state of alarm with his single ship. In the 
autumn of 1779 he set sail again on a similar expedition 



JOS 



138 



JOS 



chariioter generally, as mankind under the narticular cir- 
cumstancea of Jonson's own time, and many local allusions 
are made which cannot be understood without some know- 
ledge of the manners and customs of the time : but Mr. 
Giff6rd*s notes in his edition of Jonson are a treasure of 
this kind of information. The nractioe of exhibiting 
the ' humours,* that is, the peculiarities of character, 
obtained for Jonson the name of ' the ' humorous' poet, 
which name must be understood in a sense quite different 
from that in which it is used at present. The lovers of a 
more natural school of poetry are seldom admirers of 
Jonson, who finds his chief readers among those who like 
to observe the elaboration of dramatic art Besides 
his completed dramatic works, Jonson has left two frag* 
ments, ' Mortimer*s Fall,* which he intended to be a tra- 
gedy in the Greek style, and the ' Sad Shepherd,' a dramatic 
pastoral which is one of the gems of early English literature. 
He has also left a translation of Horace's ' Art of Poetry,* 
an ' English Grammar' of some merit, and a few poems, 
some of which are singularly beautiful. ' Every Man in his 
Humour * is the only piece that has kept possession of the 
stage. ' The Alchemist ' has been abridged to a farce 
called ' The Tobacconist.' 

JOPPA. [Syria.] 

JORDAENS, JACOB, bom at Antwerp in 1594, was 
a disciple of Adam van Oort, but was indebted to Rubens 
for the greater part of his knowledge in the art of painting. 
He was prevented from visiting Rome by an early marriage 
with Van Oort's daughter; but he diligently copied the best 
pictures of the great Italian masters to which he could 
procure access. His pictures are distinguished by powerfril, 
brilliant, and harmonious colouring, as well as knowledge of 
chiaroscuro. His composition is rich, his touch free and 
spirited; but he is deficient in elegance and taste; he copied 
nature as he found it. He painted with great facility and 
rapidity, and beingj also extremely diligent and living to a 
great age (he died m 1678, aged eighty-four), his works are 
very numerous : a great many of the churches in the Ne- 
therlands have altar-pieces by him, and his pictures are 
met with in most collections of any eminence. 

JORDAN. JSyriaJ 

JORTIN, JOHN, D.D. (bom 1698, died 1770X was of 
forei^ extraction, his family having left France when 
Louis XIV. revoked the edict of Henry IV^ commonly 
called the Edict of Nantes, for tlie protection of his Huguenot 
subjects. He was himself bom in London. He had his 
grammar education at the Charter House, from whence he 
passed to Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he became in 
due time a Fellow. 

While living at Cambridge he published a small volume 
of Latin poems, which are greatly admired, and allowed to 
possess a high rank among modern Latin verses. His 
College presented him to a living in Cambridgeshire, but 
he determined on leaving the country and residing in 
London, where he soon became an acceptable, or rather, 
in the better sense of the phrase, an admired and popular 
preacher. His sermons, many of which are printeo, are 
distinguished for their excellent sense and the originality 
at once of thought and style. In 1751 he obtained the 
living of St. Dunstan in the East His other church pre- 
ferment was the living of Eastwell in Kent, presented to 
him by the earl of Winchelsea. This was for the greater 
part of his life all the preferment he enjoved; but in 1762, 
when his friend Dr. Osbaldeston became bishop of London, 
Jortin was appointed his domestic chaplain, and was pre- 
sented with a prebend in the church of Saint Paul and the 
living of Kensington. To these was soon added the arch- 
deaconry of London. He fixed his residence at Kensington, 
and was buried in the new churchyard of that place. 

The critical writings of Dr. Jortin are greatly admired 
bj all who have a taste for curious literature. It is not 
merely on account of the learning which is displayed in 
them, and the use which is made of obscurer authors, but 
there is a terseness in the expression, and a light playful 
satire in the thoughts, which make them exceedingly 
entertaining. The first work of this class was publishea in 
1731, and is entitled 'Miscellaneous Observations on 
Authors, antient and modem.' In 1751 the first volume 
apueared of his ' Remarks upon Ecclesiastical History ;* 
ana in 1758 he published his < Life of Erasmus. 

JORULLO. [MKXica] 

JOSEPH L, of the house of Austria, emperor of Ger- 
many, succeeded his &ther Leopold L in 1 705. He carried 



on the war called that 'of the Spanish i tieceM ion,' which 
had begun under his father, a^nst Louis XIV. The allied 
armies under Eugene and Marlborough were prosperous 
in his reign. The battles of Ramilies, Oudenarde, and 
Malplaquet, the deliverance of Turin by Prince Eugene, 
the surrender of Naples to the Austrians, and the per- 
manent footing obtained by the Archduke Charles in Spain, 
seemed to have nearly decided the question, when Joseph 
died of the smallpox in April, 1711, leaving his brother 
Charles, afterwaras Charles VI., the last male heir of tbe 
house of Habsburg, to conclude the war. Joseph wa> a 
good prince; he was learned, and assiduous in the dur 
charge of his duties, humane, and though a sincere Catholic, 
yet tolerant. He was one of the best of a house fertile in 
good and wise princes. 

JOSEPH n., eldest son of Maria Theresa and of 
Francis of Lorraine, was elected king of the Romans m 
1764, and in the following year, on the death of his father, 
he became emperor. As long as his mother lived he had 
little real newer, as Maria Theresa retained the adminu- 
tration of ner vast territories in her own hands ; but on hef 
decease, in 1780, he became possessed of all the hereditary 
Austrian dominions. Joseph soon displayed considerable am- 
bition mixed with much restlessness : ne was however kep: 
in check by France and by Frederic of Prussia. After tbc 
latter died, in 1786, Joseph joined Catherine of Russia in a 
war against Turkey, which his general Laudon carried uo 
with success, taking Belgrade and other fortresses in I r^^?. 
But the threatening aspect of afbirs in France and Brabant 
arrested the progress of the Austrian armies, and Joseph 
himself died in 1790. The character in which Joseph n 
chiefly viewed is that of a reformer ; in many instance« a 
wise one, but in others rash and inconsiderate. He abo- 
lished all separate jurisdictions, and divided the Austrian 
monarchy into thirteen governments subdivided into circle^ 
aU under a uniform administration, civil and judicial. He 
abolished feudal servitudes, and substituted a fixed tax in 
lieu of corv6es, taskworks, tithes, heriots, &c. He issued 
the edict of toleration, by which all Christians, of whatever 
denomination, were declared equaJly citizens, and equals 
eligible to all offices and dignities. Wherever there wa» i 
population of 3000 inhabitants, whether Protestants or 
Greeks, they were allowed to build a church tor themselves 
provided they established at the same time a permanent 
fund fi>r the support of the minister and relief of the po^r. 
The Jews were allowed the exercise of all trades and pro- 
fessions, with access to the public schools and universities 
He took away firom the clergy the censorship of the press 
and gave it to a commission of literary men resident a: 
Vienna. He opened colleges and universities, enlarged 
those already existing; endowed new professorships, orA 
collected libraries. He encouraged manufactories, but, 
according to the olA system, he placed exorbitant duties on 
foreign suticles. He subjected the monastic fraternities t > 
diocesan jurisdiction ; and he suppressed many convents, but 
he did it in a harsh manner, without regard to the necessities 
and feelings of the older inmates, who were turned adrift into 
the world with only small pensions, and in some cases even 
without them. He forbade pilgrimages and processions, prw 
hibited the pomp of funeral ceremonies, declared marriage to 
be a purely civil contract, forbade all papal bulls to be pub- 
lished throughout his dominions without the permission oi 
the government, abolished the privileges of the university ct 
Louvain, and established a new theological seminary in iu 
place. These innovations, in a country so strongly attached tu 
its old institutions and religion as the Belgian provinces werv, 
led to an insurrection, and ultimately to the separation of tho^> 
fine territories from the Austrian monarchy. His scheme of 
establishing the German as the universal language throu^^h- 
out his dominions led to a revolt in Hungary, which hx> 
more temperate successor Leopold had some difilculty kr. 
pacifying. In short, the reforms of Joseph partook both <.«/ 
the good and the evil of that spirit of innovation which hc5 
prevailed in Europe ever since his time; for with all hit 
liberality he was perfectly despotic in carrying his measu]>p9. 
into effect, without regard to the feelings, prejudices, or 
interests of individuals. He has been quaintly, but not 
inappropriately, styled the imperial avant-oouner of the 
French revolution. 
JOSEPH, Kinff of Portugal. [Portuoai.] 
JOSE'PHTJS, FLA'VIUS, the celebrated Jewish his. 
torian, was born at Jerusalem a.d. 37. His fiunily was oa« 
of veiy distinguished rank; by his mother's side he was de- 



J O V h 

Ths eanonicfti authority of tbiB book has nerer been dis- 
hiitad. In all the HS3. of the Old Testament it imme- 
diately follows the Penlateach. 

Many Christian cotnmentatora consider Joshua to have 
been a type of Christ ; but this opinion ia not Bup|HMted by 
any writer of the New Testament. 

The Samuitans have two books which bear the name of 
Joshua. I. One of these is achronicle, consisting of forty- 
. seven chapters, of Jewish history from a little before the 
death of Moses to the time of the Roman emperor Alex- 
ander Severus. It appears to have been called the Book of 
Joahua. because the history of Joshua occupies the greater 
part of the work (the first thirty-eicht or thirty-nine 
chapters). It is written in the Arabic language, in Sama- 
ritan characters. Copies of this work are extremely scarce. 
The only copy in Europe, as far as we are aware, is in the 
University Library at Leyden, to which it was left by 
Joseph Scaliger. 2. The other Book of Joshua, written by 
one Abul-Pliaiah, is also a chronicle of events from the 
beginning of the world lo a.h. 898 (a.d. HSZ). There is a 
copy of ibis work in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 
Scnnurrer, who also possessed another copy, has given an 
account of the chronicle in the ninth volume of the ' Re- 
pertorium fiir Bibl. und Mo^enl. Litt.' 

(The Introdactiont of Eichhorn, Jahn. De Wette, Au- 
gust!, and Home ; Rosenmiiller's ScAo'ia; the best critical 
works on Joshua are \ty Viasmi, Jofute Imperatorii Hitloria 
if ^titfraf a. Antwerp, 1374; Meyer, Ufber die Beitatidtheile 
und die Oekonomie des B. Joeua, with a review of the same 
book in Bcrlbolilt'a ' Journal dor Theolog. Litt.' vol. ii., 
pp. 337-3eB; Hcrwerdon's Dispututio de Libra Jotuis, 
Groiiing, 1«26 ; Maurer's Commentar titer d. B. Joiua.) 

JOUDPOltE [MarwarJ 

JOURNALS OF THE LORDS AND COMMONS. 
[Farliamknt.] 

JOVELLA'NOS, GASPER MELCHIOR DE. This 
patriotic and eolighlened writer and statesman, who zeal- 
ously devoted bis talents to the improvement of his country- 
men and the defence of their liberties, was born at Gijon 
in the Asturias, in 1 749. Although of noble lineage, being 
nephew to the duke of I.osada, he possessed but a moderate 
patrimony; accordingly, as soon as he bad completed his 
studies at the universities of Oviedo, Avila, and Aleala, be 
accepted the appointment of magistrate at Seville. Yet 
Ruch were his economy and public spirit, that he would have 
declined the salary if he had not been pressed, and he appro- 
priated a considerable portion of hia emoluments to the ' In- 
stitute Asturiano.' In 17 78 he was made chief judge of the 
King's Court at Madrid, in which city he became acquainted 
with Cabarrus, Campomanes, and other eminent literary cha- 
racters. He was afterwards removed, upon some futile pre- 
texts, through the machinations of court intrigue, but was 
again recalled, and raised to the more important office of 
minislerof grace, or home-secretary of state, to retain it how- 
ever only for a lew months, when the inlluenco of the un- 
principled God ay expelled him. He now returned lo Gijon. 
where his cares were directed towards the ' Institute Astu- 
riano,' which he had succeeded in establishing in 1 794 ; yet 
he was not allowed to pursue bis plana for public itistiuction 
long, since in about two years and a half afterwards he was 
arrested, and sent as prisoner to Majorca, where he was 
confined in the castlo of Bellver. Even during this period, 
which continued upwards of seven years, be prosecuted bis 
studies as diligently as circumstances would permit, and 
coQimenced a ' Flora Hcllvcrica,' and collected materials for a 
history of the island. At length, after the downfal of 
Godoy, he was permitted to return by Fecdioand VII., and 
on that sovereign's abdication, was chosen member of the 
central junta. When that body wasdissolved, the illustrious 
veteran returned to Gijon, to be shortly adei driven from 
his borne when the French invaded Asturias, in 1812. 
Within two months death liberated him from all his pet- 



As a writer on subjects of political economy and legisla' 
lion, Jovellaoos stands foremost among his countrj'men : 
but besides his produclions of that claiB, he wrote numerous 
others, among which may be mentioned his celebrated 

Pan y Tores,' the tragedy of ' Pelayo,' the comedy of ' El 
Dehncueote Honrado.' a translation of tin first book of 
' Paradise Lo^t,' besides several poetical pieces; an 6Iog( 
on Ventura Roilriguez, the eminent architect ; a disscrla- 
lion on English architecture, &c. A biographical memui] 
of Aim waa puUished by big friend Cean Bermudez (the 



J U A 

ffcll known author of several works on the fine arts), under 

the title of ' Memories para la Vida del Exc. Sen. Don G 
JovellanoB, y Noticias analitieas de sus Obras.' 

JOVIA'NUS, FLATnUS CLAU'DIUS, bora a-d. 331, 
was the son of Veronianus, of an illustrious &mily of Mtc- 
sia, who had filled important ofBces under Constaniim. 
Jovianus served in the army of Julian in hia unlucli)' 
expedition against the Persians, and when that emperur 
was killed, a.d. 363, the soldiers proclaimed him his suc- 
cessor. His first task was to save the army, which was sur- 
rounded by the Persians, and in great distress for provi&ioni. 
After repelling repeated attacks of the enemy, he wiltinj^; 
listened to proposals for peace, which were — that the Romsni 
should give up the conquests of former emperors westwird 
of the Tigris, and as far as the city of Nisibia, which was euL 
in their hands, but was included in the territory to hesunen- 
dercd up to Persia, andthat moreover they should give no is- 
sislance to the kine of Armenia, then at war with the PersiiM. 
These conditions, no wever ofi^nsive to Roman pride, Jotu- 
nus was obliged lo submit to, as his soldiers were in ih* 
utmost destitution. It Is a remarkable instance of tbe 
Roman notions of political honesty, that Eulropius re- 
proaches Jovianus not so much with having given up tbt 
territory of the empire, as with having observed so hu- 
miliating a treaty after he had come out of his dangeroia 
position, instead of renewing the war, aa the Romans had 
constantly done on former occasions. Jovianns delircmi 
Nisibis to the Persians, the inhabitants withdrawing t: 
Amida, which became the chief Roman town in Heso^ 
tamia. On his arrival at Antioch, Jovianus, who was of iln. 
Christian failh, revoked the edicts of Julian against xh 
Christians. He also supported the orthodox or Niccne 
creed against the Arians, and he showed his favour to the 
bishops who had formerlv suffered from the Arians, and «■ 
pecially to Atllanasiu^ who visited him at Antioch. Hai^^ 
been acknowledged all over the empire, Jovianus, aftn 
slaying soma months at Antioch, set off during tbe wmui 
to Constantinople, and, on his way, paid funeral honouni> 
Julian's remains at Tarsus. He continued his jouracyu 
very severe cold, of which several of his attendants dial 
At Ancyra he assumed the consular dignity, hut a few di>> 
after, being at a place called Dadaslana in Galalio, be m 
fbund dead in his bed, as some say being sufibcatcd by Tin 
vapour of the charcoal burning in his room, acconiinE i - 
others by the steam of the plaster with which it had ba~ 
newly laid, whilst others again suspected him to have W:: 
poisoned or killed by some of his guards. He died on \h^ 
IGth of February, a.d. 3C4, being 33 years of age. afiu i 
reign of only seven months. The army proclaimed Valic- 
linianus as his si 




JOVI'NUS, bom of an illustrious family of Gaul. .> 
sumed the imperial title under the weak reign of Honotiu'. 
and placing himself at the head of a mixed army of Bar- 
gundians, Alemanni, Alani, &c., took possession of par\ ■ '. 
Gaul a.d, 411. Alaulphus, king of the Visigoths, oifcn-i 
to join Jovinus and share Gaul between them, hut Juvinm 
having declined hiii alliance, Ataulphus made peace iii:> 
Honorius, attacked and defeated Jovinus. and having takd 
him prisoner at Valence, delivered him to I^idanu^ 

Erefeet of Gaul, who had him put to death at Narbo (Ntr- 
onne) a.d. 412 




Brituh Uuii'Uin. ArCul Kb. OdU. 

JCVIUS. PAUL. [Giovto] 

JUAN FERNANDEZ. [Fshsandii-I 

JUAN DE ULLOA. [MKxica] 



J UD 



142 



J U D 



In the Judicia Privata the party complainant (aotor) came 
before the pnetor or other magistrate who had jurisdiction 
(iurisdictio), and made his claim or complaint, to which the 
defendant (reus) might put in a plea (exceptip). The pr»- 
tor then made an oider by which he referred the matter to 
Judices or Recuperatores, or Arbitri, whose chief office was 
to ascertain Uie tacts in dispute. The formula, or order of 
the prcetor, was of the nature of a provisional decree : it 
stated the matter at issue between the parties and the judg- 
ment that was to follow upon the determination of the &cts. 
The plaintiff had to prove his case, or the defendant to prove 
his plea, before the judices. Sometimes there was only one 
index. The speech of Cicero ' Pro Public Quintio' was made 
before a single judex, aided by assessors (consilium). 

The patroni or orators appeared before the judices to sup- 
port the cause of their clients. The judices were sworn to 
act impartially. Witnesses were produced on each side and 
examined orally; and it is clear uom the remarks of Cicero 
(Pro Ccecina, c. 10), where he is commenting on the evidence 
in the case of Cascina, that he had cross-examined and put 
to confusion an impudent witness on the other side (see silso 
the Oration Pro F2acco, c. 10). It is clear also from the 
-oration *Pro Ceecina,' that the inquiry before the judices 
was public. Written documents, such as letters and books 
of accounts, were produced before the judices by way of 
evidence. (Cicero, Pro Q. Poscio,) When the orators had 
finished their speeches, the judices decided by a majority. 
The sentence was, if necessary, perhai)8 in some cases car- 
ried into effect by the lictors of the magistrate who appointed 
the judices. The form in which the judices pronounced 
their decision was that of a judgment or decree. 

The difference between the judicium and arbitrium was 
this: in the judicium, the claim, demand, or damages, was 
a sum fixed ; in the arbitrium it was a sum uncertam ; and 
this difference was attended with certain variations in the 
procedure. This is very clearly expressed by Cicero {Pro 
Q. Roscio, c. 4). 

The judices must necessarily to some extent have settled 
questions of law, inasmuch as the determination of the facts 
sometimes involved the interpretation of the law. They 
were accordingly allowed to have assessors (consilium) 
learned in the law (iuris-consulti), but the juris-consulti 
merely advised the judices, who alone delivered the decision. 
In case of doubt as to the law, the judices might consult 
the magistrate under whom they were acting ; but as to the 
matters of fact, the judices were the sole judges, and could 
take no advice from the magistrate (Z>i^., v. 1. 79). Gellius 
(xiv. 2) gives an amusing account of the difficulty which he 
felt on being appointed a judex, and how he got rid of the 
business by declaring on oath, as the judex always might do, 
that he could not come to any decision. The difficulty which 
he experienced was exactly one of those which a person not 
practically acquainted with legal proceedings would expe- 
rience. 

We may presume that t'ac judices were generally persons 
qualifted by a sufficient education, though they were not 
necessarily lawyers ; but it does not appear that they were 
named out of any determinate class, and there is ^od reason 
fur thinking that both parties generally agreed upon the 
judices, or at least had the power of rejecting them. It 
woiUd seem as if every Roman citizen was considered com- 
petent to discharge the functions of a judex in civil actions, 
at least under the emperors : but this part of the subject is 
not free from difficulty. 

Appeals from the decisions of the judices were not uncom- 
mon. (Ulpian, Dig^ xhx. 1, 1 ; Scaevola, Dig,, xhx. 1, 28.) 

So far seems pretty well ascertained. Such being the 
qualifications of the judices, and the magistrates who had 
' jurisdictio * being only annual functionaries, it appears that 
there was no class of men among the Romans, like our 
judges, who were the living interpreters of law for a series 
of years in succession. The juris-consulti seem to have kept 
the Roman law together as a coherent body, and it is from 
their writings alone that the Digest is compiled. [Justi- 
nian's Legislation.] 

A court is often mentioned by the Roman writers, the 
origin and constitution of which, if they could be thoroughly 
ascertained, would throw great light on the Roman judicial 
system, and indeed on the Roman polity generally. We 
allude to the Judicium Centumvirale, which in the earlier 
times of the Republic was a court in which weighty matters 
of law were decided. This court gradually declined, but 
iras: restored by Augustus. The author of the dialogue 



'De Causis Conruptse Eloquentiae' speaka of it as mr.t 
flourishing in his tune; but he proves its former decay l>v 
observing that there was not a single speech then exta t 
made by any great orator before this court, except one w L t i 
he mentions. Yet both L. Crassus and Q. Scaevola 1. .1 
pleaded before the Centumviri. (Cic, De OraU !• 39.) T( • 
origin, number, and constitution of this body are not knov, ^l 
though some writers say that the number was 105, th'-.- 
being chosen from each tribe. (Festus, v, * Centum viral 1:1 
But there were not thirty-five tribes tiU A.U.& 513. u^ I 
therefore it might be inferred that the Centumviral h^l- 
was of comparatively recent date. However this doe<^ i. -t 
necessarily follow from Uie words of Festus ; and be:»:(: ^ 
such an explanation may be nothing more than his atteii:: : 
to assign the origin of the court, without being able to tri^ 
it historically. The Centumviri were not magisiratus. >• /. 
a college of judices, who decided in Judicia Privata. 1 ^ 
matters which came before them were only actiones in r-' v, 
or vindicaHoneSy not actiones inpersonamt or acft' > 
founded on contracts or delicts: consequently the matte 
brought before them were actions affecting ownership, ^^t -■ 
vitutes (easements), wills, and intestacies. (Cicero, De Or 
tore, i. 38, 39.) The Querela Inofficiosi Testamenti sc-v « 
to have come before this court only. So &r as is here sur^ ! 
seems to be pretty clearly made out. A valuable e!»^y 
this subject by Hollweg will give further information' ai. 
solve with some degree of probability various difficult .. 
that may suggest themselves to the student fHollw.-. 
Ueber die Competenz des Centumviralgerichts, Zeit^chn . 
ftir Geschicht. Recht,, v., 358.) A more recent wn 
(Tigerstrbm, De Jtidicibus apud Romanos)dL\&sQnx& alt-x 
ther from Hollweg*s view of the court of the Centum . ir . 
and perhaps on some points he has shown him to be wrur j. 
The value of Tigerstrom's essay however appears X^y .. 
rather in the numerous passages which he nas collei t. i 
from the Roman writers than m the deductions which *., 
has made from them. 

It is not our purpose to treat at length of the Jud: 1 
Publica. They were in the nature of criminal prosecutii.:.-^ 
in which any person, not disqualified, might be the |>: 
secutor, and in which the verdict was followed by a Icl ^ 
punishment. Judices were employed here also, and w*.' 
a kind of assessors to the magistrate, or the Judex Qui - 
tionis, who presided. Both the accuser and the accused, l^ 
it seems, might challenge a certain number of the jud:c> 
Witnesses were examined before them: slaves by tort j.. 
freemen orally. The judices, at least in the more imp r- 
tant matters, voted by ballot: each judex put into the li-- 
the tablet of Acquittal, of Condemnation, or the ta' .. 
N. L. (non liquet, *it is not clear'), according to his j !t.- 
sure. The magistrate pronounced the verdict accord.: j 
to the tablets which made a majority. A lively picture : 
the intrigues and bribery which were not unusual on >ur\ 
trials is given by Cicero in speaking of the affair of Cl.»«i. .. 
and the Bona Dea (Kp. ad Attic, i. 13, 16). The Vdii. ..^ 
changes made as to the body from which the judicc* v. v .• 
chosen appear to refer only to the judicia publica. [Eqi; it»- ^ 

There is a distinction between judicia publica, ju'i ■ . . 
popularia, judicia extraordinaria, and judicia populi. 

The title * De Officio Judicis' in the • Institutes' (ir. i - 
contains merely general directions for the conduct uf :\. . 
judices. 

It should be observed that this subject is not free fr'-r-: 
difficulty. What is above stated must be taken onh s 
correct in the main features. Further inquiry is s: . 
wanted on several matters connected with the function^ ' 
the judices. Enough has been said to enable the reader r 
compare the Roman judices with the modem jury, and t 
show the difference of the institutions. 

(Gains, lib. iv. ; Heineccius, Syntagma, «Jtr., by HauK»: 
Unterholzner, Ueber die Rede Cicero ftir den ScAauxjf^ 
Roscius, Zeitschrift, &c., i. 248 ; and his remarks on r 
difference between the condictio and the actio in persvr* * 
with reference to the judices; 'De Judiciis,' Dig., v. i 
•De Judiciis Publicis,' Dig,, xlviii.; Instit. iv., tit, k- 
[Interdict.] 

Dr. Pettingall's • Enquiry into the Use and Practice 
Juries among the Greeks and Romans,' London, I 7' 
may be consulted as to the functions of the Roman ju.l .. . 
in the Judicia Publica. The author's conclusions seem . 
the main to be correct, though his essay is an ill-arnm 
and unmethodical production. The * Attiscrhe Process,'^ 1 
Meier and Schumann, and the essay of Pettingall, ma\ I 



JUG 



144 



JUL 



ployed in the construction of carriages and other vehicles. 
Other species of Hickory are also eaten, especially the 
Peccan nut, the produce of Carya olivaformis, a small and 
delicate sort. Although the fruit of these plants is eaten, 
it contains a purgative principle, which renders some of the 
species cathartic, as is the case with Juglans cathartica and 
nigra, two North American species ; and even the common 
walnut participates so much in this quality, when the fruit 
is young, that a laxative conserve well known in domestic 
medicine is prepared from it Juglans nigra, the Black 
American 'Walnut, is a tree of remarkable size and beauty. 

JUGULAR VEINS are the large trunks by which the 
greater part of the blood is returned to the heart after having 
circulated in the head, face, and neck. There are two on 
each side, an external or superficial, and an internal or deep. 
The external jugular lies on each side just under the skin, 
and extends from near the angle of the jaw to the middle of 
the clavicle, behind which it opens into the subclavian vein. 
It conveys the blood of the confluent streams from the jaws, 
temples, and front and sides of the neck, and of some of 
those from the face. The internal jugular, which is far 
larger than the external, lies deep in the neck, by the side 
of the carotid artery. It receives all the blood from the 
skull and the brain, from the eyes and ears, and from the 
scalp, face, tongue, palate, pharynx, &c. The internal 
jugular veins extend from tne base of the skull just in 
front of the vertebral column, down the neck, to some depth 
behind the clavicles, where they unite with the subclavian 
veins, by which all the blood is brought from the arms and 
upper part of the chest and neck to . lorm the vens innomi- 
natSB, which by their union form the vena c&va superior, 
which opens directly into the right auricle of the heart. 
[Heart.] 

JUGXJRTHA, the illegitimate son of Manastabal, by a 
concubine, and grandson of Masinissa, was brought up 
under the care of his uncle Micipsa, king of Numidia, who 
sent him with an auxiliary force to join Scipio ^milianus, 
in his war against Numantia in Spain. Jugurtha so dis- 
tinguished Mmself as to become a great favourite with 
Scipio, who, at the conclusion of the war, sent him back to 
Africa with strong recommendations to Micipsa. Micipsa 
adopted him, and declared him joint heir with his own two 
sons Adherbal and Hiempsal. After Micipsa's death (b.c. 
118), Jugurtha, aspiring to the undivided possession of the 
kingdom, effected the murder of Hiempsal, and obliged Ad- 
herbal to escape to Rome, where he appealed to the senate. 
Jugurtha however found means to bribe many of the 
senators, and a commission was sent to Africa in order to 
divide Numidia between Jugurtha and Adherbal. The 
commissioners gave the best portion to Jugurtha, who, not 
long after their departure, invaded the territory of his 
cousin, defeated him, besieged him in Cirta, and havine 
obliged him to surrender, put him to a cruel death ; and 
this almost under the eyes of Scaurus and others, whom the 
Roman senate had sent as umpires between the two rivals 
(B.C. 112). This news created great irritation at Rome, and 
in the following year, under the consulship of Scipio Nasica 
and Calpurnius Bestia,war was declared against Jugurtha, and 
an army was sent to Africa under Calpurnius, accompanied 
by Scaurus, with other senators as his advisers. After some 
fighting, Jugurtha obtained under most favourable condi- 
tions the quiet possession of the usurped kingdom. The 
treaty however was not ratified at Rome ; and Calpurnius 
being recalled, the new consul Posthumius Albinus was 
appointed to the command in Africa. Meantime Jugurtha, 
bemg summoned, appeared at Rome ; but as he then suc- 
ceeded in bribing several of the senators, and also Bosbius, a 
tribune of the people, no judgment was given. Jugurtha, 
emboldened by this success, caused Massiva, son of his 
uncle Gulussa, whom he suspected of aiming at his king- 
dom, to be assassinated in the Roman capital. The crime 
was traced to Jugurtha, but as he was in Rome under the 
public guarantee, the senate, instead of bringing him to 
trial, ordered him to leave Rome immediately. 

It was then that Jugurtha is said to have exclaimed 
against the venality of that city, ' which would willingly sell 
itself if it could find a purchaser wealthy enough to bid for 
it* Posthumius was sent to Africa to prosecute the 
war, but he soon returned to Rome without having effected 
anything, leaving the army under the command of his bro- 
ther Auius Posthumius, who allowed himself to be sur- 
prised in his camp by Jugurtha, to whom he surrendered 
himself; and his army, having passed under the yoke, eva- 



cuated Numidia. The new consul, Metellus, arriving soon 
after with fresh troops, carried on the war with great vigour, 
and being himself above temptation, reduced Jugurtha u 
the last extremity. Caius Marius was serving as lieutenant 
to Metellus, whom in the year b.c. 107 he supplanted in the 
command. Jugurtha meantime having allied himself wuh 
Bocchus king of Mauritania, continued to give full employ- 
ment to the Romans. Marius took the towns of Capsa an*! 
Moluca, and in a hard contested battle defeated the tin 
kinss. Bocchus made offers of peace, and Marius sent 
to him his qusstor Sulla, who after much negotiatjon 
induced Bocchus to give up Jugurtha into the hands of tht- 
Romans as the price of his own peace and security. Bocchus 
hesitated awhile, but at last, having appointed a conference, 
he had Jugurtha seized and deliverea over to the Roraaiu. 
Jugurtha followed in chains, with his sons, the triumph uf 
Marius, after which he was thrown into the Mamertine 
subterraneous dungeon, the soldiers havmg stripped him of 
all his clothes, and even torn his ears fbr the sake of the 
earrings which he wore. He was starved to death in hiy 
prison ; oi, as some say, he was strangled. His two soo» 
were sent to Venusia, where they lived in obscurity. Th. 
war against Jugurtha lasted five years ; it ended in the year 
1 06 B.C. (Sallustius, De Bello Jugurtkino ; Eutropius.) 

JULIA'NUS, FLA'VIUS CLAU'DIUS, son of Julius 
Constantius, brother of Constantine the Great, was bom 
A.D. 331. After Constantino's death, the soldiers massacrrfi 
the brothers, nephews, and other relatives of that prioc^r. 
in order that the empire should pass undisputed to hiA 
sons. [Constantius.] Two only escaped from this but- 
chery, Julian, then six years old, and his half-brother 
Gallus, then thirteen years of age. Marcus, bishop of Arc* 
thusa, is said to have concealed them in a church. After 
a time Constantius exiled Gallus into Ionia, and entrusted 
Julian to the care of Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia 
Julian was instructed in Greek literature by Mardonios, s 
learned eunuch, who had been teacher to his mother Bslo 
lina. At the age of fourteen or fifteen he was sent to join 
his brother Gallus at Macellum, a castle in Cappadooi, 
where they were treated as princes, but closely watcbt*! 
(Juliani Opera, Epistle to the Athemans.) The youths 
were taught the Scriptures, and were even ordained ler- 
turers, and in that capacity publicly read the Bible in tb« 
church of Nicomedia. It appears that Constantius had the 
intention of making a priest of Julian, who had no inrhuA 
tion for that profession, and who is supposed to ha\t 
already secretly abandoned the belief in the Christta;. 
doctrines. The death of Constans and Constantine havio; 
left Constantius sole master of the Roman world, that eic- 
peror, who was childless, sent for Gallus, in March, 35 1, and 
created him Csesar, and he allowed Julian to return t^ 
Constantinople to finish his studies. There Julian met 
with the sophist Libanius, who afterwards became his frienc 
and favourite. Constantius soon after again banished Juh&s 
to Nicomedia, where he became acouainted with somt 
Platonist philosophers, who initiated nim into tiieir dur- 
trines. He afterwards obtained leave to proceed to Athenx 
where he devoted himself entirely to study. After the in- 
gical death of Gallus, in 355, Julian, who had again fur x 
time awakened the jealous suspicions of his cottsin«vl^ 
recalled to court by the influence of the Empress Eusebu 
his constant patroness, when Constantius named him Cesar. 
and gave him the government of Gaul, which was then d^ 
vastated by the German tribes, together with his sister Heleni 
to wife. Julian made four campaigns against the Grermans iz 
which he displayed great skill and valour, and freed Gaul fros 
the barbarians, whom he pursued across the Rhine. IK 
spent his winters at Lutetia (Paris), and became as mud 
esteemed for his equitable and wise administration as for hi- 
military success. Constantius, always suspicious, orderec 
Julian to send him back some of the best legions in Can'. 
to be employed against the Persians. When the time f : 
marching came, in the vear 360, Julian assembled th. 
legions at Lutetia, and there bade them an affectionan 
farewell, when an insurrection broke out among i^l 
soldiers, who saluted him as Augustus. JuUan imme- 
diately sent messengers to Constantius to deprecate h - 
wrath, but the death of the emperor happening at il 
time left the throne open to him (a.d. 361). He proceode.. 
to Constantinople, where, being proclaimed emperur i . 
December, 361, he reformed the pomp and prodigal t*^ 
of the household, issued several wise edicts, corrects " 
many abuses^ and established a court at Chalcedon to i:.- 






JUL 



146 



J U N 



1520 squue mfles, and a popnlation of 426,694 iababitanto ; 
tb« city of Cologne has 69,051 inhabitants. 

JU'LIUS I. succeeded Marcus in the see of Rome a.d. 
336. Atbanasius having been driven by the Eusebian 
party from his see of Alexandria, it vas agreed by many of 
the Eastern bishops that the dispute should be settled in a 
council to be assembled at Rome. The council was convoked 
A.D. 340, and Atbanasius appeared, but not his adversaries, 
who convened another synod at Antioch, which excluded 
Atbanasius from his see. Julian remonstrated, but in 
vain. [Atbanasius, St.} The general council of Sardica 
was next convened, but a schism soon broke out in that 
assembly, and the partite excommunicated each other. 
This is the council which is said to have granted to the see 
of Rome the right of arbitration in cases concerning the 
deposition of bishops ; but this is a point much controverted. 
Julius died in the year 352. Two letters of his to the Eu- 
sebians and the Church of Alexandria are extant. (Con- 
stant., Episioltie Roman, Pontif.) Others have been fklsely 
attributed to him, as well as ten decretals, which are 
spurious. 

JULIUS TI., Cardinal della fiovere, nephew to Pope 
Sixtus IV., succeeded Pius III. in the year 1503. He had 
distinguished himself imder preceding pontificates by his 
haughty temper and warlike disposition, which were fitter 
for the sword than the crosier. After his exaltation to the 
papal throne he began by driving Cesare Borgia out of his 
lU-goCten possessions in the Romagna ; but there he fband 
another power, the Venetians, who, during the preceding 
troubles, had taken possession of Ravenna, Rimini, and 
other places. The Venetians offered to pay tribute to the 
see of Rome for those territories, but Julius refused, and 
demanded their absolute restitution to the Church. After 
fruitless negotiations, Julius, in 1508, made a league with 
I^uis XII., the Emperor Maximilian, and the duke of Fer- 
rara, against Venice. This was called the League of Cam- 
brai, and its object was the destruction of the republic of 
Venice and the pari it ion of its territories. Venire however 
stood firm, although its armies were defeated and its terri- 
tories were ravaged by both Germans and French with tiieir 
usual atrocity. At last Julius himself, having recovered the 
town of Romagna, perceived the impolicy of uniting with 
ultramontane sovereigns against the oldest Italian state, and 
accordingly in February, 1510, he made peace with Venice. 
Wishing to undo the mischief which he had dune, and to 
drive the foreigners, whom he styled 'barbarians,* out of 
Italy, he first sought to arm the Germans against the 
French, whom he dreaded most, but not succeeding, he 
called to his aid the Swiss. The pope himself took the 
fi^ld against the French in Lombardy, and attacked and 
took the town of La Mirandola, entering it by a breach, 
in January, 1511. The next campaign was unfavour- 
able to Julius, and he lost Bologna. But in the following 
October his legates succeeded m forming a league, which 
he called ' holy,' with Ferdinand of Spain, Henry of Eng- 
land, the Venetians, and the Swiss. The campaign sub- 
sequent, in 15 12, was marked by the battle of Ravenna and 
the death of Gaston de Foix, the French commander, fol- 
lowed by the total expulsion of the French from Lombardy. 
But this was. effected by the Swiss, German, and Spanish 
troops, and Julius merely succeeded in driving one party 
of Ibreigners out of Italy by means of other foreigners, 
who meantime subverted the republic of Florence, and 
gave it to the Medici. In the midst of these events, Julius 
died of an inflammatory disease, on the 21st February, 1513. 
He was succeeded by Leo X. J ultus was fond of the fine 
arts; he patronized firamante, Michel Angelo. and Raphael, 
and he began the structure of St. Peter's Church. 

JULIUS III., Cardinal Giocci, succeeded Paul III. in 
1550. He re-opened the sittings of the Council of Trent, 
which had been suspended under his predecessor. He 
quarrelled with France and with Venice, and also with 
Ferdinand, king of t\^e Romans and brother to Charles V., 
and died in March, 1555, leaving behind him a very indif- 
ferent character marked by incapacity and misconduct 

JULY, now the seventh, was originally the fifth month 
of the year, and was called b^ the Romans, in regard to 
its numerical station, Quintihs. Mark Antony altered the 
name to Julius, the gentile name of Caius Caesar, the Dic- 
tator, who was bom in it So Festus, ' Julium mensem 
QppeUarufU quod eo mense ckcitur Julius ncttus" 

In the old Latin or Alban calendar, Quintilis had a com- 
plement of 36 days. Romulus reduced them to 31 ; Numa 



to 30; but Juliua Ceasar restored the day of which Nunui 
had deprived it. which it has ever since retained. 

Oar Anglo-Saxon ancestors called July Mad-mmath, 
' mead month,' from the meads being then in their bloom; 
and ttftera-lilha monathy ' the latter mild month,' in contra. 
distinction to June, which they considered and named is 
' the former mild month.' 

On the 3rd of this month the Dog-days are supposed to 

:in. 

(Pitisci Lexicon^ L 985 ; Brady's Cfavis Calendaria, 1 74; 
Bo8wortb*s Ang.lo'Saxon Diet., v. ' Monath.') 

JUMNA. [Hindustan.] 

JUNCA'CEiE, a small natural order of £ndogen«yBi 
plants, so named from J uncus, the rush, which is ma.- 
dered its type. It is principally composed of obscare ber- 
baeeoua plants, with brown or green glumaceous hexan- 
drous. flowers, and would |^rhaps be with more propneti 
considered a section of LiliacesD than a separate order. It 
forms one of the transitions from complete Endogeas to tu 
imperfect glumaceous form of that class. 




Juueu8 articulatUii. 

1, a flower spread open ; 2, a capsule ; 3, a leed cut ihrOogh its lun^vr a 
•howiog the embryo. 

JUNCAGINA'CEiB are a small and ummportant or-' 
of Endogcns, consisting of marsh plants with thia m'. ' 
scaly flowers formed of 3 Sepals, 3 petals, and as nit 
stamens, which are opposite them. Their ovaries are 3 
6 in number, contain each 1 or 2 ascending oviiles, ?^; 
when ripe, form a dry fruit. The embryo has a lateral v. 
for the enugsifin of the plumule, on which account they a* 





5 



l.TriglochiapaluatYe; 2. a flower mairuUred; 3.a «piktor "(••/'"i,*', 
ripe capsule ; 5, a section of od« of ihe cells of Ui« capsule, with tae »«« 
cloatd m it. ' 



J U N 



148 



J U P 



xnudas, where it becomes a large tree, with a soft fragrant 
wood, the value of which is '.well known from its use in 
cabinet-work and the manufacture of pencils. It has, when 
young, long narrow spreading leaves growing in threes, but 
on the branches of old trees they become shorter, are placed 
in fours, and thus give the shoots a four*cornered appearance. 

Of the other junipers, J. exceUa and J. Chinensis are hand- 
some Imrdy trees ; /. Ltmtanica (the Goa cedar) is also of 
great beauty, because of its drooping habit and light grey 
branches, but it will not live lon^ in England except in the 
wannest of the southern counties ; and J. Phmntcea is a 
handsome bush : the others are of little moment. 

JU'NIUS, FRANCISCUS. There are two learned 
persons of this name, father and son. The father was a 
Protestant minister in the Low Countries, best known by a 
translation of the Scriptures into the Latin tongue, in which 
he was assisted by TremelUus, whence it is usually called 
the version of Junius and Tremelhus. He became professor 
of theology at Leyden, where he died in 1602. His son, the 
younger Francis Junius, of whom we are principally to 
speak, was born at Heidolbcrg in 1589, accompanied his 
father to Leyden, but soon relinquished study and embraced 
the profession of arms. On tlfe cessation of hostilities in 
those countries in 1609 he gave up arms, and betook him- 
self to literature as a profession. He came over to England 
in 1610, and was soon entertained as his librarian by Thomas 
Howard, earl of Arundel, a nobleman whose name, when- 
ever it occurs, is found associated with some good deed con- 
nected with the higher interests of man. Junius remained 
30 years in this honourable connection, during which time, 
having few distractions and an insatiable appetite for curious 
knowledge, he accumulated vast stores of information. 

The more particular direction of his studies was towards 
the northern languages, or rather the various dialects of 
that great language which under the name of the Oothic 
or the Teutonic seems to have been spoken in the remotest 
ages by the people who inhabited botn shores of the Baltic. 
We owe to him the publication of by far the roost valuable 
relic of the literature of the people who spoke this lancruage 
in what may be called its purity, a version of the gospels, 
commonly called Ulphilas' Version, and the manuscript 
which contains it, ' The Silver Codex.' Tliis was printed 
with many learned notes and other illustrations in 1665. 
There is another work of his, published in his lifetime, on the 
* Painting of the Antients,' which is a most useful book : 
but the work by which he is best known is a posthumous 
work, not printed indeed till 1 743, entitled * Etymologicum 
Anglicanum,' in which we have the investigation of the 
origin of numerous words in the English language, relics of 
the language spoken by our Saxon progenitors, conducted 
with an extraordinary apparatus of the knowledge required 
in such an undertaking. It was much used by Johnson. 

Junius lived to his eighty-ninth year, dying in 1678, at 
Windsor, at tho houso of his nephew Isaac Yossius, another 
of the great names in the list of the really learned. He 
had formed a most valuable collection of manuscripts, which 
he bequeathed to the University of Oxford, and they are 
now among the treasures of the Bodleian Library. 

JUNIUS'S LETTERS. [Francis, Sir Philip.] 

JUNO, a Roman divinity, whose attributes are nearly 
the same as those of the Grecian Hera. She was the 
daughter of Kronus and Rhea, the sister and wife of Ju- 
piter, the goddess of marriage and childbirth, and the 
protectress of married women. Her worship was of very 

freat antiquity at Argos and throughout the whole of the 
^eloponnesus. The Samians, as well as the Spartans, are 
supposed to have derived their knowledge of this deity 
from Argos {Patu,, iii. 13 ; vii. 4); and the same is said to 
have been the case with the inhabitants of Bpidaurus, iEgina, 
and Byzantium (Miiller's Dorians, i., p. 410, Eng. transl.). 
Her name also occurs in the early mytnology of Corinth. 

The two most celebrated temples of Juno were at Argos 
and Samos ; the latter was the largest temple with which 
Herodotus was acquainted {Herod,^ iii. 60). The Samians 
themselves denied that their knowledge of this deity was 
derived from Argos, and asserted that she was born in 
Samos. {Paus^ vii. 4.) 

The marriage of Jupiter and Juno forms a prominent 
feature in the worship of this goddess. She was frequently 
represented veiled as a bride, and carried in processions, 
like a bride, on a car. Her favourite birds were the 
cuckoo and peacock. I 

She was worshipped at Rome with the epithets Pronuba, j 



as presiding over marriage ; Ludnaf as bringing childreQ 
to the light ; and Moneta, as the wamer, to whom a temple 
was erected on the spot where the house of Manliua Capito- 
linus stood (Liv., vii. 28). The origin of the name Monet a 
is given by Cicero in his ' De Divinatione ' (i. 45). 

JUNO, the third in order of discovery of the small pla- 
nets, discovered on the 1st of September, 1804, by Profesv:?r 
Harding, of Gottingen. This excellent astronomer, who 
died August 31, 1834, ' was of English extraction, and bom 
at Lauenburg about the year 1763. He was originalh 
educated for the Protestant Church ; but having become 
tutor to the son of the illustrious Schroter, he was gradually 
attached to astronomy, and afterwards devoted himself 
exclusively to its practice and study. Having served fur 
several years as assistant to Schroter, he became professor 
of astronomy in the university of Gottingen in 1805, and 
retained that chair till his demise, which catastrophe was 
hastened by excessive grief at the loss of his only child, a 
girl of fourteen years of age. The name of this amiable 
and active astronomer will be known through all ages as 
the discoverer of the planet Juno ; and he compiled the most 
accurate celestial maps, especially of those parts where 
planets may be expected to appear, that are now extant 
(Royal Astron. Soc, Annual Report for 1 835.) 

It was while engaged in accurate and extensive obsem* 
tion of stars for the purpose, as it has been expressed^ cf 
forming a zodiac for the two new planets of Piazzi and 
Olbers, that Harding discovered the third ; and this process 
gives the discovery a high degree of merit. [Hbrscrel.] 
The planet was, as in other cases, first supposed to be a 
star, until observation of it on two or three successive nights 
pointed out its motion. The planet itself is not visible to 
the naked eye, and it revolves round the sun in about 1 593 
days. [Astronomy.] 

Elements of Juno^s Orbit. 

Epoch 1842, May, 20^ 0^ mean astronomical time at 
Greenwich. 

Semiaxis major 2*668947, that of the earth being assumed 
as the unit. 

Excentricity 0' 255811 82. 

Inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic 13** 2' 20"-3. 



From the mean 
equinox of the 
Epoch. 



Long, of ascending node 170* 56' 2l"*71 
Long, of perihelion . 54 12 22 '3 
Mean longitude . . 250 50 18 *9i 

Mean daily sidereal motion 8 13" '76 16 7. 

JU 'PITER, the supreme Roman deity, known to the 
Greeks as Zeus, appears to have been originally an eU-^ 
mental divinity, who was worshipped as the god of ram, 
snow, lightning, &c Tho etymology of the name, inde- 
pendent of other considerations, would lead us to this con> 
elusion ; since Jupiter was originally called Jov-is Pater, or 
Dies-piter, or Diu-piter, the jSiu becoming softened in pro- 
nunciation into Jut in the same manner as the Latin wuni 
diumushvL&hecome journal, Jupiter, or Diupiter, wouM 
therefore mean the father of day or the air ; the first part 
of the word contains the same root as the Latin adverb 
diu and adjective diu-mus. This is also probably tho 
original meaning of the Greek Ziv-c and AiF-^ ; though 
some have conjectured with considerable probability that 
Jov-is and Zeus are the same both in meaning and ety- 
mology as the Latin word deus. There is also a striking 
similarity, though probably accidental, between the word 
Jov-is and the Hebrew name of the supreme deity (rhTP). 

If there were any doubt respecting the original mcanintr **( 
Ju-piter and Jov-is it would be sufficient to refer to those 
numerous passages in Latin authors in which the word i> 
used in the signification of air (for example, Horace, Od, i, 
1-25; Cicero, De Nat, Denr., i. 15). 

Cicero informs us {De Nat, Deor,, iii. 21) that there 
were three deities of the name of Jupiter: one the son of 
Miher ; the second, the son of Heaven ; and the third, the 
son of Saturn. The last was worshipped at Rome under 
various names, and many temples were erected to his 
honour, of which the most celebrated was the one on the 
Capitoline Hill, where he was worshipped under the name 
of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. 

The Roman poets atnributed to Jupiter the same power 
and attributes with which the Greeks invested Zeus. The 
Grecian Zeus was, according to Homer, the son of Kronus 
and Rhea. In order to save her son from being destroyed 
by his fatHor, Rhea concealed him soon after his birth in a 
cave in Crete, where he passed tho first years of his life. 



J U R 



150 



J U R 



JURA, a department in the eastern part of Franee, on 
the frontier toward Switzerland. It is bounded on the 
north by the department of Haute Sadne ; on the north-east 
by that of Doubs ; on the east by Switzerland ; on the south 
by the department of Ain ; on the west by that of SaOne et 
Loire ; and on the north-west by that of Cote d'Or. The 
greatest length is from north to south, from the bank of the 
Oignon near its junction with the Saune, to that of the Ain 
at the junction of the Valoux» 72 miles ; its greatest 
breadth, at right angles to the length, is from the bank of 
the Seille, where it touches the frontier, to the neighbour- 
hood of Nozeroy, about 41 miles. Tlie area of the depart- 
ment is estimated at 252 square French leagues, or 1927 
square English miles, rather greater than that of the Eng- 
lish county of Northumberland. The population by the 
census of 1831 was 312,504, by that of 1836, 315,355, show- 
ing an increase in five years of 2851 ; and giving (in 1836) 
164 inhabitants to a square mile. In density of population 
tbe department is just equal to the average of France, and 
superior to the English county with which we have com- 
pared it. Lons-le-Saunier, the chief town, is in 46° 40' N. 
iat. and 5° 39^ E. long., 214 miles in a straight line south- 
east of Paris, or 241 miles by Provins, Troyes, Dijon, and 
D6Ift. 

The southern and eastern parts of the department 
are mountainous: the northern and western are more 
level. The Jura Mountains traverse the department and 
form three ridges of different elevations running from north- 
east to south-west. The loftiest summits, lying along the 
Swiss frontier, have an average elevation of nearly 4000 
feet, and are covered with snow six months in the year: 
they present no soil capable of cultivation. The second 
riflge, covered for the most part with forests and thickets 
of pine, juniper, and box, has some fertile valleys and pas- 
ture grounds. The lowest ridge is covered with soil every- 
where of good quality, and increasing in depth and fertility 
as it approaches the plain, which occupies the rest of the 
department. 

The department belongs entirely to the basin of the 
Rhone: and the principal streams are the Oignon, the 
Doubs, and the Seille, affluents of the Saone, which joins the 
Khone at Lyon ; and the Ain, which falls into the Rhone 
several miles above that city. The Oignon flows for a few 
miles along the northern boundary of the department, which 
it separates from that of Haute SaCne. The Doubs flows 
througli the northern pai'tof the department in a south-west 
direction past Dole. 

The Seille, which rises in the lower slopes of the Jura, 
near the centre of the department, waters the western side. 
The Ain rises just in the southern part of the department 
amid the heights of the Jura, not far from St. Claude, 
and flows first north, then west, and then south into the 
department of Ain. None of the rivers of the department 
are navigable except the Ain for about seven or eigut miles. 
There is one canal, that which unites the RhOne and the 
Rhine, about 25 miles of which are in the department. It 
passes from the SaOne to the valley of the Doubs near D61e, 
and follows the course of that valley into the department of 
Doubs. 

The principal road in the department is that from Paris 
by Dijon to Geneva. It enters the department on the north 
side between Auxonne (dep. of Cote a'Or) and D61e, passes 
through Dole, Mont-sous-Vaudrey, Poligny, Montrond, 
Chanipagnole, Maison Neuve, St.* Laurent, Morey, Les 
Rousses, and La Valtay : hetween these last two towns it 
crosses a part of Switzerland, and beyond La Valtay enters 
the department of Ain. A branch of this road runs to Lons- 
le-Saunier, and rejoins the high road at St. Laurent; other 
branches lead to Arbois and Salius ; roads lead from Dole 
and Lons-le-Saunier to other towns in this and the neigh- 
bouring departments. The ajrgregate length of the govern- 
ment roads is 206 miles, of which about two-thirds are out 
of repair, and one-sixth unfinished, leaving only one-sixth 
in a fit state for use. The Routes D^partementales have 
an aggregate length of 338 miles, all, except seven miles of 
unfinished road, in good repair. The bye-roads and paths 
have an aggregate length of nearly 3600 miles. The de- 
partment would be rather better furnished with roads than 
the average of the departments, if they were kept in proper 
repair. 

The north-western portion of the department is occupied 
by the strata above Ine chalk ; the rest of the department 
by the strata between the chalk and the new red or salifer- 



0U8 sandstone: th9 chalk formation itself does not appear 
to occupy any part of the surface. (Carte Physique et Mi- 
fieralogique de France ; Atlas to Malte Brun's PrMs d* 
Giographie.) The mineral treasures of the department ar^ 
considerable. Many iron-mines are worked ; lead and coa) 
are found, but not worked, and there are some traces oi 
gold. Various species of marble of great variety and 
beauty, and alabaster, are quarried;' also Itthogniphic 
stones. Peat is dug; and there are several brine 8pnng> 
the water of the springf of Saiins yields 15 per cent, lu 
weight of salt. 

The climate of the department varies materially in differ- 
ent parts, according to the elevation of the surfkce. In ge- 
neral the winters are iQng, owing to the snow which rema.ni 
on the mountains till April ; and the temnerature, eveo m 
the plains, is colder than the latitude woula lead one to ex- 
pect. The spring is short, and the summer hot ; the air, 
which in the plain is moist and close, is fresh and pure < n 
the lower slopes, and dry and ke^n in the higlier ridge?, 
where the seasons are reduced to two, a winter of ei^ht 
months and a summer of four. 

The agricultural produce is sufficient for the con sum ptir n 
of the department. The harvests in the plain are ^tT> 
abundant, and consist of wheat, rye, buckwheat, and mane. 
On the lower bills they consist of barley, oats, maize ; np- 
seed is also grown her.e. In the higher ridges of the m<nii:- 
tains, where there is any cultivation, the crops are vf r) 
scanty ; some barley and oats, and, in favourable spots, i 
little wheat and hemp, are grown. The vine is culii\avl 
on the lower slopes of the mountains, and the quantity d 
wine produced is greater than the consumption. It .^ 
chiefly white wine, and is of good quality ; that of Arbt->.» 
is creaming and sparkling, like champagne. The walnut *.: 
raised on tne lower hills. The quantity of woodland is a.'".' 
siderable: the principal forests are that of Chaux, in ti» 
northern part of the department, between the Oignon anj 
the Loue; and the contiguous forests of Moydon, Arlvb. 
and Poligny, in the centre of thp department The titfs 
are chiefly the pine and the oak. 

The quantity of horned cattle is great, especially of cctrs. 
The butter is very good, and much cheese is ma*de. Tt e 
number of sheep is comparatively small : the long-wooliv^i 
English sheep have however been lately introduced. ai:j 
with good success. Horses are tolerably numerous, a:.! 
some mules are bred. Pouljtry and bees are objects .<t 
considerable attention^ especially bees in the mountain 
country, where they yield excellent honey. The fon>o 
yield game and wild animal^, including the wild boar, iW 
wolf, the fallow-deer, and a few roebucks; and the river» 
and lakes abound with fish, especially excellent crayfish. 

The department is divided into four arxondissements, ti 
follows : — 



Arroudlsscmeut. 

Lons-le-Saunier 
Poligny . . . 
St. Claude • • 
D61e . . . 



Situation. 

W. & S.W. 

E. 

S.E. 

N. 



Area ill 

v^. miles. 

596 
482 
405 
444 



Popnla- 
Uou in 1836. 

107.690 

80,672 

52,3j3 

74,640 




1927 315,355 



nj4 w- 



It is divided into thirty-two canton9, or districts under i 
justice of the peac^. 

In the arrondissement of Lons-le-Saunier are Lons-U - 
Saunier on the Vaille (population in 1836, 7684); Orgc'.. .. 
near the Valouze (pop. 1928 town, 2367 whole commune . 
St. Amour, in the south-western corner of the depart m<^r : 
(pop. 1957 town, 2595 whole commune), Scellidres, on tl.t* 
Brene, a feeder of the Seille; Bletterand, Arlay, and CiM- 
teau Ch$lon, on or near the Seille ; Conliege on the Vail.-. ; 
Clairraux, on the Drouene, a feeder of the Ain ; CoH«anr' 
on a small aflluentof the Solnan» a tributary of the Sti.. 
belonging to the adjacent department of Sadne and Lorn 
Gigny and St. Julien, on the Suran, a feeder of the Am , 
and Arinthaux, or Arinthod, near the Valou&e. 
•Lons-le-Saunier, the capital of the department, took ii'^ 
rise in the fourth century from the salt-works, which are *i. . 
of great importance. It is situated at the confluence of thr^v 
small streams in a fertile valley, surrounded by vineyanK 
The principal buildings are the church on the parade, a fin-' 
hospital, capable of accommodating a hundred and fit^v 

ftaticnts, and the salt-works. There are neat fountains, r* 
ibrary. a museum, a high-school, a theatre, and an agricul- 
tural society. Lons-le-Saunier ia one of tha chief places 



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152 



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plation of the pheoomena on the line of the Jura Moun- 
tains, adopted the conclusion that from the Cevennes 
through the Swiss and German Jura, perhaps even to the 
Erzgebirge, dislocations of considerable importance oc- 
curred, ranging north-east and soutli-west, after the deposi- 
tion of the oolites and before the deposition of the chalk. 
{Sur les Revolutions du Globe y in AnncUes des Sciences 
Naturelles, 1827.) 

Von Buch observes that the Swiss, Suabian, and Fran- 
conian divisions of the Jura Mountains have each their 
peculiar characters. In the Swiss Jura the strata are 
thrown up at high angles of elevation, and consequently 
form long extended ridges and chains ; the Suabian region 
is formed of rocks \i^ich lie in regular and nearly horizontal 
layers, and constitute an extended and uniform plateau ; 
in Franconia dolomite abounds, and crowns the heights with 
picturesque rocks, resembling the towers and pinnacles of 
ruined castles. The mineral composition of the Jura 
ranges is everywhere similar; and, when minutely ana- 
lyzed, may be considered as forming a series of terms seve- 
rally comparable to the larger divisions of the oolitic series 
of England and Normandy. 

According to M. Thurman, 1832 (De la Beche's Jfant^a/), 
the central part of the Jura (at Porentruy) contains — 

Fine oolites and compact limestones, equivalent to the 
' Portland oolite.* 

Marls and marly limestones, equivalent to ' Kimmeridge 
clay.' 

G)mpact oolitic and coralline limestones, equivalent to 
the * Oxford oolite,' &c. 

Marly and sandy limestones, equivalent to the ' calcareous 
grit.' 

Blue marls, limestones, ferruginous oolite, equivalent to 
• Oxford clay.* 

Oolitic shelly limestones, sandy limestones and marls, 
equivalent to the ' Ck>mbrash and forest marble' groups. 

Fine-grained oolite, equivalent to the * Bath great oolite.' 

Marls and calcareous beds, equivalent to the 'Fullers' 
earth.* . • 

Oolite, partly ferruginous, equivalent to the ' inferior 
oolite/ 

Micaceous sandstones and mavis, equivalent to the ' sand 
below inferior oolite.* 

Lias. 

This coincides very nearly with M. Thirria's notice of 
the series in Haute SaOtiu. 

According to M. Bou6 (1830), the German Jura contains 
the subdivisions of the oolitic series from the lius upward to 
the cornbrash. He thus includes in the Bath oolitic forma- 
tion [Gbolooy] the dolomitic limestones of Franconia, and 
the lithographic slates of Solenhofen, even more celebrated 
for their numerous tortoises. Pterodactyl i, fishes, Crustacea, 
ammonites, belemnites, insects, algse, and other fossils, than 
the supposed equivalent beds of Stonestield. 

On these points M. Bou6 appears to be supported by 
Mr. Murchison {Geol. ProeeedingSt 1831); Von Buch re- 
gards the dolomites and lithographic slates as constituting 
a distinct upper band of the ' Jura formation '.(correspond- 
ing to the Oxford and Portland oolites), and some of the 
highest layers of this group, full of Uiceras and Nerinea 
(as in Haute Sadne), have been recently fallowed by him 
over the whole northern inclination of the Suabian Jura. 
C Verhandlungen der Konigl. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu 
Berlin.') 

VonDechen's opinion on this subject appears to coincide 
with that of Von Buch; and the researches of (Jount 
Munster and Goldfuss on the organic remains may be quoted 
in confirmation of the view that the German Jura, like that of 
the Swiss frontier, contains the equivalents, more or less 
developed, of the whole English oolitic series ; and we are en- 
couraged to hope that a carefiil comparison of the limestone 
ranges which border the Alps and extend into Dalmatia 
will determine, more exactly than we now know, the relation 
which they bear to the 'Jura formation* of the rest of 
Europe. 

The determination of the geological epoch of the eleva- 
tion of the Jura ranges to constitute dry land is important, 
especially in reference to two phenomena which are wit- 
nessed in these mountains, via. the ossiferous caverns of 
Franconia, and the dispersion of erratic blocks from the 
High Alps. The opinion of John Hunter (Dr. Travers's 
Oration to the College qf Surgeons, 1638), that the caverns 

of the diftUkt 9f Idyggeodotf v«rQ fiUed by bems irhicU 



voluntarily retured thither, has been confirmed by suVi 
quent researches. (B\xckitaxd, Reliquiee Diluvianep ; anl 
Yon Meyer, Paleeologica.) But the geological aera of the; 
existence is perhaps subsequent to the whole tertiary pen 'i. 
while Von Buch's view of the origin of the Jura&sic limv- 
stones seems to imply their prominence as islands in ti.v 
antient European sea before the deposition of the chall 
If this opinion be well founded, the problem of tbo r: ^• 
persion of the erratic blocks from the High Alps, which Lc« 
so long perplexed neology, is still involved in undimini^&ei 
difficulty. These blocks lie in vast abundance on the sot.tl 
eastern slopes of the Jura, and ascend toirarrls th'. 
summits, even to the height of 1000 or 2000 feet above t.. 
Aar and the Lake of Greneva, which now interpose t}.c r 
waters between the Jura and the mountains whence ti ' 
blocks were drifted. 

These blocks lie in such a manner that ordinarily tbo^.- 
which came from a particular district are distinct frutn th.- 
others, and seem to have been brought by a distinct cl«ani.' 
Blocks from the Grisons have descended the valluy nf !' 
Rhine; those found on the shores of the Lake of ZCinri 
and in the drainage of the Limmat are derived from t! • 
mountains of Glarus ; while in the valley of the Aar and 
the slopes of the Jura lie fragments ttom the Beri)i-- 
Alps. They occur in greatest abundance opposite v. 
mouths of the great valleys which descend from the H..- . 
Alps ; at such points they have been drifted farthest 
the slopes of the Jura, in some cases even to 1200 tiio::. • 
(1300 yards) above the sea. They exhibit few or nu m;irk> 
of rolling. 

To account for these facts, numerous speculations hj- 
been proposed. De Luc imagined a projectile force to L.' 
displaced the blocks when the Alps were raised ; Sau«>^t.' 
Escher, Von Buch, De Beaumont, &c. speak of the eiT^ 
of water thrown into violent agitation (as some think t 
the elevation of the mountains); Dolomieu attributed t.. 
inequalities of surface, which render the physical cxpl i 
tion of the phenomena by the ordinary agencies of nai< 
almost desperate, to operations subsequent to the scatter m . 
of the blocks; Venturi introduced the consideration . 
floating ice- rafts, since become popular ; while others b .>. 
attempted to master the difficulty of the problem b> j i 
mitting great changes of level since the blocks were mew 
from their native sites. 

According to this view, the erratic blocks of the Ju*. 
were accumulated round the Alps by the ordinary or e\t: j 
ordinary action of water-currents in antient Alpine valK .« 
on surfaces which were at a later period lifted to their prf>. . : 
height by subterranean movements. (Brongniart, Tttbir ^ 
des Terrains.) [Erratic Blocks.] 

JURA KALK, the German equivalent of the od . 
system of England. 

JURISPRUDENCE. The Latin word prudentia (. 
tracted from providentia) came, by a natural transition. : 
mean knowledge or understanding, *Habebat (says N- 
pos. Life qf Cimon, c. 2) magnam prudentiam turn ju.- 
civilis turn rei mihtaris:' hence persons skilled m t 
Roman law were called ^'iim prudent es^ or simply prufL .- 
tes ; in the same manner that they were called coftsult*. . 
well as juris consulti. (Haubold*s Lineamenta In*' 
Juris Romani, lib. iv., cap. 5 ; Hugo, Geschiehte des R'mu:. 
chen Rechts, p. 458, ed. xi.) A large part of the Rom . • 
law was gradually adopted by the legislature and the ju<h v« 
from tlie writings of the jurists: the emperors more ^ > 
sometimes appointed persons whose opinions (or rexp<fr,'j* 
the judex was bound to follow. (Dig,, lib. i., tit 2., No : 
8. 5-7, 35-47; Inst,, lib. i., tit. 2, s. 8.) According to ti.r 
acceptation of the term prudens or juris prudent in t.-. 
Roman \&^, juris prudentia is sometimes limited to f 
dexterity of a practical lawyer in applying rules of lavt • 
individual cases ; whence the technical use of the te : 
jurisprudence in the French legal language for law founii 
on judicial decisions, or on the writings of jurists. 

By general jurisprudence is properly meant the sclc;. 
or philosophy of positive law, as distinguished from ;...-. 
cular jurisprudence, or the knowledge of the law of . 
determinate nation. 'General jurisprudence, or the nhii - 
sophy of positive Uw, is not concerned directly with t: 
science of legislation : it is concerned directly with pnn. - 
pies and distinctions which are common to various sy^u:. 
of particular and positive law, and which each of those vano.> 
systems inevitably inv^ves,let itbe worthy of praise or bUra* 

or let it acco]:d or not vitb an awuiaoa lo^Muxe or te&;.| 



J U R 



154 



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likin to either ptrty, to recognise upon their oaths, &c.* On 
the other hand (as Madox remarks, in his History 9/ ike 
Exchequer^ p. 122), ' if we compare the laws of the Anglo- 
Saxon kings with the forms of law process collected hy, 
Glanville, they are as different from one another as the' 
laws of two several nations.' 

Though there are some traces of tlie trial hy jury in the 
four reigns which immediately sucoeeded the Norman Con- 
quest, It was not till a century afterwards, in the reign of 
Henry II*, that this institution became fully established and 
was reduced to a regular system. Its introduction into 
firequent use at this period was probably owing to the law 
or ordinance for the trial by assise in nieas of land or real 
actions, made by Henry 11. This law nas not oome down 
to our times, but it is fully described by Glanville (lib. ii. 
cap. 7), and the greater part of the treatise of that writer is 
occupied by an account of the practical mtushinery of the trial 
by twelve men which he warmly eulogises and represents as 
having been introduced in opposition to the unsatisfactory 
mode of trial by battle or duel. In the reign of Henry II. 
it appears also that a jury was sometimes used in matters 
of a criminal nature — ^the pi-oceeding in such cases being 
noticed as an inquiry per juratam paina vel victnetu or 
per juramentwn legaltum kominum. Thus in the ' Constitu- 
tions of Clarendon,* enacted in 1 1 64, it is directed that * if no 
person appeared to accuse an offender before the archdeacon, 
the sheriff should, if requested to do so by the bishop, cause 
twelve lawful men of the neighbourhood or of the township 
to be sworn, who might declare the truth according to their 
conscience.* These however were probably accusatory juries, 
similar to our grand inquests, and not juries employed for 
the actual trial or ' deliverance' of criminals, which do not 
freem to have been commonly used until a later period. 

The law of Henry IL introduced the trial by assise or 
jury in real actions as a mode of deciding facts which the 
subject might claim as a matter of riglit. Glanville calls it 
' a certain royal benefit confciTed upon the people by the 
clemency of the sovereign with the advice of the nobility.' 
Accordingly we find in the Roiuli Curia Regis in the time 
of Richard I. and John, many instances of trials by jury 
being claimed by parties, though it appears from these cu- 
rious records that at this period the trial by battle was still 
in freauent use. In the reign of John we first begin to 
trace Uie use of juries for the trial of criminal accusations. 
At first it seems to have been procured by the accused as a 
special favour from the crown, a fine, or some gift, or con- 
sideration being paid in order to purchase the privilege of a 
trial by a jury. Several instances of this kind will be fuund 
collected in the Notes and Illustrations to Palgrave's Com- 
monwealth 0/ England, vol. ii., p. 186. The payment of a 
fine took place also not unfrequently in civil cases where 
any variation from the regular course was required ; see 
Botuli CuricB Regis^ vol. L, pp. 354, 375; vol. ii.. pp. 72, 
92, 97, 101, 114. It is quite clear, however, ftom Bracton 
and Fleta, that at the end of the thirteenth century the 
trial by jury in criminal cases had become usual, the form 
of the proceedings being given by them in detail. (See Brac- 
ton, p. 143.) Introduced originally as a matter of favour and 
indulgence, it gained ground with advancing civilisation, 
gradually superseding the more antient and barbarous cus- 
toms of battle, ordeal, and wager of law, until at length it 
became, both in civil and criminal cases, the ordinary mode 
of determining facts for judicial purposes. 

It is right to notice the popular and remarkable error 
that the stipulation fbr the judicium parium in Magna 
Charta referred to the trial by jury. Sir Edward Coke in 
his commentary upon Magna Charta expressly distinguishes 
between the trial by peers and the trial by jury (2nd Inst. 
48-9) ; but Blackstone says, ' The trial by jury is that trial by 
the peers ofevcry Englishman, which, as the grand bulwark 
of his liberties, is secured to him by the Great Charter.' 
(Commentaries, vol.^iv., p. 349.) This is confounding two 
distinct modes of trial. The judicium parium was the fieudal 
mode of trial, where the pares ox convassalU ejusdem domini 
sat as judges or assessors with the lord of the fee to decide 
controversies arising between individual pares. It was a 
phrase perfectly understood at the period of Magna Chartai 
and the mode of trial had been in use lon^ before in France 
and all parts of Europe where feuds prevailed. (Du Cange, 
Ghss.^ ad vocem FHxres,) It was essentially different from 
tliu trial by jury, which could never be accurately called ^- 
liicium parium. We read fi:eauently in the reoords of those 
times (and even in Magna cWta itself )» of juratorei, of 



veredicHtrh or jUrtiMenium hrahum Aomtmnit, and jmrata 
vicineti or patri^^^ all of whi^ ex^i^ssatoiia refer to m jur) : 
but not a single instance can be found in any charter, or m 
any antient treatise or judicial record, in which the jutv 
are called pares, or their vevlici jmHeiiitm. (Reerea'a H ro- 
tary of the Law, vol. i., p. 249.) In the records of tne 
* Curia Regis' in the first year of John's reign, ahiong nume- 
rous entries ofPonii se super juratam vicineti or patrice, «;« 
also entries of Ponit se super pares suos de eodem /er^., 
plainly indicating a distinction between the two modes (.i 
trial. (Rotuli Curia Regis^ vol. ii., p. 90.) 

Until about the reign of Henry VI. the trial by jury tin, 
to all intents and purposes a trial by witnesses. The pre- 
sent form of the juror's oath is that they shall 'gire a tn e 
verdict, according to the evidence.* At what precise t:»c;* 
this form was introduced is uncertain ; but for several 01:- 
turies after theConquest, the jurors both in civil and crimi : 1 
cases wera sworn merely to speak the truth, (Glauvn.-, 
lib. ii., cap. 17; Bracton, lib. iii., cap. 22; lib. iv., p. -2^:, 
291 ; Britton, p. 135.) Hence their decision was aocura:* ;■ 
Xermed veredictum, or verdict; whereas the phrase ^Uv: 
verdict' in the modern oath is not only a pleonasm, but i^ 
etymologically incorrect, and misdescribes the ofiitre ut . 
juror at the present day. Many other incidents of the xr.u 
by jury, as recorded in antient treatises, conclusively y'u ^r 
that the jury were merely witnesses. They were bruu^'i*: 
from the neighbourhood where the disputed fact was ^ ^>- 
gested to have occurred, because, as the form of the ji:n 
process says, they were the persons ' by whom the truttj 4 
the matter might be better known;' no doubt upon t' . 
principle that Vicini vicinorum preesumuntur scire* As['\,'., 
if the jurors returned by the sheriff in the first tnsLi.o: 
declared in open court that they knew nothing of w . 
matter in question, others were summoned who were betu-: 
acquainted with it. (Glanville, lib. ii., cap. 17.) They ini^r.t 
be excepted against by the parlies upon the same groun*]^ 
as witnesses in the Ck>urt Christian. They were punishtl 
for perjury if they gave a wilful false verdict ; and for cra\* ; 
ignorantia if they declared a falsehood or hesitated abo. t 
their verdict upon a matter of notoriety, which all of u.o 
country {de patrid) might and ought to have known. (Brat^ 
ton, p. 290.) And antient authors solemnly admonish jud^^.) 
to 'take good heed in inquisitions touching life and liil\ 
that they diligently examine the jurors from what sour^ 
they obtain their knowledge, lest peradventure by their hm- 
ligence in this respect Barabbas should be released a . 1 
Jesus be crucified.' (Bracton, lib. iii., cap. 21 ; Fleta. i >. 
i., cap. 34.) It is also remarkable, as one of the nunit-i . 
circumstances which show the character of the jury in i.^^ 
earlier periods of the history of the institution, that ihui:: .. 
all other kinds of murder might be tried by a jury, mur i r 
by poison was excepted, ' because,' say the antient write.* 
*the crime is so secret that it cannot be the subject >' 
knowledge by the country.' (Bracton, lib. iii., cop. 1- 
Fleta, lib. i., cap. 31.) 

The original principle and character of the trial by yr\ 
in criminal cages in Scotland appear to have been t 
same as in England. The following extract is taken li 
a curious paper delivered to the Speaker of the Hou^t 
Commons, and recorded on the Journals at the date . 
June, 1607. (Comm. Joum., vol. i., p. 378.) *ln ScorU 
criminal causes are not governed bv the civil law; but - ; 
danes* and juries pass upon life and death, verj' near ait-, r. . 
ing to the law here (in England). Which jury beini? ch— .. 
out of the Four Halfs about (as the Scotti6h law terni% r . 
which is to say, out of all places round about thai . . 
nearest to that part where the fact was committed, the 1 
doth presume that the jury may the better discern the tru: 
of the fact by their own knowledge ; and therefore thev u- . 
not bound to examine any witnesses, except out of ih - 
own disposition they shall please to examine them in fii\c>i.- 
of the party persuer ; whieh is likewise very seldom or b - 
most never used. It is of truth that the judge may eith r 
privately beforehand examine such witnesses aa either i:. 
party persuer will offer unto him, or such others as in :.:> 
own judgment he thinks may best inform him <^the trut. 
and then when the jury is publicly called and admittctl. t 
will caui<e these depositions to be produced and read ; ar . 
likewise if the party persuer desire any witness there pr<- 
sent to be examined, he will pubhcly do it in presence < i 
the jury and both parties.* It will be obserred, that ihv 

* Thi<i word is 10 pxiotcd ik tlie JouraoU, but St Is probsUy a nuuke :^: 
•one otbex wwd. — 



J UR 



156 



JUS 



thecaries' Company and t«tually practicing ; officers in her 
majesty's navy or army on full pay ; pilots licensed by the 
lenity House ; masters of veiisela in the buoy and light 
service ; pilots licensed by the lord-warden of the cinque- 
ports, or under any act of parliament or charter ; household 
servants of the sovereign ; officers of customs and excise ; 
sherifib' officers, high constables, and parish clerks. 

Lists of all persons qualified to be jurors are made out 
by the churchwardens and overseers of each parish, and 
fixed on the church door for the first three Sundavs in Sep- 
tember in each year ; these are afterwards allowea at a petty 
sessions and then delivered to the high constable, who re- 
turns them to the next quarter-sessions for the county. 
The clerk of the peace then arranges the lists in a book, which 
b called the ' Jurors' Book ' for the ensuing year, and after- 
wards delivers it to the sheriff. From this book the names 
of the jurors are returned in panels to the different courts. 

Special juries are composed of such persons as are described 
in the ' Jurors'Book' as esquires, and x>ersons of higher degree, 
or as bankers or merchants ; and it is the duty oi the sheriff 
to make a distinct list of such persons, which is called the 
' Special Jurors' List.' When a special jury is ordered by 
any of the courts, which must always be the result of a spe- 
cial appUcation of one of the parties, 48 names are taken by 
ballot flrom this list in the manner particularly described in 
the statute, which are afterwards reduced to 24 by means of 
each party striking out 12 ; and the first 12 of these 24 who 
answer to their names in court are the special jury for the 
trial of the cause. 

The legitimate mode of objecting to a jury by the parties 
is by challenge, though in modem practice this course is 
seldom resorted to, having yielded to the more convenient 
usage of privately suggesting the objection to th^ officer who 
calls the jury in court; upon which the name objected to is 
passed over as a matter of course without discussion. This 
practice, though a &r less troublesome and obnoxious mode 
of effecting the object of obtaining a jury indifferent be- 
tween the parties than a formal challenge, is strictly speak- 
ing irreeular, and being considered to take place by con- 
sent, and as a matter of favour, cannot be insisted upon as 
a right Challenges are of two kinds : challenges to the 
array^ and challenges to the poUs, The challenge to 
the array is an objection to the whole panel or list of 
jurors returned for some partiality or default in the sheriff 
or the under-sheriff by whom it has been arrayed. Chal- 
lenges to the polls are objections to particular jmx)rs, either 
on Uie ^ound of incompetency (as if they be aliens, or of 
insufficient qualification within the provisions of the Jury 
Act, 6 Geo. IV., cap. 50), or of bias or partiality, or of infamy 
as having been convicted of some crime which the law deems 
infamous. Upon these challenges the cause of objection 
must in each case be expressly shown to the court ; but in 
trials for capital offences the accused is entitled to challenge 
peremptorily (that is, without giving any reason) thirty- 
five jurors. The king however, as nominal prosecutor, has 
no riffht of peremptory challenge, though he is not com- 
pelled to show bis cause of challenge until the panel is 
gone through, and unless a full jury cannot be formed 
without the person objected to. 

The trial by jury, originally introduced into the law of 
France in criminal cases by the National Assembly, was 
retained in the French code. An account of the proceed- 
ing and of the qualifications and formation of the jury will 
be found in the Code d* Instruction Criminelle, livre ii., 
tit. 2, chap. iv. and v. See also Edinburgh Review^ vol. 
xvii., p. 97, and the article Codes, les Cinq. It has often 
been remarked as a singular fact that the institution 
which in England has been highlv prized as a security 
to the subject against the crown, should have been pre- 
served in France by a despotic monarch, in the zenitn of 
his power, and certainly not disposed to enlarge nopular 
authority. Of late years the advantage of the trial oy jury 
has been fire^uently the subject of debate among German 
and French jurists, and in particular the propriety of its 
introduction has been discussed in the various commissions 
issued with a view to reforming the laws of several of the 
German States. [Fbuerbach.] The latest discussion of 
the latter kind related to the proposal to introduce the jury 
trial in the Canton de Vaud. The report of a commission 
issued by the state to inquire into this subject in 1836, 
against the jury, signed by a majority of the commissioners, 
and alao a protest or counter-report containing the reasons 

of the only coQuaissioaer who disseate^ from tbo report. 



have been published. Upon the subsequent discussion of 
the proposition in the Grand Council, m December, 1836, 
the introduction of the trial by jury in the canton was ne< 
gatived by a majority of 90 to 40 voices. 

Anciently in Scotland all offences were tried by juries; 
at present all proseciHions of a higher nature must pro- 
ceed by an assize or jury of 15 men, who determine their 
verdict by a majority of voices. (See Erskine's Prindfjln 
qf the Law of Scotland, book iv., tit. 4.) In the course uf 
the improvements of the court of session projected and partly 
executed in the years 1808 and 1809, an attempt was made 
to introduce the trial by jury into civil proceed mgs in S(.^Jt• 
land ; but great and general opposition was made to it in 
that country, and the proposition was not at that timccamd 
into effect. But in the vear 1815 a statute (55 C^co. III^ 
c. 42) was passed, thoup^h then still much opposed in Scoilanii, 
which established a jury court, not as a separate and ind« 
pendent tribunal, but as subsidiary to the court of isessiou, 
for the trial of particular questions of fact to be remitted U 
trial by the judges of the court of session at their discretion. 
In order to meet a conscientious difficulty much insisiei 
upon in petitions from Scotland a^nst tlu/ measure. 
namely, that it would be often impossible for a jury to gi>e 
a unanimous verdict unless some of the memb^s vioUu-d 
their oaths, it was provided by the act that if the jury w 
not unanimous in 12 hours, they shall be discharged, andi 
new trial granted. The judges of this court, called the 
' Lords Ck)mmis5ioners of the Jurv Court in Civil Cases,' 
are appointed by commissioUt and consist of achief jud^e 
and two other judges. The stat. 59 Greo. III., c. 35, which 
recites that the introduction of the trial by iury in civil cases 
by the former act had been found beneficial, enacts a vahetr 
of improvements in the machinery of the jury courts, ana 
makes them a permanent part of the judicial establishment 
of Scotland. By the stat. 2 (Jeo. IV.. and 1 Will IV., c.C*. 
the jury court as a separate tribunal was abolished, and the 
trial by jury was united with the ordinary administntion ii 
justice in the court of session. 

JUSSIEU, ANTOINK LAURENT DE, an emiiwr,: 
French botanist, was born at Lyon, in 1 748, and arrived 
in Paris in 1765 for the purpose of completing bis edun- 
tion as a medical practitioner. He was then placed under 
the care of his uncle Bernard de Juasieu, at that time m 
of the demonstrators of botany in the Jardin du Roi, a man 
possessing a profound knowledge of plants, and who pro- 
oably gave his nephew the first interest in that xiim 
which he subsenuently illustrated with so much succe>$. 
In the year 1770, iiis medical studies having been completed, 
he took the degree of doctor of medicine, on which oecasiuo 
the title of his thesis was. An OBconomiam vitaUm inter f* 
vegetalem analoffia, a subject which sufficiently marks the 
turn his studies nad already taken. In the same year be 
was nominated botanical demonstrator in the Jardin da 
Roi, as a substitute for Lemonnier, whose duties as chief 
physician to the king prevented his executing that office in 
person. Thus at the early age of twenty-two years Jusj^j^ju 
found himself under the necessity of undertaking the duty 
of teaching students the essential characters of the plantt 
cultivated m the Paris Garden, a task for which expenemt? 
in details and practical knowledge were required, rather than 
that general acquaintance with botany which a young mari 
just released from his medical curriculum might be ex- 
pected to possess. This obliged him to study one day the 
subjects to be demonstrated the next, and to occupy himieit 
incessantly with acquiring a correct practical acquaintaaci 
with plants. At that time the collection of plants iu the 
Janlin du Roi was arranged according to the method ui 
Tournefort ; but shortly afterwards it became necessary to 
rearrange it. Of this opportunity Jusaieu took advantagt' ; 
he drew up a memoir upon a new method of anangemeott 
which was read before the Academy of Sciences, and after- 
wards carried into effect in the Oarden. The idea oftb<s 
method was undoubtedly taken from a classification of ttic 
plants in the Royal Garden of Trianon, executed under m 
direction of his uncle; but it was different in much oftu^ 
details, and was prepared without consultation with H^' 
nard de Jussieu, who in fact was at that time old, Dear') 
blind, ill, and incapable of taking part in any mental jx^'f' 
tion. Previously to this, young De Jussieu had studied ice 
natural order RanunculaoesB with so much attention, too 
he had made it the subject of a communication ^^.^f. ?' 
demy of Sciences, in wnose Transactions it was printed, i 
aflex-yearsho used^.say that it vm tbe oompositwii w 



JUS 



158 



JUS. 



ganized under the new name of Jardin dee Plantes ; all the 
persona charged with the duty of puhlic instniotion were 
elevated to the rank of profeasors, and £>e Jussieu, who had 
heen previously hotanical demonstrator, hecame professor of 
rural hotany. He afterwards became director and treasurer of 
the Museum of Natural History, and recommenced, in 1802, 
his botan ical writings, chietW in the form of raepaoirs upon his 
own natural orders of plant? These, amounting in number 
to fifteen, were continued in the * Annales du Museum ' till 
1820, after which time De Jussieu became dead to science. 
He was then seventy-two, with a sight so feeble that it might 
almost have heen called blindne^ ; and he was no longer 
able to do more than profit by the observations of others. 
Nevertheless he employed himself between his eighty-third 
and eighty-eighth year in dictating a new edition of his 
' Introductio in Historiam Plantarum.' This work has 
heen published since his death ; it is written in elegant 
Latin, and is a remarkable proof of the vigour of his intel- 
lect even at this advanced age. He appears to have been 
much loved . by his IVimily and greatly respected by his 
friends. His amenity of character was such that he was 
never in any one of his writings betraved into a single word 
of harshness towards his contemporaries. He died, after a 
short illness, on the 15th of September, 1836, and left behind 
him a son, Adrien, his successor in his chair of botany, and 
the inheritor of the virtue and talents of his father, 

JUSTICE CLERK OF SCOTLAND. This name 
properly designated the clerk of court of the chief justice, 
or lord justiciar, of Scotland ; and originally there were as 
many justice clerks as there were justiciars, that is to say, 
one fl)r Galloway, one for Lothian, or the territory of the 
Soots king south of the Forth, and one for Scotland then 
strictly so called, or the territory north of the Forth. 

The same circumstances also which reduced the number 
of justiciars to one justice-general for the whole realm, re- 
duced likewise the number of justice clerks. The calamitous 
affair of Flodden however, to which we especially refer, had 
a further effect on the latter ; for hy the fall of Lawson and 
Henryson on that fatal field, the offices of both king's advo- 
cate and justice clerk became vacant at one time, and this 
at a period when perhaps few remained capable of either. 
Wishart of Pittarrow was appointed to both places, and in 
his time a deputy was first constituted, to act as clerk to 
the justice court This was the first step in the singular 
rise of the justice clerk from the table to the bench of the 
Court of Justiciary. 

At the institution of the Court of Session in 1 532, the 
justice clerk was made one of the judges. This will not 
surprise us when we consider the constitution of that court 
It was essentially an ecclesiastical tribunal, and, agreeably 
to the practice of such, deliberated in secret with shut doors. 
It was necessary therefore for the security of the crown that 
some of the crown ofiicers should be continually present 
The justice clerk was one of these: he was public prose- 
cutor on behalf of the crown. The king's treasurer was 
another ; and accordingly both these were lords of session. 
For the same reason the king's advocate was made a lord 
of session ; and when, from there being no vacancy, or other- 
wise, such appointment did not or could not take place, these 
ofhcers had special writs from the crown authorising them 
to remain in court during its deliberations. 

A further rise of official dignity too^ place : for it having 
become usual to appoint certain lords of session as assessors 
or assistant judges to the lord justice-general, the justice 
clerk began in the early part of the seventeenth century to 
be appomted to that duty; and about the middle of the 
same century he had acquired tlie style of * lord justice 
clerk.* In ten years afterwards the privy council met and 
passed an act declaring the justice clerk a constituent part 
of the justice court; and in the act of parliament 1672, 
c 16, he was made the president of the Court of Justiciary, 
to preside iu absence of the justice-general. His rise in 
the Court of Session followed; for in 1766, when Miller, 
afterwards Sir Thomas Miller of Glenlee, took his seat on 
the bench, it was, by desire of the court on the right of the 
lord president; to which latter office he himself afterwards 
rose, being the first justice clerk so promoted. And in 1811, 
when the Court of Session was, by 48 Geo. III., c. 151, 
divided into two chambers, the lord justice clerk was made 
&x r\ficio president of the second division, where the indi- 
vidual then appointed still remains. His salary is 2000/., 
besides an equal sum as a lord of session. In the end of 
the iburteenth century it was 10/. Soots, or 16«. 8^. sterling. 



With respect to ih^i justice clerk depuUt that offieer was 

long so termed ; but at length, when the justice clerk ac> 
quired the style of lord, and was declared a eonstiluent part 
of the Court of Justiciary, his depute came to be termed 
* the principal clerk of justiciary/ and this becoming a sine- 
cure, he got himself a * depute' about the middle of last 
century, and the second depute about thirty years ago an 
'assistant;' all of whom continue to this day, and are in 
tlie gift of the lord justice clerk. It is not a little remark- 
able, that on both occasions when these changes took place, 
there took place also not a diminution, as we might expect, 
but a duplication of the salary ; that of the first depute being 
raised in 1764 from 100/. to 200/., and that of tne second 
depute, in 1795, firom 80/. to 150/. The present principal 
clerk of justiciary, so called, is the justice clerk*s son ; and 
his substitute, or the second depute clerk, is the justice 
clerk's Court of Session clerk. 

Besides these there are three other justice clerk deputes 
and his appointees. They are commonly called the * circuit 
clerks,' being his deputies to the three circuits of the Court 
of Justiciary. They had their origin in the act 1587, c t>i, 
which directed such circuits to be made, in place of the 
former practice of the justiciar passing througa the realm 
from shire to shire successively. 

JUSTICES OF THE P£ACE are persons appointed 
to keep the peace within certain prescribed limits* with 
authority to act judicially in criminal causes, and in some 
of a civil nature arising within those limits, and aUo to uo 
certain other things in which they act not judicially but 
ministerially, i.e. as servants of the crown performing official 
acts in respect of which they are entrusted with no judical 
discretion. The authority of justices of the peace is derived 
from tiie king's prerogative of making courts for the admi- 
nistration of the law, or created by different statutes; their 
duties are expressed in the royal commission appointing: 
them to the office, or are prescribed by those statutes. 

Before the reign of Edward UI. there were in every county 
conservators of the peace, whose duty it was to aflbrd pro- 
tection against illegal force and violence. These conserva- 
tors were chosen by the freeholders assembled in the county 
court under the king's writ. 

The lord chancellor, the judges of the king's bench, and 
every sheriff and coroner, were conservators, and are nou 
justices, of the peace, by virtue of their office; and some 
hinds are holden under the service annexed to the tenure ci^ 
such lands of being conservators of the peace, or of pro- 
viding fit persons to perform the duties of that otlinv 
High and petty constables are also by virtue of their ofificrs 
conservators of the peace. The authority of conservators »•!' 
the peace at the common law was the same as that now 
exercised by constables within their respective townshipn ; 
and their duty consisted in acting themselves, and com- 
manding the assistance of others, in arresting and quiciiru' 
those who in their presence and within the limits of thoir 
jurisdiction went about to break the peace. 

The following account is generally given of the origin t f 
the present justices of the peace. Upon the compul^^ry 
resignation of Edward II., Edward III., or rather his mother 
Isabella, in his name, sent writs to the different sheruiN 
stating that his accession had taken place with his faihe: » 
assent, and commanding that the peace should be kept cm 
pain of disinheritance and loss of Ufe and limb. Wiibui 
a few weeks from this time it was ordained, by 1 Edward II L 
c. 16, that for the better keeping and maintaining of ti)C 
peace in every county good and lawful men who were not 
maintainors of barretry (malveiz bavrets) should be assigiu- i 
to keep the peace. The mode in which these new keep^r^ oi 
the peace were to be assigned was construed to be by tli • 
king s commission ; and this ordinance had the double effect 
of transferring the appointment f^om the people to thv' 
crown, and of laying a foundation for the graaual aocesaion 
of those powers which are now exercised by justioos of the 
peace. 

By 12 Richard II., c. 10, the wages of justice* of the 
peace are fixed at four shillings per day of sessions, and tw o 
shilUngs for their clerks, payable out of the fines and 
amerciaments at such sessions ; but these wages» like tho>« 
of members of parliament, have lone ceased to be received. 

Justices of the peace are appointed either by act of par- 
liament, by royal charter (in the case of justices in boioughs 
not within the Municipal Corporation Act the charter usua li y 
appointing certain municipal officers to be justices, and pre- 
scribing the manner in which Tscanciea in the offices are 



JUS 



160 



JUS 



s justice, acting in his judicial capacity. But although in 
such a case counsel or attorneys, or any third persons, are 
at liherty to attend, they cannot insist upon being heard 
on behalf of their respective clients; the justices may 
refuse to hear them, or to allow them to interfere with the 
proceedings. But now, by 6 and 7 Will. IV., c. 114, in all 
cases of summary conviction, persons accused are to be ad- 
mitted to make their full answer and defence, and to have 
all witnesses examined, and cross-examined by counsel or 
attorney. In ah cases where justices are directed to take 
examinations or evidence, it will be implied that the exami- 
nation or evidence is to be taken under the sanction of 
an oath or solemn affirmation. 

Statutes frequently empower justices to award damages 
to an injured party, as in cases of assault [Assault], or 
malicious injuries to property. [Malicious Injuries.] 

Where a complaint is made before a justice, and a sum- 
mons or warrant issues, the justice upon hearing and de- 
ter mininp; the matter may award costs to either party, and 
enforce the payment of such costs. 

Justices ought not to exercise their functions in cases in 
which they are themselves the persons injured. They 
should cause the offenders to be taken before other justices, 
t>r, if present, should desire their aid. In all cases which a 
justice may hear and determine out of sessions upon his 
own view, or upon the confession of the party, or upon oath 
of witnesses, he ought to make a record on parchment 
under his hand of all the proceedings and proofs, which 
record should in the case of summary convictions be re- 
turned to the next sessions and there filed. 

By 27 Geo. II., c. 20, in all cases where a justice is re- 
quired to issue a warrant for the levving of any penalty 
inflicted, or any sum of money directea to be paid, by any 
statute, the justice granting the warrant is empowered 
therein to order and direct the goods distrained to be sold 
within a certain time, to be limited in such case (so as such 
time be not less than four days, or more than eight days), 
unless such penalty, or sum of money, with reasonable charges 
of taking, keeping, and selling the distress, be sooner paid. 

When justices refuse to hear a complaint over which they 
have jurisdiction, or to perform any other duty which the 
law imposes on them, the party aggrieved by such refusal 
may apply to the court of king s bench for a writ of 
mandamus, a process bv which the king requires the party 
to whom it is addressed to do the thing required or to show 
cause why it is not done. If no sufficient excuse be re- 
turned, a peremptory mandamus issues, by which the party 
IS commanded aosolutely to do the thing required. [Man- 
damus.] But as justices have no indemnity in respect of 
their acts because done in obedience to a mandamus, this 
process is not granted where there is anything like a reason- 
able doubt of the justice's authority to do the required act. 

Justices of the peace are strongly protected by the law 
in the execution of their office. Opprobrious words which 
would not subject the speaker to any proceeding, civil or 
criminal, if uttered under other circumstances, yet if spoken 
of a justice whilst actually engaged in his official duties 
may be made the subject of an action or of an indictment, or 
if spoken in the presence of the justice may be punished 
by commitment to prison as for a contempt of court ; this 
commitment however must be by a written warrant. 

Where a justice of the peace acting in or out of sessions 
acts judicially in a matter over which he has jurisdiction, 
and does not exceed his jurisdiction, he is not liable 
to an action however erroneous his decision maybe; nor 
will even express malice or corruption entitle a party 
aggrieved by such decision to any remedy by action : the 
delinquent magistrate is answerable only to the crown as 
for an offence committed against the public. Where the 

i'ustice has no jurisdiction or exceeds his jurisdiction, or 
laving jurisdiction deviates from the prescribed legal form 
to an extent which renders the proceedings void, or where 
a conviction under which the justice has granted a warrant 
is set aside by a superior court, an action will lie against the 
justice to recover damages in respect of any distress, im- 
prisonment, or other injury which may have resulted from 
his acts, though done without malice or other improper 
motive. But even in these cases, if the justice has acted 
bond fide in his magisterial capacity, if he has intended to 
act within his jurisdiction, though by mistake he may have 
exceeded it and not acted within the strict line of his duty, 
and also in cases where a justice has meted or intended to 
act in the execution of his ministerial duties, he is entitled 



to the protection of several important statutory regulations , 
though where there is no colour whatever for a belief or sup- 
position on the part of the justice that he is acting within 
nis jurisdiction, where the act is wholly alien to me tua- 
gisterial functions and done (/tr^^o tn/tit^u, these regula- 
tions do not apply. 

Thus, no action can be brought gainst a justice of v\\m 
peace for anything done by him in the execution of hi^ 
office without"^one calendar month's previous notice in 
writing, specifying the cause of the intended action, witL-n 
which period of one month the justice may tender mineniK 
to the party complaining, which will be a bar to the action, 
if refused, and found to be sufficient by the jury. Nor cm 
any such action be maintained unless it be commonct-.l 
within six calendar months after the committing of the art 
complained of; nor unless it be brought or laid in the count) 
in which the act was committed. The defendant in such 
action may under the general issue, t.^. a plea simply deny- 
ing the alleged trespass, &c., give in evidence any mattLT nf 
justification or excuse without being bound, as other defend- 
ants are, to select one particular line of defence, and set tha: 
defence with precision upon the record in the shape of a 
special plea. When the plaintiff* in such action obtains a 
verdict and the judge certifies that the injury for which the 
action is brought was wilful and malicious, the plaintiff 
will be entitlea to double costs of suit. 

Where the action is brought on account of any conviction 
which may have been quashed, and cannot Uierefore be 
produced as a justification of the consequent distress nr 
imprisonment, the plan tiff is disabled, by 43 Greo. III., c. 1 4 1. 
from recovering more than Id, damages, or any costs of 
suit unless it be expressly alleged in the declaration that 
the acts complained of were done maliciously and without 
any reasonable or probable cause. 

When a justice acts with partial, corrupt, or malicious 
motives he is guilty of a misdemeanor, for which be may K* 
indicted, and in a clear case of misconduct the court of 
King's Bench, which exercises a general superintendence 
over the conduct of those to whom the administration <f 
the criminal law of the country is entrusted, will, if ibe 
application be made without delay, give leave to file a en- 
minal information. But the court will consider, not whe- 
ther the act complained of be strictly right or not, but 
whether it proceeded from unjust, oppressive, or corrnpt 
motives, among which motives fear and favour are b<>:h 
included. If the affidavits filed in support of the appUi^- 
tion disclose nothing which may not be attributable to mere 
error or mistake, the court will not even call upon \ \\^ 
justice to show cause why a criminal information shouiJ 
not be filed. The court will not entertain a motion for \ 
criminal information against a justice of the peace, unl«s5 
notice of the intended application have been given in 
sufficient time to enable him, if he .thinks proper, to mein 
the chaise in the first instance by opposing the grantint; oi 
the rule to show cause. 

The proceedings after an information has been filed or an 
indictment found against justices of the peace for crinnn::. 
misconduct are the same as in other cases of misdemeanor. 
If the defendant suffer judgment by default, or is foui><i 
guilty by the verdict of a jurj', the punishment is by fine »>r 
imprisonment or both ; after which an application may tie 
made to the lord chancellor to exclude him ft*om the com- 
mission ; and when affidavits are filed in the King's BenrJ; 
impeaching the conduct of justices of the peace, sur'.i 
affidavits are frequently directed by the court to be l.s..i 
before the chancellor, to enable him to judge whether siur 
persons ought to remain in the commission. 

The institution of justices of the peace has been adopt t 1 
in most of the British colonies, and has with some oacnhfi- 
cations been retained in the United Slates of America. 

JUSTl'CIA, a genus of Acanthaceous Exogens, who«»e 
numerous species inhabit all the tropical parts of the world, 
preferring however damp woods to dry and open plains, li 
is especially in the forests of Brazil and India that the? 
occur. Many of them are never woody, some are bushes tr 
small trees, and a small number are valued by gardeners a« 
objects of ornament. As limited by LinnaDus, the genus 
comprehended a very discordant collection of species; m<»- 
dern writers have accordingly broken it up into many new 
genera. As now limited, Justicia itself scarcely contains a 
plant of any importance. 

_ As among the species now removed from Justicia to other 
genera there are some which are useful as medicinal agetiiss 



JUS 



162 



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tort of stewdrd in the household of the Frank kinsB. After 
their conquest of Gkiul, it came to signify a high political 
dignity. Dapifer, as shown in the note helow, means the 
same thinp^, heing the Latin synonyme for it This officer 
was the highest in the state after the king, executing all 
the chief offices of the kingdom as the king's representative. 
He was not only at the head of the king's palace, hut of all 
the departments of the state, civil and military, chief admi- 
nistrator of justice, and leader of the armies in war. This 
is proved not only to have heen the case in France, hy 
Ducange and other high authorities, as well as hv the 

Suhlic records of that kingdom,* hut to have heen so also in 
Sngland, hy a document published by Madox himself^ from 
the black and red books of the Exchequer— to wit, the cele- 
brated Diahgtu de Scaccario, written in the time of 
Henry II. ;t and likewise b^ certain MSS. preserved in Sir 
Robert Cotton's collection m the British Museum, particu- 
larly an old MS. entitled " Quis sit Seneschallus AnglisB, 
et quid ejus officium."} Consequently, Madox is wrong 
when he says (" Hist. Excheq.," p. 28) that in the reign of 
Williahi I., William Fitz-Osbem was the king's constable, 
because he is called magUter militum. Whereas in the 
Tory same passa^ (of '* Ordericus Vttalis") he is called 
Normanniie Ik^j^fer, in virtue of which office he would be 
tnagister miliium. It was not till afterwards that the con- 
stable became magtster militum, being originally an officer 
subordinate to the dapifer.' {Pictorial History qf England^ 
vol. i. p. 567.) 

By the nature of the feudal system everything had a 
tenaency to be given in fief. ' Among other things, the 
office of seneschal was given in fief too, and became here- 
ditary among the Franks, Normans, and, at the conquest of 
England, among the Anglo-Normans. In France, under 
the Merovingian dynasty, the office was in the family of 
Charles Martel, from whom sprung the Carlovin^an dy- 
nasty ; afterwards the Plantagenet counts of Anjou were 
hereditary seneschals of France ; and in England this high 
office was granted by William the Conqueror to the Grant- 
mesnils, and thence came by marriage to the earls of Lei- 
cester. After the attainder of the family of Montfort, earls 
of Leicester, the office was given to Edmund, the second son 
of King Henry III., and it then remained in the royal 
family till its abolition — Thomas Plantagenet, second son 
of King Henry IV., beine the last permanent high steward,} 
the office being conferred afterwards only pro unicd vice, 

* In France, when the office became hereditary in the counts 
of Anjou, it soon became necessary, for various reasons, to 
have another seneschal, or dapifer, besides the hereditary 
one ; and this officer, whether he be considered as the re- 
presentative or deputy of the hereditar}' seneschal, still took 
precedence, as appears from the charters of the French 
Kings, of all the other great officers of state. In England 
also something of the same kind took place, but with this 
difierence — that the various functions of the original grand 
seneschal, or senescallus Angliee, were divided into two 
parts, and committed to two distinct officers as his repre* 
sentatives; the judicial functions being committed to an 
officer styled the High, or rather Chief Justiciary ; the ad- 
ministrative and those relating to the aflfairs of the king's 
palace or household, to an officer styled, not the Senescallus 
Angliiff, but the Senescallus, or Dapifer Begis,i This 
explanation will be found to completely remove the confu- 
sion that has so long prevailed among the English histo- 
rians, antiquaries, ana lawyers on this subject Our view 

* ■ Dneanie, Glow., ad voe. Dapirer et SeneKRllus. See alio the " Grand 
Coustumier de Normandici" ex. *' Solebat aiitem aiitiquitus qaidam juslici- 
ariiM predictis ntperior per Nonnaniam disciirrere qui scncschalluB principia 
Toeabatur." — Conf. " La Coutume Re&nnie de Normandie commcnteo par 
Baanage.'* t. i., p. 2, col. 2 ^Seoeachal). See alio Uie charti'rs of the vnrioua 
Frauk kinga, in the witnessing of which the name of the seneschal or dapifer 
raometimea the one word ia used, aometimea tlie other) alwnya atanda before 
thoae of aU the other grtttt officers. It ia ri(ht to add, that in the Engliah char- 
tera, the name of the ^i4fer*or aeneeehal, doea not invariabty atand ao high aa 
in the French.* 

t ' Madox. *' BisL Exchequer** (edition 1711). See alao ^ Co. Litt<** ft>l. 61 
«, foraome aooonnt of the judicial part of the ufllee of aeneschal, or atcward, 
•Bd aom« attempt at tlie etvmology of the word, not much more auccesaful than 
•ttempCa of that kind oaually are.* '4 

t ' Totton MSS. Veapaauui, b. viU fol. 99, b. It will ako b« fiaond in Harl. 
MSS. d05r fbl. 48. tranacribed ia a modem hand by D'Ewea. who supposed it 
to be of* the a^e oPEdward II. See also Cotton MSS., Titns C.pasntn, at the 
bayinnioK of which volume there ia a well-writlen traet. which oontnina the 
Boat aatisfhctury account we have met with of thesubjpct. Thrre is aim a tract 
entitled " Summiia AngUa Scnoschallus," in Soni^rs's Tracts, vol. viii. All 
the«o apr«»f in otir tliin?, vir. the vaslness and pnrainouut usituri* of Ihp au- 
thority origimtlUf \»ifWo<i bytlic hiKjl) stcwanl, thotisli noni* ctflhem explain the 
aoonidy of the coexistence of such an ofllcer as the high ju»tKinry. This we 
hope we shall now be enabled to do.' 

I • For a U*i of hi;;h slewnnlfi s<h» Harl. MSS 2194.* 
> I * Among many other proofs of this, see Madox'* *' Form. Auglic,/' oclxjutuu* 



of the subject, if it needed it> would be eorrobontea by the 
high privu^es of the officer created in later timet, U> pre- 
side in the House of Lords at state trials^ which officer, )><• 
it observed, is not " high justiciary,** but ** loid hi^li 
steward," that is " Senescwue Anglur" This explanatiun 
also removes the difficulty of accounting for the extraur- 
dinary powers of the lord high steward^s court, which some 
English lawvers have attempted to get over, by sayins; tli.it 
the lord hign steward succeeded to some of the powers u( 
the high justiciary, whereas he merely exercises poHcrs 
which ne had delegated to the high justiciary.' *— (/&tV^.) 

The chief justiciary was usually, even in those times, whc!), 
from the circumstance of the king and the great officers ^-i 
his household acting as judges, we may conclude that & 
special education was not considered absolutely necessm 
to fit a man for the judicial office, a person who had gi^en 
particular attention to the study of jurtsprudenoe. As tl.e 
representative of the judicial portion of the grand sene- 
8cnal*s power, his autnority extended over every court ki 
the kingdom. For as to what Blackstone sayst of the court 
of the marshalsea, t.^. the court of the lord steward of ti.': 
king's household, having never been subject to the jurisrli. . 
tion of the chief justiciary and no writ of error lying IVci.i 
it to the king s bench, it merely amounts to this, that tLi> 
court of the lord steward was in ftct originally the court of 
the lord high steward, and in that court either of Iun 
representatives, the chief justiciary or the lord steward^ 
might preside. 

The chief justiciary not only presided in the king's court 
and in the exchequer, but ne was originally (or rat he i 
when the lord high steward fell into abeyance, partly fr)ui 
dread of his power and partly from the impossibility n 
securing an hereditary succession of the qualities necc*a>arv 
to fulfil his great ana numerous duties), by virtue of h:^ 
office, regent of the kingdom during the king's absenct. : 
and at those times writs ran in his name, ana were t&stf. 
by him.{ And in this light the chief justiciary is regariii I 
as having been the greatest subject lu England. One i>t 
the most distinguished men who held this high office \Mt? 
Hanulph de Glaaville, who is usually regarded as the aiiih r 
of the Tractalue de Legibus et Connteiudinibue Anglo-, 
the oldest book extant on English law.J 

The last who held the office and boTB the title of Capit'in^ 
Jusdtiariua Anglue was Philip Basset: and the first \ihi> 
held the office of Capi talis Justitiarius ad phoita ronm 
Rege tenenda, t>. chief justice of the king's bench, ixa^ 
Robert de Bruis, appointed in the fifty-second year • 
Henry III.II Sir Edward Coke was fond of indulging h,^ 
vanitv by bestowing the tiame title, * Chie£ Jttstice of Eng- 
land, upon himself and on the Grand Justiciary, the mi^li! y 
Capitalis Justitiarius Ana^lim; which was noticed Iv 
Lord Chancellor Ellesmere in his address to Sir Heirv 
Montague, Coke's successor, upon his being sworn in ci: • ' 
justice, in these words: — 'instead of containing hicn^i . 
within the words of the writ to be the chief justice, a& tl j 
king called him, *' ad placita coram nobis tenenda." ' 

JUSTIFICATION is used in theology to signify th. 
acceptance of a sinner by God, and b frequently emp'ii>) . . 
bv the sacred writers as equivalent to the forgiveness of >::.. 
Thuii, St. Paul says, 'Be it known unto you therefore* nn :. 
and brethren, that throui^h this man is preached unto )ou 
the forgiveness of sins, and by him all that believe are ,ft,«- 
tified from all things from which ye could not be justiiu-<l 
by the law of Moses.' {Acts^ xiii. 38, 39.) The Protests lu . 
and Roman Catholics differ respecting the signification th:.t 
should be attached to the word justification. The fuimt r 
maintain that the Hebrew word p*n^n> and the Gre< tv 

words hKQujvv and ^ueaiWtc, are almost invariably employ t^I 
in the Bible in a judicial sense ; that is, to declare a pcrs« n 
righteous notwithstanding the sins he has committed, ai>-: 
to deliver him ftora the punishment which his sins h > I 
deserved. The latter interpret the words in a physic... 
sense; and maintain that to be justified is not to be k<.-- 
koncd righteous by God, but actually to be made righteuik? 
by the infusion of a sanctifying principle. The Pcotestaiit>, 

• *SmaDiiqnisltioDonllwOflloB<»rLoidRkh Steward, byllr. Amo« !• 
Phillips's " State Trials," Appendix, vol. IL Mr. Abum fldls into the omial r r;. 
of supposing Uist the judicifl authority of the lord high vtevard grew «>■.( • 
that whirh appertained to the chinf jiMtiriar at the period when theT.ittrr «»•■ 
was abolivhed.' 

t 111 Com. 7& 

% Madox's ' Hist of the Exchequer.' p IK 

i M«dox. p. 35; Beamet'a ' dan? lUt ' a •, 

I Du|d.*OTigH'% 



JUS 



164 



JUS 



was styled * Digesta,' ami also * Pantlcctru' (* embracing all*), 
and was published in December, 033. It was declared by 
the emperor that it should have the force of li*\v all over I bo 
empire, and should supersede all the text books of the old 
jurists, which m future were to bo of no authority. 

The following is a list of the Roman jurists from whose 
works the ' Pandect' or * Digest' was compose<l, with their 
several epochs, so far as they can be ascertained, and the 
relative proportions which they have contributed to the 
•Pandect.' Where (a) is added, the contribution is less than 
1 . The sum total of all the figures denotes the whole amount, 
of which the several figures opiK)site each jurist's name de- 
note the proportion which his part bears to the whole. In 
addition to the extracts contained in the * Pandect' from 
each author, many of them are very often merely cited. 
Aburnus (Valens). 
iElius (Gallus, Marcianus). 
iEmilius (Macer, Papinianus). 
A/rieanuSt lived in Hadrian s time and was a dis- 
ciple of Salvius Julianus .... 24 

Ai/enuSt a native of Cremona, and a pupil of Ser* 
vius Sulpicius, who died u.c. 43. ... 9 
AnthianuSt time unknown • • . • (a) 
Anthus (Anthianus). 
Antistius (Labeo). 

AquUa, supposed by some to have lived under 
Sept. Scverus .....•• (a) 
ArcadhiSt under Constantino the Great • • 2Jt 
Arrius (Menander). 
Aurelius (Arcadius). 
Csecilius (Africanus). 
Caius (Gaius). 

Callislratus, under Caracalla . . • 17} 
Celsus, lived under Trajan and Hadrian • 23 

Ccrldius (ScaDVoIa). 
Charisius (Arcadius) 

Claudius (Hermogenianus, Sutuminus, Trypho- 
ninus). 
Clemens (Terentius). 
Domilius (Ulpianus). 
Florens (Tertullianus). 

FlorentinuSt time uncertain, supposed to have 
lived under Alex. Severus . . , . 4 

Furius (Anthianui:). 

Gaius, lived under Antoninus and Aurelius • 72 
Gallus, Aquilius, a friend of Cicero, with whom 

he was prajlor. d.c. 66 (a) 

Herennius (Modestinus). 

Hermogenianus, under Constantino • . 9i 
J'Wolenus, lived under Trajan . . . 23i 
Julianus, lived under Hadrian, was a pupil of 
Javolenus, and author of the perpetual edict • 90 
Julius (Aquila, Paulus). 
Junius (Marcianus). 
Justus (Papirius). 
Juventius (Culsus). 

Labeo, lived under Augustus, was the head of the 
school called Proculeians from Ins disciplu Proculus 12 
Licinius (Rufinus). 
J^ucius (Marcianus, Papinianus). 
Mic??/-, under Alexander Severus, . . .10 

Mcecianus, lived under Antoninus Pius . . 8 

iVara'//<«, under Antoninus and Aurelius • 3'Ji 
Marcianus, probably under Caiaculhi . . 3a 
Marcus (Labeo). 
Massui-ius (Sabinus). 

3fciwric/a»u*, live<l under Antoninus . . l\ 
Maximus, time unknown . . • , (a) 
Mrnander, under Severus and Caracalla . 3 

Modestinus, flourished under Alex. Severus and 

the Maxim in i 41:i 

Mucins , Quintus, son of P. Mucins ScsB\'ola, con- 
sul in the year 6J9of Rome, or b.c. 9j . . 1 
iV/?rrt/i[itf, lived under Trajan . . .10 
Papinianus, under Sept. Severus, whoso friend he 
was; >yas put to death by Caracalla . . .104 
Papirius, under Marcus Aurelius . . , 2i 
Piternus (Tarrun tonus). 

Paulus, nourished under Alexander Severus . 297 
Pomponius, lived under Antoninus Pius; another 
Pomponius is said to have lived under Alex. Severus 80 
Priscus (Javokmus, Neratius). 
PfOculM, lived under Nero and Vespasian | . 6 



Publius (Alfenus, Anthianus, Juvcntms). 

(Quintus (Mucins, Tertullianus, Venuleius). 

Uufinus, about the time of Alex. Severus . 1} 

Rutilius (Maximus). 

Sabinus, Massurius, fionrished under Tiberius, 
was the head of the Sabinian school . . 1} 

Salvius (Julianus). 

Saturninus, supposed by some to be the same as 
Venuleius ....... 1 

Saturninus Quintus (Venuleius). 

SccBVola, Cervidius, under Antoninus and Aure- 
lius . . . . . . . 7^) 

Screvola, Mucins (Mucins). 

Sempronius (Proculus). 

Septimius (Tertullianus). 

Sextus (Pomponius). 

Tarruntenus, under Marcus and Ck)mmodus . (a) 

Terentius, lived under Hadrian and Antoninus 3^^ 

Tertullianus, time uncertain, by some supposed to 
be the same as the father of the church . . 1 } 

Titus (Gaius). 

TiypJioninus, imder Severus and Caracalla . i'J 

Valens, lived under Hadrian and An'ioninus Pius 3 

Varus (Alfenus). 

Venuleius, under Antoninus and Aurelius . 10 

Ulpianus, flourished under Alex. Severus, whose 
counsellor he was 610 

Ulpius (Marcellus). 

Volnsius (Maecianus). 

If the whole 'Digest' is divided into three equal parts, th.- 
contributions of Ulpian are somewhat more than onetliini. 

The 'Digesta' is divided into 50 books, each book bt-.r ir 
also divided into titles, and subdivided into sections. TLj 
following are some of the principal heads. Book i. la\s 
down the general principles and the different kinds « ] 
law; it then establishes the division of persons and ii 
things ; then speaks of senators, and of magistrates and tl.i. :; 
delegates and assessors: iL treats of the jurisdiction •>! 
magistrates ; of the manner of bringing actions, of cotd* 
promises after an action is commenced : iii. explains wk::t 
kind of persons are allowed to sue in law, and it deflue^ 
who are styled infamous, and as such not permitted to iue : 
it then treats of advocates, proctors, syndics, and ox\w: 
counsellors: iv. treats of restitution, compromises, ai:i 
arbitrations, after which it speaks of innkeepers and oth'-fs 
in whose custody we leave anylhin|^ : v. treats of tria!? ; 
and complaints against inofiicious (mofiiciosa) testanieii:> 
vi. treats of real actions and their various kinds to recover 
one's property : vii. treats of personal services (ser\ituir-. 
as USU8 fructus) : viii. speaks of real services both in tv'< . 
and country : ix. treats of personal actions Which are m 
imitation of real actions, as actions for a fault or criuio 
committed by a slave, the action of the lex Aquilia, an.l 
the action against those who throw any thing into tl.j 
highway by which any one is wounded or injured: x. treats 
of mi}^ed actions, the action of partition of an inheritaix o, 
&c: xi. speaks of interrogatories, and of such matters a> 
are to be heard before the same judge (judex). It aK) 
treats of run-away slaves, of dice-playing, bribery, corrupt io' , 
and false reports ; and lastly, of burials and Aincral ex- 
penses : xii. explains the action for a loan, condictions, &c, • 
xiii. continues tne subject of the preceding, and treats of tl-^- 
action of pawning : xiv. and xv. treat of actions arising f.\ i.: 
contracts made by other per.cons and yet binding upon u< . 
of the Senatus Consultum Macedonianum ; and of the y\: 
culium : xvi. treats of the Senatus Consultum Vellcianum. 
and of compensation, and the action of deposits : xvii. tn.Mt> 
of the mandate, and of partnership (societas) *: xviii. expluin^ 
the meaning and forms of the contract of sale, the anm «t 
ing of this kind of contract ; and treats of gain or loss U]' > \ 
the thing sold: xix. treats of bargains, of actions of hiraj. 
of the action called a^stimatoria, of permutation, of the act \ \ 
called prwscriptis verbis, &c. : xx. treats of ])ledgcs an: 
hypotheca), of the preference of creditors, of the distraction - 
sale of things engaged or pawned : xxi. contains an cxjdar 
tion of the jEdile's edict concerning the sale of slaves ni ... 
beasts, and also treats of evictions, warrantie.s, &c. : w 
treats of interest (usuroo), fruits, accessions to \\\'\\ 
and of proofs and presumptions, and of ignorance of \ 
and fact: xxiii. is upon betrothment (sponsidia), ni \r 
ringe, dowry, and agreements upon this subject, and Inj .'- 
given in dowry: xxiv. treats of gifts between husband an ; 
wife, divorces, and recovery of the marriage portion: xx\. 



JUS 



166 



JUS 



nian was then in hia fortv-flflh year, and he reigned 
above thirty-eight years, till November, 565, when he died. 
H is long reign forms a remarkable epoch in the history of 
the world. Although himself un warlike, yet by means of 
his able generals Belisarius and Narses he oompletely de- 
feated the Vandals and the Goths, and re-unitea Italy and 
Africa to the empire. Justinian was the last emperor of 
CJonstantinople who, by his dominion over the whole of Italy, 
re-uniied in some measure the two principal portions of the 
antient empire of the Ccesars. On the side of the East the 
arms of Justinian repelled the inroads of Khosroes, and 
conquered Colchis ; and the Negus or lung of Abyssinia 
entered into an alliance with him. On the Danubian fron- 
tier the GepidsB, Longobards, Bulgarians, and other hordes 
were either kept in check or repulsed. rBBLisARius.l The 
wars of Justinian's reign are related by Frooopius ana Aga- 
tbias. 

Justinian miut be viewed also as an administrator 
and legislator of liis vast empire. In the first capacity he 
did some good and much harm. He was both profuse and 
penurious; personally inclined to justice, he often over- 
looked, through weakness, the injustice of subalterns ; he 
established monopolies of certain branches of industry and 
commerce, and increased the taxes. But he introduced the 
rearing of silkworms into Europe, and the numerous edifices 
he raised, the towns he repaired or fortified, attest his love 
for the arts, and his anxiety for the security and welfare of 
his dominions. Procopius, ' De iEdiflciis Domini Justi- 
niani,' gives a notice of the towns, temples (St Sophia among 
the rest), convents, bridges, roads» walls, and fortifications 
constructed or repaired under his reign. The same Proco- 
pius however wrote a secret history ('Anecdota') of the 
court and reign of Justinian and his wife Theodora, both of 
whom he paints in the darkest colours. Theodora indeed was 
an unprincipled woman, with some abilities, who exercised, 
till her deatn in 548, a great influence over the mind of Jus- 
tinian, and many acts of oppression and cruelty were com- 
mitted by her order. But yet the ' Anecdota* of Procopius 
cannot be implicitly trusted, as many of his charges are 
evidently misrepresentations or malignant exaggerations. 
Justinian was easy of access, patient of hearing, courteous 
and affable in discourse, and perfect master of his temper. 
In the conspiracies against his authority and person he often 
showed both justice and clemency. He excelled in the 
private virtues of chastity and temperance ; his meals were 
Khort and frugal: on solemn fasts he contented himself 
with water and vegetables, and he frequently passed two 
days and as many nights without tastine any food. He 
allowed himself little time for sleep, ana was always up 
before the morning light His restless application to busi- 
ness and to study, as well as the extent of his learning, 
have been attested even by his enemies (' Anecdota,* c. 8, 
1 3). He was or professed to be a poet and philosopher, a 
lawyer and theologian, a musician and architect ; but the 
brightest ornament of his reign is the compilation of Ro- 
man law [Justinian's Legislation] which has im- 
mortalized his name. Unfortunatelv his love of theological 
controversy led him to interfere with the consciences of his 
subjects, ahd his penal enactments against Jews and here- 
tics display a spirit of mischievous intolerance which has 
ever since afforded a dangerous authority for religious per- 
secution. 

Justinian died at eighty-three years of age, on the 14th 
November, 565, leaving no children, and was succeeded by 
his nephew Justinus II. (Ludewig, Vita Justiniani Magni ; 
Gibbon, ch. xl.-xliv.) 





for seven years. Meantime Justmian had escaped from the 
Crimea, and married the daughter of thcKakan, or kiiiir of 
the Gasari, a tribe of Turks; and he afterwards, with tli*- 
assistance of the Bulgarians, entered Constantinople, att-1 
put to a cruel death both Leonttus and Tiberius, with m^:.y 
others. He ordered also many of the principal pco; ]<> • f 
Ravenna to be put to death. At last Justinian was o.- 
throned and killed by Philippicus Bardanes, a.d. 71 ). 

JUSn'NUS I^ by birth a peasant «f Dacia. in 1;\ 
youth enlisted in the p;uards of the emneror Leo I. Un«! ■. 
that and the two following reigns J ustin aistingu ished h 1 1 n • . 
by his military services, and gradually attained the rank i f 
tribune, count, general, and lastly the command of the 
guards, which he held when the emperor Anastasius <li^ \ 
A.D. 518. He was then proclaimed emperor by the sol die %, 
being sixty-eight years of age, and the clergy and poi'.o 
approved the choice. Justinus, being himself un in fbrme^i ..i 
civil affairs, relied for the despatch of the official busine^s •/ 
state on the ausBStor Proclus, a faithful servant, who v i^ 
also the friend of Justinian, Justin's nephew, who him^t ;:' 
had acquired a great ascendency over his uncle. By Ji-^- 
tinian's advice a reconciliation was effected between th<.' 
Greek and the Roman churches, a.d. 520. The murder >A 
yitalianu8,who had been raised to the consulship, but wh % 
having excited the suspicion and jealousy of the court, \\ '^ 
stabbed at a banquet, casts a dark shade upon the charactrr 
of both Justin and Justinian. In other respects Justin ls 
represented by the historians as honest and equitable, tboui::i 
rude and distrustful. Afler a reign of nine years, ben..; 
afflicted by an incurable wound, and having become weak 
in mind and body, Justin abdicated in favour of his nepbcu, 
and died soon after, in a.d. 527. 

JUSTINUS II., nephew of Justinian I., by his mother 
Vigilantia, was raised to the throne by the senators anl 
the guards immediately after the death of his uncle, un 
the 15th November, a.d. 565. Soon after complninN 
reached Constantinople fVom the Romans against N.ir- 
ses the conqueror of tne Goths, and exarch of Ravcni. \, 
whose great qualities were stained with avarice, a til 
whose government had become unpopular in Italy. A iu\ 
exarch, Longinus, was appointed to supersede Narses ai.'l 
the empress Sophia, Justin's consort, aaded to the letters i>t 
recal the insulting message, that the eunuch Narses sboui 1 
leave to men the exercise of arms and the dignities uf tLt- 
state, and return to his proper place among the maidens >{' 
the palace, where a distaff snould be placed in his hand. To 
this insult Narses is said to have replied, ' I will spin h. r 
such a thread as she will not easily unravel ;' and he ib sa. 1 
to have invited the Longobards, and their king Alboln. lo 
invade Italy. However this may be, Alboin invaded Ii.ilv 
by the Julian Alps, a.d. 568, and in a few years all Ni r.l 
Italy was lost to the Byzantine emperor. The_provinre> of 
Asia were likewise overrun by the Persians. Internal (!:.<>• 
content prevailed in the capital and provinces, owing to tho 
malversations of the governors and magistrates, and Ju>i n 
himself, deprived by infirmity of the use of his feet, and con- 
fined to the palace, was not able to repress abuses and infti^^^ 
vigour into the administration. Feeling at last his inij^o- 
tence, he resolved on abdicating the crown, and as he had no 
son, he chose Tiberius, the captain of his guards, as bis suc- 
cessor. The conduct of Tiberius fUlly justified Justin's dis- 
cernment. Justin lived four years after his abdication, in 
quiet retirement, and died in the year 578. 



Coin of JiutinUn. 
British lluscam. Actual Siu. 

JUSTINIANUS n., son of Constantine III., a lineal 
descendant of the Emperor Heradius, succeeded his father 
on the throne of Constantinople, a.d. 685. His reign, which 
lasted ten years, was marked chieflv by wars with the 
Saracens, and by the exactions and oppressions of his 
ministers. At last hia general Leontius drove him from 
the throne, had his nose cut off, and banished him to the 
Crimea, A.D. 695. Leontius however was soon after deposed 
himself and banished by Tiberius Apftimerus, who reigned 





Coin of JiuUnui I. or .II. 
Britiah Miueum. Actnal ^ip:, 

JUSTFNUS. commonly called JOSTTN, MART\'R. 
one of the earlv fathers of the Christian church, and cv<n- 
sidered one of the ornaments of the body of men who pr(>- 
fessed the Christian faith in the times of its great discou- 
ragement while it was making head against the power v( 
the Gentile world. 

He was born in Palestine, at a place then called Neapi>I-<. 
a new city, as may be inferred from its name, which h ul 
arisen near the antient town of Sichem, of which we read in 
the Old Testament, if it were not Sichem itself with a new 
name. His father was a Greek. Justin was careful.T in- 
structed in the learning of the Greoias schooh €f phii^ 



J U V 



168 



J Y E 



and numbers of them and of hogs are exported to Holstein. 
There is abundance of game, and some wild boars are still 
found in the forests. The lakes, gul£i, and bays afford an 
inexhaustible supply of fish. The climate, through the 
proximity of the sea, is more temperate than might be sup- 
posed from the latitude. It is very variable, with frequent 
fogs and rains ; the winters are not very rigorous, but the 
summer is often extremely hot. The inhabitants are in ge- 
neral illiterate, credulous, and indifferent to improvement. 
Till the ninth century the Jutes, from whom the country has 
its name, were governed by their own princes, two of whom, 
Gotiee and Hemming, carried on war with Charlemagne. 
In the second half of the ninth century the country was 
coiviuered by Gkvrmo Gammut, king of Denmark, who an- 
nexM it to his own dominions. 

The peninsula is divided into four large districts called 
stifts^ in this instance equivalent to diocese or bishopric : — 
Aalborg in the north, Aarhuus in the east, Wiborg in the 
centre, and Ripen in the south and west The first two 
have been already described. Wiborg has an area of 1 050 
square miles and 85,000 inhabitants. The capital, of the 
same name, is situated on a small lake nearly in the centre 
of the peninsula, and has 4000 inhabitants. It is about 2§ 
miles m circuit, is surrounded with ramparts, has six 
gates, and is pretty well built. There are a cathedral and 
two other churches, and a few manufactories. The bishop- 
ric of Ripen, or Ribe, the most extensive of all, has an 
area of 3842 square miles, but is in proportion the least 
populous, having only 150,000 inhabitants. Ribe, the 
capital and seat of the bishop, is a small walled town with 
3000 inhabitants. It i? situated on a little river called the 
Ribsaae, two miles from the German Ocean. Only small 
vessels can come up to the town, which has some trade in 
com, oxen, and horses. There is one church besides the 
cathedral, and the oldest Latin school in Denmark (founded 
in 1248), with a library. Fredericia, the only fortress in 
Jutland, is in this diocese ; it is situated on the Little Belt, 
has 4700 inhabitants, a C^lvinist, a Roman Catholic, and 
two Lutheran churches, a synagogue, a custom-house for 
ships passing through the Little Belt, and other public 
buildings, and several manufactories. 

JU'V£NAL. Of the personal history of this great poet 
scarcely anything appears to be certainly known. His 
name is variously written Decius, or Decimus, Junius Ju- 
venal is. His birthplace, on no very sure ground, is said 
to have been Aquinum, a Volscian town ; and he is said to 
have been born somewhere about a.d. 40, under Caligula, 
and to have died, turned of 80, under Hadrian. He was of 
obscure extraction, being the grandson of an enfranchised 
slave. Some of his biographers say that he followed the 
profession of a pleader. He was intimate with the poet 
Martial. (Martial's Ep^ vii. 24, 91 ; xii. 18.) It does not 
appear that he gained any reputation until the publication 
of his Satires, which was late in life, after he was turned 
sixty. Still later he was sent in command of a cohort of 
infantry to Egypt, where he died Arom vexati5n and weari- 
ness of this honourable exile, which it is said was inflicted 
upon him as a punishment fur satirizing a favourite of Ha- 
drian under the person of Paris, the favourite actor of 
l>>mitian. See Sat, vii. 88, where Paris is described as the 
bestower of military patronage. 

The relative merits of Juvenal and Horace as satirists 
have been warmly contested. It is a question on which 
men will form opposite opinions, as their tempers are more 
fit to relish brilliancy and playfulness, or earnest and digni- 
fied declamation. Juvenal is said to have spent much 
time in attendance in the schools of the rhetoricians, and 
the effect of this, in an age not remarkable for purity of 
taste, may be observed perhaps in a tendency to hyperbo- 
lical inflation, both of thought and style, which would soon 
betray a writer of less power into the ridiculous. From 
ihijt his wit, command of language, and force and fullness 
of thought, completely preserve him: still perhaps he 
would produce more effect if the effort to do his utmost 
ivcre less apparent. Drydcn says, 'Juvenal gives me as 
much pleasure as I can bear. He fully satisfies expecta- 



tion ; he treats his subject home. Hie cplecn is raisc«1, ard 
he raises mine: I have the pleasure of concernment in \Z 
he says. He drives his reader along witb him, and vbrr. 
he is at the end of his way I willingly slop with hiro. If la- 
went another stage it would be too far, and turn <leh^l< 
into fatigue. When he gives over 'tis a sign the subject :. 
exhausted, and the wit of man can carry it no farther. V 
a fault can justly be found in him, 'tis that he is sometime i 
too luxuriant, too redundant.' His writings are addn.>3k>* \ 
to the encouragement of virtue no less than to the chi>- 
tisement of vice ; and parts of them have been recommends I 
by Christian divines as admirable storehouses of moral pn. 
cepts. Still they lie open to tiie objection of descend in:; < i 
minutely into the details of vice as to minister food a.** \«< : 
as physic to the depraved mind. To the Echolar they ar < 
invaluable for the information which they supply con(*eri.- 
ing private life among the Romans. The editions of J u\> 
nal are very numerous ; that of Ruperti has (in England : * 
least) nearly superseded others : it is attended by a rop:o< s 
body of explanatory notes, which are much needed in red- 
ing this difficult author. He is translated into English I > 
Holiday, Dryden (who however only translated five sat.:- » 
of the edition which bears his name), Gifford. and Hodz><'! 
The French prose translation of Dusaulx is highly pratM- ' 
[Dryden; Gifford.] {Proemium to Ruperti's Jurtnn : 
Dedication to Dry den's Juvenal.) 

JYENAGUR, or JEYPORE, a principality in Rnjpc 
tana, lying between 26° and 28® N. lat., and betwet^n r , 
and 78" E. long. On the west it is bounded by the Bn' -•. 
possessions in the same province, and on all other huh^^ 
contiguous to other Rajpoot territories. The surface *>l ri 
country is in general level; the hills do not in any rrt^ 
acquire the size of mountains. The soil is for the tit . 
part sandy and arid, and in many places is strong;!} v • 
pregnated with salt, a considerable quantity of xua. 
is manufactured both for home use and for exf^r. 
tion. During the dry season, from February to July, tl. 
heat is excessive, and the clouds of hot sand which r. .. 
driven about bv the wind are so annoying as nearly to pr«. 
vent travelling, and confine the inhabitants as much 
possible within their dwellings. The cultivated ficld^ ar* 
watered by means of wells, there being no perninn.-.t. 
streams, and those produced by the rains being of htr • 
use for the purpose of irrigation during the dry sca^ r 
The principal articles of produce are cotton, tobacco, ai • 
wheat, with some smaller grains. Ottle ore reared !>: 
draught, and sheep for their wool. Jyenagur is more p>j>: • 
lous than most of the other Raipoot states, and cont:i.r-> 
numerous forts in every part of the country ; a great y^- - 
portion of the villages also, are defended by walls, and sur- 
rounded by ditches, notwithstanding which the inhabitnr.s 
formerly suffered so severely from the incursions of yV^A- 
derers, that so recently as 1819 the country had the appear 
ance of being an extensive waste, in which large bercK ' 
cattle and of deer roamed about without restriction. Sui'*.' 
that time a state of greater security has prevailed, cultna- 
tion has been resumed, the population has increased, »?< . 
the public revenue, which nad been almost annihila.rl 
through the general disorganization, now yields aU l: 
800,000/. per annum. 

Jeypore, the capital, is situated in 26° 54' N. lat. ani 
TS"* 38' E. long., about 156 miles south-west from Dt')! 
The town is placed in a valley open to the south, and -^ 
surrounded by a wall of grey stone ; it is well and regularly 
built, with four principal streets, which meet in a lar^c 
square. The houses are three or four stories in height, nr.i 
many of them are decorated with paintings in^^^ro, sculjv 
tures, porticoes, and other ornamental works executed in 
marble. Most of the dwellings are separate and built at 
equal distances; they are connected by means of a low 
wall. The temples, although modem, are built in the 
pui-est style of Hindu architecture, and some of them ntt 
of large dimensions. The distance of this city from Agn 
is 136 miles; from Benares 515 miles; from Bombay f-H' 
miles ; from Calcutta 975 miles ; and from Delhi 1 56 mil 
all travelling distances. 



INDEX TO THE I.ErrEIl J. 



iir [KiiigGib«ra] 

^ [iUiiia»i 

us, ot iMcbtu, G8 

I, Gd 

air, 70 

j« [Mtruaniiii] 
un, Willinm, 70 
(i». PoM [Sidney] 



^Lf.alh [Juftfjernanlh] 

t.-er (OroilholoBv) [L«rid»J 

^iiar [Leapudi] 

ii,.i,, 72 

I171 [CoQirolnilui Jalapa^ 

' .1 i'a [ Maiieo] 



^>. Saint, Epiitle of, 77 

:» I., II„1II., 1V.,V., of 

..lUnd, 77-79 

a 1., JI., of Engluid, 79- 



ii-'KU, Conietiui, S9 
i>-vn9. Abrahsin, 89 
.-sriii, Victor Hoooriuj, 83 
.'luiiA, i>tIuithiuaL,S9 



. >n f Argotiaulil 

Tl«,.l,l ' 

;iL'r [ Siliduin] 



VOLUME XIII. 




Jai<m Ghaul [IliiidutUn, p. 


Job, Itie Hook of, 124 


Jn:in d^l Rio [M.sicoj 


2121 
Jat>ii<l>c>, 9 J 


Joal, 123 


Jubal., II..141 


Johanna [Aototiaii] 
JohannliUg [NaMUu] 


Jud.ih, Judma [Jew.; Pal.* 


J«B. 96 


tine] 


Javelin Snake, 99 


Joho, Saint, the Uaoliit, 125 


Jndai-im.UI 


J«t, 99 


John, Saint, the Apuaile and 


Jnda) Maccikinl, 141 


Jny rConiilE. vol. T>ii., p. G9] 


Evanfjelut, 125 


Ju.l,-,thvl-:in>tlool' Saint, HI 


JayalSeira. 100 


John,Kiii);orEii;.'1and.l26 


J.i.U.x.J,ulidum, 141 


J«a,. I., 11.. KLup, of FrM«, 
100 


John of Gaunt [Kdivaid III.; 


Jn.ii<-i..ry [Co^uts] 


IIe..rylV.] 


Ji.d.>^«, th.^ Book of, 143 




Jobnof Sili.buri-, 123 


iwirh. 1 J3 


Jvsn tie Muntfort [BnLi)mc1 


John, Kingi of l^uttusU fl'or- 


Ji-g^-.Tnai.th [VishouJ 


Jennd'Anjtely, St., 100 


lugal] 


Jof-^uU'liteiB, lJ-1 


jKdbuth'li [KoxburRhiliiK] 


John Hvreinui [Hyrciuui, 
John] 


Jti^nlniVeing, 144 


J*do, or J*,ldo [Japan] 


JuKurtha. 144 


J«ir«wn,Tho™.!. 100 


John i.-!-XXIII..a.»pnB>.i:3-3 


Juli.nms,Fif.>in5 Claf.diuj, U4 


Jeffetsonilo [Pyroieiie] 


John's Ciil veu: St., Oxfor.l, liy 


Julian Period. I4i 


Jejfinura[Iate,Uue.] 


John', CoUub-c, SIt Cainhiid;,'!;, 


JuUch-Cl«-e-H.-r({. 143 


ii^r^ 


130 


Jfili;« I.,IL,m. (rows), 14o 


J.>hn-s, St. rNewfoun>ihm.n 
John'., St. [NewBrnijuwitlt] 


July, Mfi 


JenaMi [Sibeiia] 
Jenin-iak [Sibetia] 
Jeniwr, Edwaid, 104 


Jumna [llindnstan] 


J.din'5,St., kl>'ei[Maiue] 


Juiickorn, 146 


Johnson, Samuel. UU 


Juiicu^niAorffi. I4G 




Joint [ArticnlationJ 


JiinLUtOdoiatuii, 147 


Jenjn., Soame, 104 


Joint Slock Companies [Bank, 


June, 147 


Ju-Falcoa [FaJeoiiidce, toI. x.. 


Banker, Banking; Paitnec- 


Jun«...manniace». 147 


p. 1821 


.hipj 
Joint Tenancy, 133 


Jnnlperui, 147 


Jerboa [Muride] 


Junina. Fianciscut, 143 




Jointure, 133 


Juoin,-i Letter, [Franci., Si 


Jericho [Syria] 


Joinvllle. 133 


Philip] 


Jetjcl>a,Ro>eor. 103 


Joliba [Qoorra] 


Jtjuo (hoathen podded), 143 


Jeiome, Saint, lOS 


Jomelh, Nicolo, 134 


Juno (planet), 148 


JaroolBOfPtagu9[Hu«.] 


Jonah, 134 


Jointer (ho:.lhen Kod), 149 


J.™y, 106 


Jonathan Apphui, 134 


Jupiter (planet), 148 


Jeney, New, 107 


Jonei, Inii;o, 134 


Jnra(i»land), IIU 


Jetuialem. 108 


Jooe.,S,r William, 13S 


Jura (deparlmentl. ISO 


Je^vi>^ Joho, Karl St. Vincent, 


Jones, John Paul, 13C 


JnraMonntain'.,151 


109 


Jontsia, 137 


JuraKalk, lo'.! 


Jeiuit), 110 


Jon.on, B-nJamin, 137 , 


JuiispruJeact, 15.> 


JeiuiW Bnrk [Cinchuna] 


Joppa [SyiiaJ 


Jury, li3 


Je.9uln»T [Hindustao, i-. 2J1] 
Jbiu. [Chiwl] 


Jordaens. Jacob, 133 


Jmniru, 1J6 


Jor-ian [Syria] 
Jortln, John, 133 


Justice C1«k of Scolland, 113 


Jetu.,SonofSiracI.,ll6 


Jnitice. ofthoHoace. lia 


J.^iui College, C4iiibrid,,'e. 116 


Jorullu [Mexico] 


Justii^ni (h.itanv). 160 


JejiisColltBe, Osfotd,ll6 


Joieph I., II., of Germany. 138 


Jn.liciaiof.'j.-Jllaiid, ir.l 


Jet. 116 


Jo*q.h, king of Porlogal [IV- 


Ju,i;ci,.rj-, Chiof, ofE»Bl..n.I 


JrfhourOuL'rnsfv] , 


ti^jal] 


ini 


JetsnmTFIutiam] 


Josiphoi, 138 


jEUiliiicalion. 162 


Jc»ell,John. llfi 


J.sh..a,l33 


Jusliiuau'. Li'^i'tblinn. 163 


Jeweliii>)-orWatchG3,117 


JouJi,..re [M.rwa,] ^ 


Jn,.Jmim«l..II..10i-(, 


Jeir't-tiarn, 118 




Ju.l.nn>il.. 11., ll.'i 


Jewi. 118 




Ju»lfn..« (Justin. Matlyr), ICO 


Jidda [Arabia] 


JoVPllol.05. 140 


J»slmns(l,i,l„tianJ, 167 


JU, ih 


Joviiniis, 1 10 


J.itev, ili7 


J.11111, Pope, 123 


Jo%inn». 140 


Ji.tlmd, K.7 


JoiuI.,.II., of Naples. l-2,W 


JiSiiu.. PauirOiotio] 


J.'ivrn.Ll, I6i 


JoanofArcrAtcJoauol] 
JuiuuiUJ, 01 lauuiun, 124 


Jvw..yn(,orJ..V|,or.-, Ifii 


Juan <lu Ullua [Mexico) 





Via.jail.-Z 



K 



K has the same sound which C has hefore the vowels a, 
Of 71. A reference to that consonant will therefore suflice 
for the power of the letter ; its various forms may be seen 
in Alphabet. Although this letter is now superfluous, it 
was not so when the characters of an alphabet were syllabic 
in power. Thus the letter k appears to have denoted at one 
time the syllable ka^ while another character represented 
kn, and so on. Hence in the Greek and Hebrew alphabets 
the former was called kappa^ kaph ; the latter hopper koph. 
This accounts for the fact, that in Latin the letter k was 
novcr used except before the vowel a, precisely as 9 is found 
only before w, and the Greek koppa only before 0. Even 
our own alphabet seems to imply such a limit in the use of 
this consonant, when it gives it the name ka, not ke; 
though the latter name would better agree with be, ce, de, 
&c. 

KABYLES. [Algiers, vol. i., p. 327.] 

KAEMPFER, ENGELBERT, well known as a botanist, 
and still more as a traveller, was born the 16lh of Septem- 
ber. I G 51, at Lemgo, in the principality of Lippe-Detmold, 
in Gormany, where his father was rector of the church of 
S. Nicholas. He was sent successively to the schools of 
Ilameln, Liineburg, Hamburg, and Liibeck, in all which he 
^^as distinguished by his rapid progress in the ant lent 
languaircs, history, geography, and music. He was after- 
wards sent to the g>'mnasium of Danzig. He next studied 
at the university of Cracow, in Poland, for three years, and 
at Koni^sberg, in Prussia, for four years more. At the 
last-mentioned place he applied himself closely to the study 
of physic and natural history. From Prussia be went to 
Sweden, where the extent of his knowledge and his talents 
procured him very advantageous offers on condition of 
settling at Upsala; but his desire to see remote countries 
led him to decline the proposals, and he solicited and ob- 
tained the place of secretary to an embassy which was 
then going to Persia. The embassy passed through Mos- 
cow, Kasan, and Astrakhan, where they embarked for Per- 
sia, and landed at Nizabad, in Daghestan, on the western 
shores of the Caspian Sea. While they were waiting for 
tlieir passports in the town of Shamaki, in Shirvan, 
Kaempl'cr made an excursion to the peninsula of Absheran: 
he was the first naturalist who visited this remarkable spot, 
its wells of naphtha, and its ever-burning fire, which he de- 
scribed in his ' Amcenitates Exotic®.' In 1684 the embassy 
arrived at Ispahan, then the capital of Persia. The infor- 
mation which Kaerapfer collected during a residence of two 
years at that place rc>pccting Persia and its natural produc- 
tions is embodied in his * AmoRnitates.' When the embassy 
returned to Europe in 16H3 Kaempfer entered as surgeon 
into tho seivice of the Dutch East India Company, and 
.served in that capacity in the navy then cruising in the Per- 
sian Gulf. After a long illness at Bender Abassi, he sailed 
for Batavia in 1G89, and in this passage visited most of the 
countries on the western shores of Hindustan. At Batavia 
lie occupied himself chiefly with the natural history of the 
island of Java. In I6i)0 he set out from Batavia on his 
voyaj^e to Japan, as physician to the embassy which the 
Dutch East India Company annually sent to the Japanese 
court. He embarked in tho vessel which was to touch at 
the kini^dom of Siam, and visited Judia, or Juthia, then the 
capital of that country. He remained at Nagasaki, in Japan, 
from September, 1690, to November, 1692, and during this 
time he accompanied two embassies to Yeddo. His obser- 
vations on Siaui and Japan arc given in his great work en- 
titled * The History of Japan,* the original of which has 
never been published, but a translation was made from a 
copy in the possession of Sir Hans Sloane by J. G. Scheuch- 
zer, and published in England in 2 vols, fol., 1727. 
Kaempfer returned from Japan to Batavia, which he left in 
1693 for Amsterlam. In April, 1694, he took the degree of 
doctor of physic, at the university of Leyden, and in the theses 
which he published on that occasion he showed that the 
Agntis Scyt/iica: or Barometz, a pretend/>d plant-animal, was 
nothing but a fiction he'also descrih 1 ^er remarkable 



objects, and among them the electrical eel. On Lis retun 
to his native place his reputation soon procured him ti:*; 
honour of being appointed physician to his soverei'jn. a 
circumstance w-nich brought him into extensive practice. 
This however was a loss to science. Of the various wcrk< 
which he designed to publish only his ' AmcBoitatcs V.\* 
ticse' appeared during his lifetime (in 1712). His *1L»- 
tory of Japan,' as already observed, appeared much later, 
and only in English, fi-om which it waa afterwards trjnv 
lated into German and French. He died on the 2nd of 
November, 1716, his health having been much impairt<l 
by his travels and some domestic calamities. If we cuu- 
sider the variety, extent, and accuracy of the information 
contained in Kaempfer, we may confidently place htm at the 
head of those naturahsts who, more than any other clasa S 
travellers, have enlarged our knowledge of natural liistorv 
and geography, and he may be consioered as the precur>.>r 
of Tournefort, Pallas, Sir Francis Hamilton* aad Alc\- 
ander von Humboldt. 

(Scheuchzer's Life of Kaempfer, in hia translation of the 
Histortj of Japan.) 

lOEMPFE'RIA, a small genus of Indian Scitamincr. 
or ZmgiberaceiD of some authors, of which the species are 
indigenous to the islands of the Archipelago and ti.^- 
southern parts of the continent of India, as Bengal and \\w 
districts on its eastern frontier. All are furnished wiih tu- 
berous roots like the turmeric and ginger plants. The spiKt^ 
of the flowers are short and rising from the root, in sotuc 
species before, in others with, and nestled among thel«eavt>: 
all are highly ornamental, and K. rotunda, called by ti le n i- 
tives bhooi chumpa, or ground chumpa, is much cultava!»' i 
in gardens on account of the beauty and fragrance of in 
flowers. It was supposed to yield the round Zedoa ry >-( 
the shops, but incorrectly as E)r. Roxburgh thinks, since I'-: 
considers his Curcuma Zedoaria to be the plant. S> A'. 
Galanga was, equally incorrectly, long supposed to yield ;l. 
Gralanga of the shops. [Galanoa.] It is a native of t- 
mountainous districts beyond Chittagong, and there calici 
Kumula, and is cultivated by the Mugs ; by them it is 4»ol.i \ • 
the people of Bengal, who use it as an ingredient in ilu! 
betel. The roots possess an agreeable fragrant smell. :rt 1 
a somewhat warm, bitterish, aromatic taste. The \lwA •* 
use them, according to Dr. Roxburgh, not only as a ]v>' 
fume, but also medicinally. The roots of K. angustif' 
are, according to the same authority, used as a medicine : r 
cattle by the people of Bengal. 

KAFFA, called also Feo^losia, is a town built on iL.- 
south-eastern shores of the Crimea, in 43° 2' N. lau a: u 
36° 20' £. long., on a wide open bay, which is more th..>. 
twenty miles across. The town stands on the most we^ic::. 
angle of this bay, and its harbour is protected by a projeci j. :. 
cape. In antient times the town was called Theodosiu, ;i . : 
was one of the towns of the Greek kingdom of the Bos;i»n.- 
[Bosporus.] According to the author of the * Peri plus of i.c 
Euxine' it was a Milesian colony. Its importance ap*^ o tr^ 
to date from the time of Leucon, the contemporary of IK- 
mosthenes, who made it a port, and gave certain advanin^. > 
to Athenian ships which came there for the purpose ^^\ 
carrying grain back to Athens. According to the atith 
of the Per ipl us (who probably lived in the second cent urv 
of the Christian sera), it was then called Ardauda in tl.o 
Alan or Tauric dialect, which name signifies 'the so\l.i 
gods.* 

In the middle ages it seems to Lave been a consideral V- 
place, but especially so between the twelfth and fourtecrth 
centuries, when.it was in possession of the Genoese, w'u* 
carried on a considerable commerce with India through Por 
sia from this town. In 1474 it was taken fiom ihe Genoi ><^ 
by the Turks, but still continued a considerable place, tho vi ^ \ 
its population had decreased from 80,000, which it is slut*. I 
to have had when the commerce of the Genoese was ui^<^: 
flourishing, to 20,000 individuals. The wars which ilu» 
Russians, in the latter half of the last century, carried 0:1 
in these part8> ruined KaSa, and still more the emigrations 



K A L 



172 



K A L 



^ AnalrsiB by Steininan :— 

Phosphoric acid • 

Fluoric acid and wate; j^.^ 

Peroxide of iron • » 
Alumina • • 

Silica • • • 

lime • • . • 



17*86 
25-95 
36-82 
10-01 
8*90 
0-15 

99-69 



KALENDAR, a register or distribution of the year, ac- 
commodated to the uses of life ; containing the order of days, 
weeks, months, festivals, &c., as they occur in the course 
of the year. It is so called from the kalenda*, or Kalends, 
which among the Romans denoted the first day of every 
month. The kalendar, being of civil institution, varies ac- 
cording to the different distributions of time in different 
countries. Those which we shall take more particular 
notice of are, the Roman, the Julian, the Gregorian, and 
the Reformed Kalendar: a slight mention of the others 
will be sufficient. 

Romulus, according to tradition, formed what is deemed 
the original Roman kalendar, by which the year was di- 
vided into ten months only, consisting of an unequal number 
of days, and began with March. The total number of days 
was 304. It was however soon discovered that the civil 
year, as thus constituted, was much shorter than the solar 
year. Romulus therefore added two intercalary months to 
every year ; but these months were not inserted in the ka- 
lendar, nor were any names assigned to them until the 
following reign. Some Roman antiquarians maintained 
that the old kalendar continued in use till the time of Tar- 
quinius Priscus. 

Numa, in imitation of the Greeks, divided the year into 
twelve months, according to the course of the moon, con- 
sisting in all of 354 days: according to Pliny {Hist, Nat. 
3LXxiv. 7), he afterwards added one day more to make the 
number odd, which was thought a more fortunate number. 
But as ten days, five hours, fbrty-nine minutes (or rather 
forty-eight minutes fifty-eight seconds) were wanting to make 
the lunar year correspond to the course of the sun, he in- 
tercalated every other year an extraordinary month, called 
Mensis intercalaris^ or MercedonicttSt between the 23rd 
and 24th of February. This month appears to have con- 
sisted alternatelv of 22 and 23 days during periods of 22 
years, the last biennium in the 22 years being entirely 
passed over. The intercalation of this month was left to 
the discretion of the pontifices, who, by inserting more or 
fewer days, used to make the current year longer or shorter, 
as was most convenient for themselves or their friends; 
for instance, that a magistrate might sooner or later resign 
hU office, or contractors for the revenue have longer or 
shorter time to collect the taxes. In consequence of this 
licence the months were ti'antiposed from their proper sea- 
sons; the winter months carried back into autumn, and the 
autumnal into summer. Some critics are of opinion that 
there is a I'eference to this confusion in one of Ciceru*s 
letters to his friend Atticus (x. 1 7). 

Julius Csesar, when he had made himself master of the 
state, resolved to put an end to this disorder, by abolishing 
the use of the intercalations ; and for that purpose, ».c. 47, 
adjusted the year according to the course of the sun, and 
assigned to the months the number of days which they still 
contain. lie also added an intercalary day to February 
every four years. [Bissextile.] To make everything pro- 
ceed regularly, from the 1st of the ensuing January, he in- 
serted in the current year, besides the intercalary month of 
23 days, which fell into it, two extraordinary months be- 
tween November and December, the one of 33, the other 
of 34 days ; so that this year, which was called the last 
year of con/Wton, consisted of fifteen months, or 445 days. 
(Sueton., Vit, J, Ccef., c. 40.) These 67 days were inserted 
in order to sot the year right, which was 67 days in advance 
of the true time. 

All this was efTcctcd by the care and skill of Sosigcnes, 
an astronomer of Alexandria, whom Ccosur had brought to 
Rome for that purpose ; and a new kalendar was formed 
from his arrangement by Flavins, digested according to the 
order of the Roman festivals, and tnc old manner of com- 
puting the days by kalends, nones, and ides, which was 
iniblished and authorised by the dictator's edict. 

This is I ho Julia?} or Solar year, which continues in use 
to this day in all Christian countries, without any other 
\driation than that of the old and new style, which was 



oocftsioned by a regulation of Pope Gregory XIIi., a.d. 1 582, 
who, observing that the vernal eauinox, which at the tune 
of the council of Nice, a.d. 325, nad been on the 2lst o( 
March, then happened on the 10th, by the advice of astro- 
nomers caused ten days to be thrown out of the currtMtt 
year, between the 4Ch and 15th of October; and to mak*: 
the civil year for the future to agree with the real one, or 
with the annual revolution of the earth round the sun, or, 
as it was then expressed, with the annual motion of the 
sun in the ecliptic, which is completed in 365 days, 5 hour^. 
49 minutes, he ordained that every 1 00th year should not 
be leap-year; excepting the 400th; so that the difference 
will hardly amount to. a day in 7000 years, or, according to 
a more accurate computation of the length of the year, to a 
dayin 5200 yean. 

Tliis alteration of the style was immediately adopted in 
all Catholic countries; but not in Great Britain till t!ie 
year 1752, when eleven days were dropped between th» 
2nd and 14th of September, so that this month contain*:'! 
only nineteen days ; and thenceforth the new or refortnt") 
style was adoptea, as it had been before in the other oun 
tries of Europe. The same year also another alteration w.^ 
made in England, by which the legal year, which before 
had begun on the 25th of March, began upon the l>t «f 
January ; this alteration first took place on the 1st of JanM 
ar}', 1752. (See the Statute, 24 Geo. II., ch. 23.) By thi-* 
statute it was also enacted that the several years of our 
Lord 1800, 1900. 2100, 2200, 2300, or any hundreth year* 
of our Lord which shall happen in time to come, except only 
every fourth hundredth year of our Lord, whereof the yejr 
2000 shall be the first, shall not be deemed bissextile ur 
leap-years, but shall be considered aa common years, con- 
sisting of 365 days only; and that the years of our Lord 
2000, 2400, 2800, and every other fourth hundredth year of 
our Lord from the year 2000 inclusive, and also all other 
years of our Lord which, by the present computation, aa- 
considered bissextile or leap-years, shall, for the future be 
esteemed bissextile or leap-years, consisting of 366 day«: 
and that whereas according to the rule then in use for cal- 
culating Easter-day, that feast was fixed to the first Sunday 
after the first full moon next after the 21st of March ; and 
if the full moon happens on a Sunday, then Easter-day is 
the Sunday after; which rule had been adopted by the 
general council of Nice ; hut that as the metnod of com- 
puting the full moons then used in the church of England, 
and according to which the table to find Easter prefix^ed lo 
the book of Common Prayer is found, had become erroneous 
it was enacted that the said method should be discontinued, 
and that from and after the 2nd of September, 1 752, Ea&tfr- 
day and the other moveable and other feasts were hence- 
forward to be reckoned according to the kalendar tables 
and rules annexed to the act, and attached to the books of 
Common Prayer. 

It is not generally known that an effort was made to re- 
form the kalendar in England, as early as the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. On the 16th of March, 27 Eliz., ad. 
15S4-5. a bill was read the first time in the House of Lords, 
entitled * An Act giving Her Majesty authority to alter and 
new make a Kalendar according to the Kalendar use<1 m 
other Countries.' It was read a second time on the eiirh- 
teenth of that month, after which no notice occurs of ih. 
proposed measure. 

1 ho formation of the Hebreto kalendar is fixed by some 
to the same year as the council of Nice, a.d. 325 : othcn 
have placed it in the year 360 ; and others as late as a n. 
500. Lindo however assures us that the Mishiia compiled 
according to the Jewish account in the year ad. 141 proves 
that the kalendar as used by the Jews in its present form, 
with the intercalary month, was generally known and fol- 
lowed at that time. For further information upon the 
Jewish kalendar the reader may consult Dr. Adam Clarke* 
Commentary upon the Bible, and Lindo's Ji?/f f*A Calemiar. 

Two Ka/endars are in use in the hast : the Arabian, whii h 
is common to all the Mohammedan countries; and the 
Persian, the use of which is peculiar to that country. T];Ji 
last is founded on the Persian e^ra called * Yezdcgird." 

The last we shall mention is the French Bevoiulionart,' 
Kalendar, In September, 1793, the French nation resolved 
that the republic should form a new sera, and that a kalen^lar 
should be adopted on what were termed philosophical prin- 
ciples. The Convention therefore decreed, on the 24ih of 
November, 1793. that the common sera should be abolisL<.il 
in all civil aHiiirs* that the new French ora should co<u- 



K A M 



174 



X A M 



ttate. It has two churches, and a wooden hridge over the 
Yssel 723 feet long and 20 feet wide. The inhabitants 
amount to 8900: they manufacture great quantities of 
blankdts, plush, and felt; and carry on a salmon- fishery on 
the Yssel. The trade, which formerly was considerable, 
has declined in consequence of the port being much choked 
up with sand. The environs can be laid under water. 

KAMTCHATKA, a peninsula projecting from the north- 
eastern parts of Asia into the Pacific, in a direction nearly 
due south, lies between 61** and 63° N. lat., and between 
155° and 165° £. long. Its length is above 800 miles, and 
its width varies between 30 and 120 miles. Its area is 
stated to be about 86,000 square miles, or somewhat less 
than that of Great Britain. 

Its soutbern extremity. Cape Lopatka, is a low and narrow 
tongue of land (51° N. lat,), which however widens as it 
proceeds northward, and eradually rises into ^.mountains. 
The country south of 53° 5' is covered with hills and moun- 
tains, which are rocky and barren, and only in some incon- 
siderable valleys clothed with creeping cedar, and willow and 
stunted birch. At about 53° 5' N. lat. is a mountain- knot, 
whence issue two ranges, one running due north, and the 
other north-east. These ranges enclose the vale of the 
river Kamtchatka. The western range, which first runs 
nearly due north, declines afterwards to north-north-east, 
and in that direction traverses the whole length of the pen- 
insula, joining north of it the eastern branches of the 
Aldan Mountains. It does not appear to contain high sum- 
mits, and its mean elevation probably does not rise above 
the line of trees, which in this country is about 3000 feet 
above the sea. But the range running east of the river 
Kamtchatka is distinguished by several high summits, 
which are of volcanic origin, and most of them still active. 
The highest, from south to north, are the Awatchanskaja, 
which rises to about 9500 feet ; the Tolbatchinskaja, which 
attains 8346 feet ; the Kliootchewskaja, the highest of all, 
rising to 15,825 feet ; and the Shiwelutchkaja, wliose highest 
summit is 10,591 feet above the sea-level. These volcanoes 
constitute the northern extremity of that extensive series 
which encloses the eastern coast of Asia, and traversing 
the islands of Japan and the Philippines, probably has a 
connection with the other series of volcanoes which traverse 
the Sunda and Molucca islands from east to west. 

The mountains approach close to the eastern coast, which 
is composed of high rocks, rugged clifis, and bold promon- 
tories, forming numerous inlets, the entrances to which are 
blocked up by reefs of rocks. The mountains are mostly 
covered with trees, which grow to a considerable height to- 
wards the south, but diminish in size as we advance north- 
ward. Numerous rocks are scattered in the sea at a dis- 
tance of from one to three miles from the shores; some 
of them are only discernible by the breakers, while others 
tower up to a considerable height. The depth of the sea 
varies considerably and suddenly IVom 30 to 90 fathoms and 
more. Earthquakes are frequent, and sometimes very 
violent 

The western shores along the Sea of Okhotzk, or, as it is 
now frequently called, the Sea of Tarakai, north of the moun- 
tain-knot, are uniformly low and sandy to a distance of about 
25 or 30 miles inland. They produce only willow, alder, and 
mountain-ash, with some scattered patches of stunted 
birch, and towards the north they are almost entirely over- 
grown with rein-deer moss. The sea is shallow to a consi- 
aerable distance, and the soundings very regular. The 
small rivers which traverse this region have at their mouth 
not more than six feet at low water, with a considerable 
surf breaking on the sandy beach. 

The best part of the peninsula is the vale of the Kamt- 
chatka river, which towards its southern extremity is 40 
miles across, but grows narrower as it proceeds northward. 
Its length is 180 miles. Its soil is deep and rich, composed 
of a black earth, and exhibits a considerable degree of 
fcrlility. 

Among the rivers, only the Kamtchatka requires notice. 
It rises on the northern declivity of the mountain-knot, 
runs in general in a northern direction through the vale, 
but at Nishnei Kamtchatka, where it approaches its 
northern extremity, it turns east, and empties itself in a 
large but shallow bay, which is only eight feet deep at high 
water, and in which the breakers are very violent when an 
easterly wind blows. It (lows about 300 miles, and is the 
only navigable rivi»r in the peninsula. 

The climate of Kamtchatka, when compared with that of 



« 
Europe under the same latitude, is very severe, but it i< 
much milder than the eastern districts of Siberia. Ti • 
frost sets in about the 1 0th of October, but up to the mid ; 
of December the thermometer commonly varies between :;./ 
and 27° Fahr. During the following months it averago h >. 
tween 1 4° and 20°. In very severe frost it descends to — 1 0' an 1 
~15*, and sometimes, though rarely, to— 25^ On the scd- 
coast vegetation does not begin bemre the end of April, {•y. 
in the vale of the Kamtchatka, which is sheltered un -i ' 
sides by mountains, it begins at the end of March. Rain :s 
frequent in summer, and in winter a great deal of snow fill- 
Agriculture was introduced more than 80 years a^o. I . 
some places on the western coast, but more extensively . . 
the vale of the Kamtchatka river, rye, barley, buck-wlv x\ 
potatoes, white cabbages, turnips, radishes, and cucumbtr- 
are grown, but these articles are only cultivated by u. 
Russian settlers. The number of horses and cattle is on t! • 
increase. The natives formerly lived chiefly on the proJ'j 
of the chace, by hunting bears, wild sheep, or argalU, ^^ . 
rein-deer, ermines, black, red and stone foxes, wolv- 
sables, sea-otters, and fish otters; but since the nunJ . 
of these animals has considerably decreased, their t...i 
and industry are employed in fishing. In no part of t.. 
globe is fish more abundant The natives scarcely k:> 
any other kind of food, and the bears and dogs, wolve-^ 3. . 
foxes, sea-otters and seals, water-fowl and birds of pre\ :' 
various sorts, all feed upon fish. The most numerous kr 1 
are herrings, salmon, and cod. Wild-fowl, especially f:^ ^ 
and ducks, are very numerous and easily taken, as also :< 
fowl, some species of which are eaten ; but their eggs aie 
more importance to the inhabitants, of which whole b; .' - 
full are easily collected. Poultry is very scarce on ace ',..• 
of the dogs, who devour the fowls wherever they find tl^.- 
Whales are numerous, but they are not taken. 

The forests, which cover the eastern chain, contain in .- 
fine timber-trees, which are little used, but might br* . r i 
ployed in ship-building. These forests contain chiefly bi; 
larch, fir, and cedar pine (pinus cembra). The mine. 
wealth is little known : in some places there is iro!!-. - 
and sulphur in immense beds is found in the viciuit) . 
the volcanoes. 

Two native tribes inhabit the peninsula, the Karatrl. 
dales and the Koriakes, the former occupying the pen in- • 
as far as 58° N. lat. The Koriakes wander through ' 
country north of that of the Kamtcbadales. It is not . 
tain whether both tribes belong to the same rare of m 
but the difference in their features is not great, i - 
Kamtcbadales are short, but stout, and broad in the sh :. 
ders. Their head is large, their face flat and broad, i^ 
cheek-bones are prominent, their lips tliin and their ii. ■ 
flattened. Their hair is black, hard and lank, their t^, 
sunk in the head, and their legs thin. They endenily 1 . 
long to the Mongol race. The Koriakes are prinri\ . 
distinguished from them by the smallness of their bt .. : 
Both nations differ in language and in mode of life. 1 
Kamtcbadales are huntsmen and fishermen, have fixt i i. 
bitations, and use dogs to draw their sledges in ymu: . 
The Koriakes are a wandering tribe, subsisting on the j : 
duce of their numerous herds of rein-deer, of which i • 
richer among them frequently possess several thoii>A:. '. , 
and their sledges are drawn by these animals. Thjs \ - - 
mentioned tribe is scattered over a considerable part of ■ : 
country between the Sea of Okhotzk and the Polar ."^ 
The whole population of the peninsula is state<l n. t ♦ 
exceed 5000 souls, but it seems that the wandering Kona .« 
are not included in this estimate. The number of Ru"^> . 
settlers and their descendants is said to amount to I4(> 
few Cossacks included. The remainder are Kamtcliarl .. 
The principal place is now P6tropaulovski, built on •. 
extensive bay [Awatska Bay], with about 600 inhabit.! • 
Nishnei Kamtchatka, on the river Kamtchatka, fonuo 
the residence of the governor, hardly contains more t: 
100 inhabitants. Bolcheresk has a'small harbour on t^ 
western coast, and about 200 inhabitants. 

The commerce of Kamtchatka is inconsiderable. It - 
ports only the furs of several animals which are taken 
the natives, and imports several articles of food, esjxv .. 
flour, and of luxury, as whiskey, &c. But during xhv : 
century it acquired a greater importance by becominir - 
place whence the Russo- American Company sent vcv>. .. 
the north-west coast of America for the purpose of pn»c' r. 
furs and skins of several wild animals, which pass i- 
Kamtchatka to Okhotzk and thence to Ktachta. Since ; 



I 

r 
I 

r 

9 

B 

n 



KAN 



176 



KAN 



itself, it is left doubtful and undetermined whether it is 
anything actual or not, notwithstanding that Kant ascribes 
to phenomena themselves a certain objectivity or reality, 
on the ground that from their constancy and regularity they 
cannot be a mere semblance or illusion of the senses. On 
this account his theory has been called a transcendental 
idealism, as being in nowise inconsistent with that system 
of empirical realism which by our conduct in life we prac- 
tically maintain. 

Transcendental logic is divided into analytic and dialec- 
tic, of which the former is the critic, or investigation of the 
understanding, as the faculty of notions ; the latter, of the 
reason, as the faculty of iaeas. In the analytic we are 
taught that it is only when objects have been conceived by 
the understanding agreeably to its laws, that thev can be- 
come an object of knowledge. The operations of the under- 
standing are con0ned to analysis and synthesis, where how- 
ever every analysis presupposes a synthesis. A combina- 
tion of the multiple mto unity constitutes a notion (begriff), 
and the understanding is therefore the faculty of notions. 
The law of the forms of these notions, irrespective of their 
contents, is investigated by logic in general, whereas the 
investigation of these notions in reference to their contents 
is the proper office of transcendental logic. Notions are 
either pure or empirical : the former indicating merely the 
nature and the manner of their combination ; the latter, the 
multiple matter presented by experience. Both are equally 
necessary to knowledge, for the pure notion is an empty 
thing apart ftom the representations, and the latter without 
the former are blind {Kritik d. rein, Vern, p. 55). As sensa- 
tion only receives matter upon the affection of the senses, 
it is a mere receptivity, whereas the understanding, which 
subsumes the given multiple into unity, is a spontaneity. 
The consciousness of the individual in this multiplicity is 
effected by the imagination, which combines them into a 
whole ; whereas the unity, by which the multiplicity, as sen- 
suously perceived, is recognised as an object, is a work of 
the understanding. Now this unity constitutes the form of 
the notion, which therefore is the peculiar creation of the 
understanding. As these forms are different, a complete 
enumeration of them conformable to some stable principle 
is necessary in order to a discovery of the laws of knowleoge 
by the understanding. Now all the primary modes of the 
operations of the understanding, whereby objective unity is 
imparted to the perceived matter, may be reduced to one of 
these four: quantity, quality, relation, and modality. These, 
with their subordinates^ Kant denominates categories after 
Aristotle, as determining in and by themselves what in 
general and antecedently (d priori) may be predicated of 
objects. 

The three categories of quantity are unity, multitude, and 
totality; those of quality, reality, negation, and limitation. 
Those of relation are double and are paired together, as sub- 
stance and accident, cause and effect, action and re-action. 
Lastly, the subordinates of modality are possibility, existence, 
and necessity. 

The process by which these 12 categories, or pure notions 
of the understanding, are combined with space and time, 
the pure intuitions of sensation, and thereby presented to 
knowledge in their possible application to the objects of 
sense, Kant calls schematism (<tx»im«''«*^moc). For instance, 
the notion of substance is said to be schematised, when it 
is not conceived of absolutely as a self-subsisting thing, but 
as one which persists in time, and therefore as a constant 
and persisting substrate of certain variable qualities or de 
terminations. Notions thus rendered sensible are called 
schematised, in opposition to the pure categories. In this 
process the imagination co-operates with the understand- 
ing, and its action is original and necessary, since its activity 
is inseparably bound up with the primary images of spruce 
and time. Out of this schematism of notions and the judg- 
ments which arise from their combination, the grand prin- 
ciples which regulate the operations of the understanding 
result These judgments are either analytical or synthe- 
tical. The grand principle of the former in which identity 
affords the connexion between the subject and t)ie pre- 
dicate, is the principle of contradiction. The mere absence 
however of contradiction is not sufficient to legitimate the 
object matter of any proposition, since there may easily be a 
synthesis of notions which is not groanded in objects, not- 
withstanding that it is not inconsistent to conceive. In 
synthetic judgments, on the other i and, we go beyond the 
notion which forms the subject, aiid we oscribo to it a pre- 



^1- 

IV 



dicate, the connexion of which with the ^ubjtet ioe« not 
appear immediately from the judgment itself. The po> 
bility of this synthesis implies a medium on which it n. 
rest, and this is the unity of tlie synthesis in truth a pri.., ,. 
The following is the ultimate principle of synthetic ]vAj- 
ments: — All objects are subject to the necessary condiii.:.^ 
of the synthetic unity of the multiple objects of intiim :. 
in a possible experience. As this unity is established nr-. 
cording to the table of categories, there must be as ma:.i 
pure synthetic principles as categories, and the diflrroi : 
characters of their application must depend upon the diH- r 
en t characters of the latter. These are either maihctm:.- 
cal, and relate to the possibility of intuition, or dynams. : . 
and relate to the existence of phenomena. Accordm^ 
the principles of the understanding are, relatively to tl^ r 
use, either mathematical or dynamical. The former -c 
unconditionally necessary, since the possibility of intuit i n 
depends upon them ; the latter only conditionally neces arv. 
for so far as concerns the existence of phenomena, vilnh 
for a possible experience is contingent, they imply tlie ri. .- 
dition of empirical thought, notwithstanding that in tik r 
application to it they invariably maintain their d pn.n 
necessity. 

By these principles of the pure understanding the pc?^ - 
bility of mathematics and of a pure science of nature n ".v 
be fully and satisfactorily explained. The matter of xmc.\)^- 
niatics is the multiple object of space and time, whicii ur.* 
given as the forms of a priori intuition. This multi; . 
matter is elaborated by the understanding aocordir^ to tJi • 
rules of logic, and as the phenomena must be in accord ji.»\' 
with the conditions of space and time, or the forms ui.ul: 
which they are intuitively viewed, i.e, the relations of spaco 
and time must be discoverable in phenomena tbemsehe^. 
The possibility of mathematics therefore rests simply o:! 
this, that objects cannot be conceived of except in space ar.-i 
time, from which however it follows at the sa:ne time thli 
mathematics do not admit of application bfjyond the sphr-c 
of sensible phenomena. The pure science of nature like 
wise cannot have any other object than the system of i 
priori laws. It is only under the forms of sensation that i:. 
dividual objects can be intuitively viewed, and their mun .. 
connexion cannot be thought of otherwise than under ir. 
forms of the undersUnding. If then the system of pber, - 
mena are to be an object of knowledge, they must cori t - 
spend to the pure synthetical principles of the understar: • 
ing, and it is only by these a priori laws that a science : 
nature is possible. But the principles of this pure srur. • 
of nature do not admit of being applied beyond the dotu . i 
of experience. 

The important result of the transcendental logic is t!. t 
the operations of the understanding are only legitimate ;:■ 
reference to experience, and that consequently the use .' 
the understanding is empirical, and not transcendental. 1 
would be the latter if it could apply itself to objects i ; 
as phenomena merely, but as things absolutely. But m.- : 
a tjse of tl.e understanding is obviously invalid, sinco i. .- 
objective matter of a notion, or begriff, is given by intuit ■, 
alone, and it is only by means of the empirical that t: • 
pure intuition itself comes to the object of which it is :i • 
form. These forms are simply representations of the ub i 
according as it conceived under them. To the subsu'/i't* . 
of an object under a category, a schema, • time,' is indi-NTn : • 
able, and, apart from all sensation, this schema itsell" d ■ » 
not subsist; and the subsumtion, or arrangement of .i: 
object under the categories, is impossible. There maj- •.;., 
doubtedly be a logical use of the categories beyond ti. 
domain of experience, but this, notwithstanding that it 1. .. 
its ground in the nature of human reason, is either alt oge; 1:. r 
idle, or else involved in contradictions (antinomic) whiol. 
the transcendental dialectic investigates. 

But besides phenomena there are other objects pre^tut, 
to the understanding, by a non-sensuous intuition of \vK . 
consequently it can take cognisance. These Kant i;\ - 
noumena (vovfitva). The distinction between nounn 
and phenomena docs not consist merely in a logical diif. . 
ence of the greater or less distinctness of their cognoscibii.u . 
but in a specific difference of the objects themselves, iv 
noumenon is not the thing in and by iUelf, for the this , 
in and by itself becomes evanescent for knowledge u^H r 
conceived of independently of all sensuous forms. Nf\ t . 
thelessas experience invariably refers back tosomcth.. 
independent of and prior to sensation, the noumenon n . 
be considered as an object which is presented to the umli.i:- 



JC E A 



178 



K E A 



of the most eminent writers that Russia has yet produced, 
and the one to whom its literature is mainly indebted for the 
popularity it has acquired, and the rapid progress it has 
made since the cummencement of the present century, was 
born in the government of Simbirsk, December 1st, 1765. 
Having completed his education at Moscow, he served with 
a cum mission in the Guards, and in 1789-91 visited Ger- 
many, Switzerland, Italy, France, and England, which tour 
he has described in his * Letters of a Travelling Russian,' 
of which there exists an English translation, or rather a copy 
of the German one. On his return to Moscow he devoted 
himself entirely to literature, one of his first undertakings 
being the * Moscow Journal,' which was succeeded by 
• Aglaia,' the ' Pantheon,' and the • Vcestnik Europee,' or 
European Intelligencer (1802). Besides various narratives 
and other papers, both original and translated, these pub- 
lications contained many articles of criticism by him, and 
were well calculated to promote a love of reading among 
all classes of his countrymen. These however were com- 
paratively insignificant prMuctions, chiefly remarkable for 
careful polish and correctUuris of style. The great work to 
which he entirely devoted himself from 1803 to the very 
time of his death, is his * History of the Russian Empire,' 
which however he did not live to complete beyond the 
eleventh volume. This laborious task, which may in more 
senses than one be said to be the very first historical work 
in Russian literature, is a monumei\t both of diligence and 
genius. The labour of collecting and arranging the vast 
mass of materials requisite for it must have been immense, 
vet never was historian more liberally repaid Sy the enthu- 
siasm with which his work was instantly received. Its sale 
and popularity were unprecedented; it was to be seen 
everywhere, in the hut of the peasant and the palace of the 
noble ; and no wonder, for in spite of. all the imperfections 
that the utmost rigour of criticism has been able to allege 
against it, it is most captivating and interesting to all who 
are capable of perusing it in the original, whether foreigners 
or natives. It has been translated both into German and 
French, but with what degree of fidelity or ability we are 
unable to state. The first edition, comprising the first eight 
volumes (1816), produced him the sum of 100,000 rubles, 
also the title of counsellor of state, and the order of St. 
Anne, which were bestowed on him by the emperor 
Alexander. 

After his death the twelfth volume, then nearly prepared 
m manuscript (bringing the history down to 1611), was 
edited by M. Bludov, minister of the interior. Since then a 
continuation of the work has been undertaken. Karamsin 
died in the Tauridan palace, where apartments had been 
assigned him, June 3rd, 1826. The emperor munificently 
bestowed on his widow and family a yearly pension of 50,000 
rubles. 

His merits and celebrity as an historian and a prose writer 
have so completely eclipsed his reputation as a poet, that he 
is scarcely ever considered in that character, notwithstand- 
ing that his poetical pieces are not without their value. In 
his private character he was amiable, noble, liberal, and dis- 
interested; and an interesting sketch of his domestic habits 
has been given by Bulgarin m a piece entitled ' My First 
Acquaintance with Karamzin,* an English translation of 
which has appeared in the ' Old Monthly Magazine.' 

KARPHOLITE, a mineral which occurs in minute 
crystals and in stellated silky fibres. Scratches fluor spar, 
and is scratched by felspar; colour wax or straw yellow. 
Lustre of the crystals vitreous ; of the fibres silky. Specific 
gravity 2 "93. 

Before the blowpipe on charcoal fuses into a dark glass, 
which becomes darker in the interior flame. With borax it 
melts into a transparent glass, which in the exterior flame 
has a manganese colour, and in the interior becomes 
greenish. 

Analysis by 



,^ 


StromefSi. 


Steinman. 


SiUca 


• 36-154 


37-53 


Alumina . • 


28-669 


26*48 


Oxide of manganese • 


• 19-160 


17-09 


Oxide of iron 


2-290 


, 6-64 


Lime • • 


0-271 


1 

• • 


Fluoric acid • • 


1-470 


• • 


Water 


10-780 


U'36 



98*794 



96*10 



'KARPHOSIDERITE, hydrous phosphaie of iron, oc- 
curs in reniform masses. Structure granular, compact ; 
fracture uneven ; hardness 4-0 to 4*5 ; specific gravity 2 5 ; 
colour pale and bright straw yellow, ana streak the same ; 
lustre resinous; feels greasy; opaque: when heated in a 
tube gives off water, and a vapour which reddens litmus 
paper. 

before the blowpipe, per m, it becomes black, and meltn 
into a globule which obeys the magnet ; with salt of phos- 
phorus, it forms a black scoria. It is found at Labrador. 

KARTLI. [Georgia.] 

KASAN. [Casan.] 

KATMANDU. [Nkpaul.] 

KATTI. [Hindustan, p. 221.] 

KEATS, JOHN, was bom in Moorflelds, London, in the 
year 1 796. He received a classical education at Enfield^ under 
Mr. Clarke, and was afterwards apprenticed to a surge^jn. 
Mr. Clarke introduced him to Mr. Leigh Hunt, who is sa 1 
to have introduced him to public notice. In 1817 he pub- 
lished a volume containing his juvenile poems, and shuiily 
afterwards his long poem ' Enaymion,' which called forth a 
violent attack from the 'Quarterly Review.* Keats was of 
a remarkably sensitive disposition: his constitution vai 
weak, and greatly impaired dv the attentions which he t)e- 
stowed on a dying brother, ana his death has been attributfvl 
to the shock which he received from the article in the * Qurir- 
terly.* Lord Byron seems to have believed this, and in l.^ 

* Don Juan' alludes to the circumstance, concluding wiiL 
the reflection : — 

' Til very itntnge. tha mind, that flety pvtiete, 
I, Should let Uaelfbo tDufred out by an erticle.* 

To recover his health, Keats travelled to Rome, where 
he died on the 24th of February^ 1821, hftving previou^ly 
published a third volume of poems, containing * Lamia/ 

* Isabella,' * The Eve of St Agnes,' and * H^non.' 

The poetry of Keats is of an exceedingly nch and luxuri- 
ant character, and his writings so crowd^ with images, that 
it at last becomes almost fiitiguing to apprehend them. It 
seems as if his imagination were of that vdatile nature 
which must start off to every idea associated with his sub- 
ject, and embody it as a part of the whole. Htmce the 
reader must put himself in the place of the poet, and allow 
his own imagination to fly from thought to tnooght, or tht> 
work will seem but a compound of wild unconnected pic- 
tures. The article in the * Quarterly' observed, that he in- 
troduced many images merely for uie sake of rhyme, and 
this remark is notwboUy unjust He did not however, like 
many poets, merely write some common-plaoe epithet or 
sentence for the sake of rhyme ; but it seems as if his mia* 
gination was so fertile, that a chiming word brought with it 
a new image suitable to his purpose. Some have thou^'»t 
that time would have matured his judgment and h&ve im- 
proved him, but this is doubtfril; the wild tnmsitioii fn.a 
thought to thought is the essence of his poetry, and not a 
mere accident^ and a cool inquiry into the ap tn e ss or con- 
nection of his images trould rather have injured him as a 
poet than have been of advantage. 

To elucidate the above remarks, a passage is selected by 
way of example : — 

' OK I miigic ileep— oh I eomfort&ble bird. 
Th&t broodett o^er the troubM tea of the mind 
Till it b httsta*d uid tmoothMI Oh ! moonfliitA ' 
RettraJntl Impriton'd Ubeitv I GnatlMjr 
To golden palacet. stxange mlnttrelgy, 
Pbantaint grotetque. new treet. bafpuifM MVMy 
Behoing grottoet, ftdl of tnmbUag v«vw 
And moonlight ; aya, to «U the muj vorld 
Of lUvery enchantment !* 

The poet begins by representing sleep under the figure ot 
the biid brooding over the mind, and, still heving the idri, 
of comfort associated with that of sleep, does not hesitate 
to give the bird the dubious epithet ' comfortable.' The. 
suddenly dropping sleep as an active power (the brooehr:fr 
bird), be takes it as a state, and finds the paradoxical ex- 
pressions 'unconfined restraint,' ' imprison'd liberty.' Tt;c 
word liberty gives rise to the question * liberty for what *" 
The answer is, ' to roam in the world of dreams ;' and th * 
fertile ima^ation of Keats at once converts sleeo into x 
key which is to open the gate leading to that worlo. The 
above is a fair specimen of the richness and wild luxuriance 
of Keats's poetry, and the tendency of his mind to dart in 
all directions for images. 

The article in the * Quarterly ' dwelt loo much on tht 



KEN 



180 



KEN 



M 



Thomaa a Kempii composed some ascetic treatises, such 

' Dialogue Novitiorum de Contemptu Mundi«* &c.. but 
they are very inferior to the book * De Imitatione J. C 
He wrote also a Chronicle of his Monastery, and other com- 
pilations. He died in 1471, at ninety years of age. 

KEMPTEN (the antient Campodiinum). a town of Ba- 
varia, in the old duchy of Suabia, and the modem circle 
of the Upper Danube, on the bank of the liter, in 47° 
44' 40'' N. lat and lO** 18' 45" E. long. It is built in the 
old- fashioned style, and consists of two parts, that called 
the Siifts-stadt, or St Hildegard, which is situated on a 
mountain, and is an open town, and the antient free impe- 
rial city, which is in the valley. It has a castle, two 
churches, a gymnasium, with a library and collection of 
works of art, an hospital, and an orphan asylum. There are 
manufactures of cotton and linen, and considerable trade in 
furs, wool, salt, linen, Italian and Dutch goods. The an- 
tierU abbey was in the Stifts-stadt The Prince Abbot was 
among the estates of the Empire, high marshal to the em- 
press, was immediately under the pope, and possessed, with 
Ine district of Buchenberg, 326 square miles, 8 towns, 145 
villages, with 43,000 inhabitants, and a revenue of 300,000 
florins. The abbey and the town were assigned to Bavaria 
in 1802. The population of Kempten is about 7000. 

KENDAL. (Westmorland.] 

KENEH. [Egypt.] 

KENILWORTH. [Warwickshire.] 

KENNEBECK. [Maine.] 

KENNETT, WHITE, bom 1660, died 1728, distin- 
guished as a divine, antiquarian writer, and prelate of the 
Qiurch of England ; a man, as his biographer savs, ' of in- 
credible diligence and apulication, not only in his youth, 
but to the very last, the whole disposal of himself being to 
perpetual industry and service, his chiefest recreation being 
variety of employment.' His published works are, accord- 
ing to bis biographer's catalogue, in number fiftv-seven, 
including sevend single sermons and small tracts; but per- 
haps not a less striking proof of the indefatigable industry 
ascribed to him is to be seen in his manuscript collections, 
mostly in his own hand, nowiu theLansdowne department 
of the British Museum Library of Manuscripts, where from 
No. 935 to 1042 are all his, and most of them containing 
matter not incorporated in any of his printed works. 

His course in life was this : he was the son of a Kentish 
clergyman, educated at Westminster and Oxford, had the 
living of Amersden early bestowed upon him, with a pre- 
bend in the church of Peterborpugh, but returned to Ox- 
ford, where he became vice-principal of Edmund Hall, the 
college to which Hearne belonged ; resigned Amersden ; 
settled in London as minister of St. Botolph's, Aldgate ; 
was a popular preacher ; made archdeacon of Huntingdon, 
dean of Peterborough, and finally, in 1718, bishop of Pe- 
terborough. 

His principal published works are : — 1 . ' Parochial Anti< 
quities, attempto^l in the History of Ambrosden, Burcester, 
and other adjacent places in the counties of Oxford and 
Bucks,' 4to., 1695. This has been reprinted. In this work 
his very useful glossary is to be found. 2. 'The Case of 
Impropriations, &c., with an Appendix of Records and Me- 
morials,' 1704. 3. * A Register and Chronicle, Ecclesiasti- 
cal and Civil,' in two volumes folio, 1728; relating to the 
events of a few years of the reign of King Charles II. He 
also published a corrected edition of * The History of Ga- 
velkind,' by William Somner, to which he prefixed a life of 
that eminent Saxonist Most of his other works were 
either sermons or controversid tracts, manv of the latter 
being in ecclesiastical controversy, in which he was reckoned 
what is called a Low Churchman ; and having, previously 
lb the Revolution, taken the opposite side, he was often 
severelv handled by the other party. In particular, a ser- 
mon which he preached at the funeral of the first duke of 
Devonshire was severely animadverted upon, as if he gave 
too flattering a view of tho character of the deceased for the 
sincerity of a Christian divine. 

There is an octavo volume, published m 1 730, entitled 
* The Life of the Right Reverend Dr. White Kennett, late 
Lord Bishop of Peterborough,' from which the above par- 
ticulars have been derived. It is anonymous ; and as the 
fact is not generally known, it may not be improper to state 
that the auUior was William Newton, rector of Wingham 
in Kent. 

KENNIOOTT, BENJAMIN, was bom of humble pa- 
reots, at Totneat in Devonshire* April 4th, 1718. Being 



appointed roaster of a charity-school in his native town, be 
continued in this situation till 1744, when several of his 
friends raised a sufficient sum of monov to enable him to 

go to Oxford. He entered at Wadham CfoUege, and applied 
imself with the greatest diligence to the study of divmity 
and Hebrew. While he was an undereraduate he pUbliabe^ 
a work ' On the Tree of Life in Paradise, and on the Obla- 
tions of Cain and Abel,' which was so well received by the 
public that the university allowed him to take hia degree 
before the usual time, without the payment of the customary 
fees. He was elected a Fellow of Exeter College shortly 
afterwards, and took his degree of M.A. in 1750. He con- 
tinued to reside at Oxford till the time of his death, which 
happened September 1 8th, 1 783. He was a canon of Christ 
Church, and librarian of the Radclific Library, to which 
office he was appointed in 1767. 

The most celebrated of Kennieott's works is his edition of 
the ' Hebrew Bible,* which was published at Oxford in 
2 vols, fol., the first volume in 1776, and the second in 1780. 
In 1753, Dr. Kennicott published a work ' On the State of 
the Printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament,' wbieb 
was succeeded by another volume on the same aubjert in 
1 759. The first volume contained a comparison of 1 Chron. 
xi. with 2 Sam. v., xxiii., with observations on 70 Hebrew 
manuscripts, in which he maintained that numerous mis- 
takes ana interpolations had crept into the Sacred Test 
In the second he gave an account of numerous other ma- 
nuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, and proposed an extensiTe 
collation of Hebrew Manuscripts, witn the view of publish- 
ing a correct editbn of the Hebrew Bible. This undertake 
ing met with much opposition from several persons, who 
were afraid that such a collation might overturn the re- 
ceived reading of various important passages, and introduce 
uncertainty into the whole system of Biblical interpretalicm. 
The plan was however warmly patronized by the iraiontf 
of the clergy, and nearly 10,000/. were subscribed to defraj 
the expenses of the collation of the manuscripts and the 
publication of the work. Several learned men were em- 
ployed both at home and abroad, and more than 600 He- 
brew manuscripts, and 16 manuscripts of the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, were collated either wholly or in the more im- 
portant passages. The business of collation continued frotn 
1 760 to 1 769, during which period Dr. Kennicott published 
annually an account of the progress which • was made. 
Though the number of various readings was found fo be 
very great, yet they were neither so numerous nor by any 
means so important as those that are contained in Grin- 
bach's edition of the New Testament. But this is easilj 
accounted for from the revision of the Hebrew text by the 
Masorites in the seventh and eighth centuries* and from 
the scrupulous fldelitv with which the Jews have transcribe« 
the same text from that time. 

' The text of Kennieott's edition was printed from that df 
Van der Hooght, with which the Hebrew manuscript<i, b\ 
Kennieott's direction, were aN collated. But as variatioai 
in the points were disregarded in the collation, the points 
were not added in the text. The various readings, as in 
the critical editions of the Greek Testament, were printed 
at the bottom of the page, with references to the corres- 
ponding readings of the text In the Pentateuch the va> 
nations of the Samaritan text were printed in a column 
parallel to the Hebrew ; and the variations observable m 
the Samaritan manuscripts, which differ from each other as 
well as the Hebrew, are likewise noted, with references to 
the Samaritan printed text. To this collation of manu- 
scripU was added a collation of the most distinguished edt> 
tions of the Hebrew Bible, in the same manner as Wetstein 
has noticed the variations observable in the principal edi- 
tions of the Greek Testament. Nor did Kennicott confine 
his collation to manuscripts and editions. He ftinher con- 
sidered that as the quotations from the Greek Testament m 
the works of ecclesiastical writers afford another source c/ 
various readings, so the quotations from the Hebrew Bibk 
in the works of Jewish writers are likewise subjects of cri- 
tical inquiry. For this purpose he had recourse to the 
most distinguished among the Rabbinical writings, but 
particularlv to the Talmud, the text of which is as an- 
tient as the third century.' (Marsh's Divinity Lecture,, 
part ii.) 

Kennicott annexed to the second volume a * Dissertatio 
Generalis,' in which he gives an account of the manuscripts 
and other authorities collated for his work, and also a his- 
tory of the Hebrew text from the time of the BabyUmsao 



KEN 



182 



KEN 



fonns a line of biU% fmai the summit of vhidi 'Uiere 'is 
an extensive prospect The North Downs are interrupted 
between the border of the county and the Medway by the 
vallev bf the Darent On tfa^e eastern side of the Medway, 
which completely interrupts the chalk range, the Downs 
rise again, and run to the east>south-east to the coast near 
Folkestone, still presenting their steepest slope to the south. 
This part of the range also is divided into two parts by the 
valley of the Stour. On the north side the Downs gradually 
subside towards the nstuaryof the Thames. The coast line 
from Walmer to Folkestone shows a transvene section of 
this range. 

The breadth of the chalk formation, which thus extends 
through the county from west to east, varies ; west of the 
Stour it is from three miles to six ; east of the Stour it oc- 
cupies the whole extent of the county north of a line drawn 
from Folkestone to Wye, except where it is interrupted by 
the marshy valley which surrounds the Isle of Thanet. The 
height of the chalk hills is considerable. HoUingbourne 
station, about midway between the valleys of the Medway 
and the Stour, is 616 feet above the level of the sea; Pad- 
dlesworth hill, about three miles north-west of Folkestone, 
is 642 feet; Folkestone bill, on the coast near Folkestone, 
is 575 feet; and Dover Castle hill is 469 feet. The cliffs 
near Dover are about 400 feet h^h. The cliffs of the Isle 
of Thanet are also of chalk; those about the North Fore- 
land are from 100 to 200 feet high. 

The district between the chalk range and the mstuary of 
the Thames is, for the most part, occupied by the plastic 
day which immediately overlies the chalk. The tongue of 
land between the Medway and the Thames, including the 
Isle of Grain and the Isle of Sheppey, is formed of the 
London clay, which overlies the pUstio day. This forma- 
tion also occupies a considerable district north and north- 
west of Canterbury, extending to the shore between Whit- 
stable and Reculver, where (as well as in the Isle of 
Sheppey) it forms cliffs : tliose between Wliitstabie and Re- 
culver are in some places 70 feet high. The London clay 
also covets a small tract near Pegwell Bay. The hills of 
Sheppey, which are of London clay, rise to the height of 
200 6et, Shooters Hill, near Woolwich, which is an insu* 
lated masf of London clay, is about 446 feet high. 

In UkB vallevs of the Darent and its/eeder the Crav the 
strata above the chalk have been washed away, and the 
chalk is covered only by the vegetable soiL Another strip of 
chalk, denuded of the superior strata, runs along the 
bank of the Thames ftom the valley of the Darent to below 
Qravesend. 

South of the North Downs the chalk marl and green 
sand crop ou^ and cover a belt of land skirting the chalk 
throughout the whole extent of the county from west to 
east. The breadth of this belt varies from two miles to six 
or seven. Its southern slope, which is the steepest, forms 
what is designated ' the ragstone range ' of hiUs, the higher 
points of which are from 600 to 800 feet high, and overlook 
the valley watered by the Eden, the Medway (from Penshurst 
to Yalding), and the Beult The thickness of the chalk marl 
averages 300 to 400 feet; (^ that of the green sand we 
h&ve no account. 

The valley just referred to is occupied by the Weald clay, 
and forms another belt extending throughout the county 
from the border of Surrey to the edge of Romney Marsh, 
having an average breadth of five miles. The thickness of 
this formation may be estimated at about 300 feet. 

The remaining portion of the county, which forms a 
narrow belt or strip of land along the Sussex border, is 
occupied by the iron-sand, which forms the nucleus of the 

freat Weald district of the south-eastern part of England, 
his formation constitutes a range of hills, amid which the 
upper waters of the Medway and its tributary the Teyse 
have their sources ; and extends far into Sussex. It rises in 
some parts of the Weald clay district through the] overlying 
strata of that formation* 

The county thus appears, when viewed with reference to 
its geology, to consist of five parallel belts, extending nearly 
in the direction of its length, and occupickl by different 
formations, which succeed each other m regular order from 
north to south :— 1, The London and plastic clays ; 2, the 
chalk; 3, the chalk marl and green sand; 4, the Weald 
clay ; 5, the iron-sand. The southern border of the chalk 
and green-sand fcrmations, and the iron-sand district, form 
three parallel ranges of hills separated firom each other by 
IfaeHoBMadal^aad Weald cbiy valleys, the tomfir lying at 



the foot of the chalk liills^ and the latter of the ngitone o* 
green-sand hills. 

What is termed the Weald (Saxon pealb, a forest, ot 
perhaps generally, a wild uncultivated tract) was antieutt> 
an immense forest, inhabited only by deer and hogs. It 
has however been g^dually cleared and brought into cul- 
tivation. The iron-sand of this district was formerly mucii 
in request for the furnace and the forge; anfl the iron- 
works were numerous and important out the introdu<^ 
tion of coal in the manufacture of iron has caused tL:> 
branch of industry to be transferred to other parts of tha 
island where fiiel is more abundant. 

Beds of limestone occur in the green-sand formation, arid 
are quarried near Maidstone for common purposes of buiji 
ing, for road-making, and for burning into lime, which is 
used for stucco, or exported to the West Indies for refining 
sugar. 

Hydrography and Commumeaiums. — The northerQ 
boundary of the county is formed by the Thames, to tha 
basin of which nearly thejvhole coimty belongs. This river 
affords to that side of the county a ready means of com- 
munication with the metropolis and with other parts. Tiie 
royal dockyards of Deptfora and Woolwioh are upon it. 

The other principal rivers are the Ravensbome, the 
Darent, and the Medway, which flow into the sestuar)- of 
the Thames ; and the Stour, and the Rothcr* which, flow 
into the sea. 

The Ravensbome rises on Keston Ck>mQion, near the 
border of Surrey, and flows northward past the to«n A 
Bromley and the village of Lewisham, and between tlie 
towns of Greenwich and Deptford, into the Thames. It 
turns several mills, and supplies Greenwich and DeptfunJ 
with water by means of waterworks. It is navigable f.r 
nearly a mile up to Deptford bridge for lighters and otbt.i 
small craft The whole length of the Ravensbome is abuui 
ten miles. 

The Darent rises in Squxrries park, near Westeiham, ju«t 
under the North Downs, and close to the border of Surre>. 
Its course is first east-northrcast, parallel to the cour&e u'> 
the North Downs, to Riverhead near Sevenoaks, wher\: it 
turns north and passes through a depression in the Down^ 
by Otford, Shoreham, Farningham, and other village^ to 
the town of Dartford, below which it is called Dartf^rd 
Creek, and becoming navigable, flows through the marsbt-^ 
into the Thames. I& whole course is about twenty miles. 
for three of which it is navigable. Just before joining the 
Thames it receives the Cray, which rises near Orpingtun« 
and has a course of about nine miles. The Cray is Ha^d 
to produce the best trout of any stream in the neighbour* 
hood. 

The Medway rises in Sussex, near the northern border, 
between East Grinsted and Crawley, and flows eaatvani 
through that county into Kent, which it enters ncir 
Ashurst about five miles west of Tunbridge Wells. In tl. ., 
upper part of its course the Medway is swelled by ma:u 
brooks, which drain the higher districts of the Weald c: 
Sussex. At Penshurst, in Kent, the Medway is joined bv 
the Eden, one of its main branches, which rises about G^-: 
stone, in Surrey, and receives the drainaee of the vaiUv 
that separates the green -sand hills from the central irot.- 
sand high lands of the Weald. The Eden is about sixtei^i. 
miles long. The length of the Medway before it receives tr.c 
Eden may be estimated at eighteen miles. From Penahurs:. 
where the navigation of the river commences, it flows ea^t- 
north-east five miles to Tunbridge, forming in its way tw « 
or three islands. From Tunbridge the Medway flows eigl\^ 
miles east by north to Yalding, in the Weald, near which r. 
is joined by the Teyse or Teise and the Beult. The 1 o.^e 
rises in the northern part of Sussex, and flows by LaniW-r- 
hurst and between Horsmouden and Goudhurst into the M «. u 
way. Its length is about seventeen miles. 1 1 sends off an a r . . . 
which joins the Beult. This river rises in the Weald ol Ke : . 
not far from the foot of the iron-sand hills, near Shadoxliu : ^ . 
and flows north-by-west twenty miles to Yalding. The cc> w t :- 
of the Medway and of its principal feeder the Beult to tii. 
junction is in the direction of the valley of the Weakl ci. * 
of which thev receive the drainage, the Beult of the ca^u . 
and the Medway of the western part From Yalding ii > 
course of tl\p Medway, though very winding, is for the iu.> . 
part northward; it passes through an opening in the gr^t • < 
sand hills, across the prolongation of the valley of Holiu>- 
dale by Maidstone and Aylesford, through a great ow:^- 
ing in the North Downs, and hy Rochester aad Cbatbam^ 



K B N It 

bnt from Canterbury towards London it is mostly covered 
liy a stiff clfty, >nd only breaks out here and there on the 
Iwnksof the Thames. To the south of the regstone hills 
■re the Wealds, which contain some ^ery fertile clays and 
woods, in which oaks ^w to a great size. The soil in the 
Isle of Thanet is not naturally so fertile »s the appeaiance 
of the crops might lead one to suppose. It consists mostly 
of a thin light soil; but it has been so long improved by 
careful cultivation and abundant manuring, chiefly with 
sBB-need, that it may now be considered one of the most 
fertile spots in Great Britain. The subsoil is everywhere 
a hard chalk, over which there is in soma places a thin 
layer of earth mixed with flinty pebbles, not eicceeding 
six or eight inches in depth; in some of the hollows the 
■oil is deeper and more loamy, and so dry as to allow of its 
being ploughed (juile flat without any ridges or water- 
furrows. There is not an acre of waste laud in all the 
IsleofThanel. 

Throughout the whole county the clay may be said to 
predaminale.and the mode of cultivation generally adopted 
IS that whioh suits the strongest soils. The Kentish 
fermers and yeomen, though generally rich and independ- 
ent, ore not very ready to introduce improvements in the 
■vstero by which their forefathers were enriclied; and 
although a great quantity ot corn is annually raised in the 
'county, and ponlribules a p^at portion of the supply of the 
London market, it cannot be denied that this produce 
might be greatly increased, and raised at a less expense 
than it is now, by adopting improvements in the tillage of 
Ihe land and the implements in use. An old Keinish 



the land better. This is the very reason why improvements 
which have been introduced in less productive districts 
have made little or no progress in this county. In the 
year 1793, Mr. John Boys, vho drew up the general view 
of the county of Kent, being himselr a Kentish farmer, 
mentioned the heavy turn-wriiit plough, used almost uni- 
versally throughout Kent, as ' drawn by four horses on the 
lightest soils, and with six on all the sliffest ;' and at this 
day, nearly half a century later, the old heavy turn-wrist 
plough is still used with four horses in soils where a good 
plough of an improved form would readily do the same 
work with two. 

The Kentish turn-wrist ploui;h consists of a beam ten 
feet long. Ave inches deep, and four broad, behind which is 
a foot Ave inches by three and a halt and three and a half 
feet long, on the top of which the handles are fixed. 
Through the beam, at two feet Ave inches from the fool, 
is a sheath of oak seven inches wide and one and a half 
thick, which is morliced into the chep in an oblique direo- 
tkm, so that the point of the share is twenty-two inches 
diitant from the beam. The chep, to which the share is 
fixed, is Ave feet long, four inches wide, and five inches 
deep. The share is of hammered iron, weighs about 321b., 
is twenty inches long;, and tVom four and a half to seven 
inches wide at the point. The upper end of the beam rests 
«n a carriage with two wheels three feet two inches high : 
«n the axlelree is a gallows, on which Is a sliding bolster to 
let it up and down. Through Ihe centre of the axle ia a 
«hup-iron, to which is fixed a strong chain called a tow. 
This comes over the beam, and. by lengtliening it, the beam 
ia let out a greater length from the axle, and thus tlte 



Tuts-wrlU PkHgh. 



plough goes to a greater depth in the ground ; by ahortening 
K the re\-aTse takes plr- 
W«do 



a to ^sparage this plough for b«t^ soils. 



4 KEN 

nor doubt the necessity of its being drawn by Ibur horMs 
in some very stiff clays; but it mignt be greatly improved, 
and the draught diminished, so as to save at least one hortc 
in four. In clay soils, which are retentive of water, it i, 
always advantageous to lay the land in slitchea with dii'|. 
water-furrows between them; and for this purpose ili>: 
Suffolk or the Scotch ploughs with a fixed tum-furrov a- e 
much better adapted than the turn-wrist 

On the soils in the Isle of Thanet. where wheat and Warn 
are raised alternately without fallow or intermission, liu! 
practice is good, and, if effected at a moderate expense, m 
not to be found fault with. The ground is well stirred and 
amply manured far the beans, wnich are drilled in rust 
witn wide intervslii, and repeatedly horae-boed till the rr< p 
is too far advanced to admit of it. The returns cannot fa ij 
to be good. The bean stubble is cleared of the stems mi 
roots of the beans by a plough with a very broad fcharf. 
which effects a perfect hoeing and leaves the surftice quL^' 
clean. A deep ploughing is tben given for the wheat. Vie 
cannot suggest any improvement in this practice, unless it 
be in the economy of tne labour. But such soils arc very 
scarce, and much of the Kentish clays and loams rousi l>; 
cultivated with a greater variety of crops. There is roon. 
here for improvement, both in the rotations and m itie 
manner in which each crop is raised; and the Kenti-ii 
farmer might find it profitable to adopt some of the methm^i 
which experience has fully proved to be advantageous .n 
soils and situations not so well edapt&l to them as mint 
parts of Kent are. Ajoumey through llenortbem counties 
of England and the south of Scotland wo Jid give the younK 
Kentish farmer some useful hints, and would remove &om? 
preiudices which impede his nrogiesa in agriculture. 

Betides the usual crops woich are raised on good clav.. 
Kent produces several which are peculiar to it, such -^ 
canary and radish seed, which grow chiefly in the Iile vt 
Thanet, where there are few hedgerows to harbour bird^ 
whirb are very destructive to these crops. The canart 
seed is cut in September, and is left for some time in itx' 
field until it Is fit to be thrashed; for the seed adber«s k> 
strongly to the husk that it requires the influence of ri r. 
and exposure to the weather for some lime to destroy :\:- 
texture of the envelopment before it can be separated : or I 
it suffers vary little from this exposure. The produ^^ j 
from three to Ave quarters per acre, and is chiefly ustd ti 
feed birds kept in cages, and for this purpose is largely im- 
ported. The offal is very good food for hortea. Rad.-h 
seed is also cultivated in lAe richer soils for the Lond :. 
seedsmen. It is sown in drills and carefully hood, bo as i . I 
leave the plants eighteen inches asunder. The pods, vi b^.. 
ripe, reauire to be left long in the field before Ihe seed i .->!. 
be thrashed out. Tbeproduce is from eight to twent)-f.:r I 
bushels per acre. The demand for this seed is verj- grti: 
evey garden, however small, has a bed of radishes, and iis 
gardeners think it worth while to save the seed. 

Other seeds are likewise raised for the London seedsuici, ' 
such as spinach, cresses, and white mustard. Kidney bra - I 
are cultivated to a considerable amount in the neiglibuvr- 
hood of Sandwich, and produce from ten to twenty bu^Iii'- 
per acre. | 

Woad and madder were formerly more commonly cl1^ - \ 
vated in Kent than they are now j the foreign, being rai? 
at a less expense, have driven the Kentish out of t 
market. With a greater attention to the management 
these valuable crops, they might probably slill be rai- 
advantageously; but everything which is done in Vcm 
done in a more expensive manner than i 
countries ; a great proof of the easy c 
farmers and landowners there. 

There is coranaratiTely a rery small proportion ofgra.'! 
land in Kent, if we except the sheep downs on the cha\ 
hilla and the marshes. The marshes produoa most >f 
the liay consumed in winter. Romney Marsh, which .h 
well known for the richness of its grass, contains ab^ul 
44,000 acres; on the border* of the Slour are 27,(100 : at 1 
along the Medway, Thames, and Swale, about ll.SOO mur?, 
A great many sheep are reared and fattened in thi*i 
marshes. The cattle fed there are only a secondary cor- ■ 
deration, sheep being found more profitable. The quani::-.! 
of sheep which the land will keep varies from two to e- i 
per acre ; sometimes the grass grows faster than the t\o--t 
can consume, and becomes too rank, a circumstance «h 
is owing to want of attention in stocking and is del. 
mental Lean cattle are then taken in to eu it cIomi 






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186 



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the parishes of Birchington» St. Peters, and Wood, or 
Woodchurch, in Thanet; the town and part of the parish of 
Folkestone, in Shepway Lathe ; and tne town and part of 
the parish of Faversham, in Scray Lathe. All these, except 
Paversham and Folkestone, are in St. Aui^ustine Lathe : 3. 
Hythe, including the town and parish of Hythe, and part 
of the parish of West Hythe, in Shepway Lathe : 4. New 
Romney, including the town and parish of New Romney, 
part of the parishes of Old Romney, Appledore (in Scray 
Lathe), Brenzet, Ivechurch or Ivychurch, Snargat« and 
part of Bromhill, all near Romney, and, except Appledore, 
in Shepway Lathe : 5. Rye, the Uherty of which includes 
in this county the town of Tenterden, in the Lathe of Scray. 
fCiNQUE- Ports.] 

The Liberty of Hastings formerly included in this Qounty 
the parish of Beaksbourn, near Canterbury (St Augustine 
Lathe), and the hamlet or ville of Grange, or Grench, in 
Gillingham parish, near Chatham, in Aylesford Lathe: but 
these were separated from it by the statute 51 Geo. III., c. 
36. 

Several other places, though not out of the jurisdiction 
of the county magistrates, are not under the constables of 
the hundred, but have constables of their own. 

There are in the county two cities. CJanterbury and Ro- 
chester ; the Cinque- Ports' of Dover, Hythe, New Romney, 
and Sandwich ; the parliamentary boroughs of Greenwich 
(including Deptford and Woolwich), Chatham and Maid- 
stone, and eighteen other market-towns, viz. Ashford, 
Bromley, Cranbrook, Dartford, Deal, Faversham, Folke- 
stone, (x^ravesend, Lydd, Margate, Milton, Ramsgate, Seven- 
oaks, Sheerncss, Sittingbourne (held monthly), Tenterden, 
TonbridgeorTunbridge, and Westerham. There is a market 
held at long intervals at Eleham, or Elham, on the Lesser 
Stour, in order to prevent the forfeiture of the charter ; and 
ihere were formerly markets at Aylesford, St. Mary Cray, 
Eltham, Groudhurst, Lenham,Town Mailing, Queen borough, 
Smarden, Wrotbam, and Wye. Of some of these places an 
account is given elsewhere. [Ashford ; Aylesford ; Can- 
terbury; Chatham ; Deal ; Dover; Greenwich (under 
which Deptford is included); Maidstone; Margate; 
Ramsoate; Rochester; Sandwich; Sheerness; 'Wool- 
wich.! The others we shall notice here. 

Hythe is locally in Hythe hundred, in the lathe of Shepway, 
65 miles from London. It is called in antient records Hethe, 
and in Domesday Hede, from the Saxon hffS, a haven. This 
town is supposed to owe its origin to the decay of West 
Hythe and Lympne, or Limne (the Portus Lemanis of the 
Antonine Itinerary), which are now both inland. It was 
early a place of importance, being one of the Cinque-Ports, 
and having once had, according to Leland, a fair abbey and 
four parish churches. In the reign of Henry IV. the inha- 
bitants of this town experienced such heavy calamities, 
pestilence, conflagration, and shipwreck, that they contem- 
plated abandoning the place ; but the king hythe grant of 
a liberal charter inducied them to remain. The parish of 
St. Leonard, Hythe, which coincides with the Cinque-Port, 
contains 860 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 2287, 
of which scarcely any part was agricultural. The town, 
which is at the foot of a steep hill or cliff, about half a mile 
from the shore, consists chiefly of one long street, parallel 
to the sea, with some smaller ones branching from it, or 
parallel to it. The town hall aud market-place are in the 
centre of the town. The church is on the slope of the hill 
above the town ; it is a cross church, very antient, with a 
west tower. Some of the western part of the church is of 
Norman architecture : the eastern part is early English, of 
remarkably good design and execution ; this part of the 
chunth has bold buttresses, and under it a remarkably fine 
groined crypt There are two hospitals, or almshouses, in 
Hythe, of antient foundation. There are barracks at the east 
end of the town, a small theatre, and a public libraiy and 
readine-room. The market is on Saturdav. The corporation 
of Hythe, under the Municipal Reform Act, consists of four 
aldermen or jurats, and twelve councillors. Hythe for- 
merly returned two members to parliament, by the Reform 
Act it sends only one. The parliamentary borough includes 
the municipal borough, the Liberty of the town of Folke- 
stone, and the parishes of West Hythe, Saltwood, Cheriton, 
and Folkestone, and part of that of Newington. These 
limits include the watering-place of Sand^te. The living 
of H>the is a perpetual curacy united with the rectory of 
Saltwood; their joint annual value is 784/., with a glebe- 
house; they are in the diocese of Onterbury, but exempt 



from' the archdeacon's visitation. There were tn 1833' in 
the parish ten day-schools with 197 children ; two day and 
Sunday national schools with 238 children, and two Sun- 
day-schools with 137 children. 

About a mile north of Hvthe are the ruins of Saltwood 
castle ; the outer walls, whicn arepartly remaining, envloMi 
an elliptical area of three acres. Tnese walls were strength- 
ened by several square or circular towers, now much dila- 
pidated. The keep> or gate-house^ which was almost en- 
tirely rebuilt by Courtenay, archbishop of Canterbury, in 
the time of Ridiard H., is now occupied as a farm-house. 

*New Romney, in the lathe of Shepway, is situated near 
the sea, in Romney Marsh, and is 70 miles from London. 

The name appears to be of Saxon origin. The etymoli»qT 
given by Lye is Rumen-ea, from Rume, wide, spreadm?. 
q»d. the spreading water or marsh. Perhaps it may be from 
Rumen-eTC, ' the island in the flat or marsh,' a spot suffi- 
ciently elevated from the surrounding marsh to be dry 
being termed an island, or 'ey,' by the Saxons. New 
Romney appears to have risen before the time of Edward 
the Confessor, from the decay of Old Romney (more inland), 
the haven of which was deserted by the sea. The haven »A 
New Romney being commodious and well Arequented, the 
town became important, and was made one of the cinque- 
ports, perhaps in the place of Old Romney, which, vith 
Lydd, Denge Marsh (extending to Denge Ne^s), and Os- 
wardestone, were added to it as subordinate members. But 
the Rother, which then entered the sea at this place and 
formed its harbour, having forsaken its channel (in the 
reign of Edward I.), the harbour was choked up with bead-, 
and the towh went to decay. In its flourishing time it :< 
said to have been divided into twelve wards, and to bau- 
had five parish churches, as well as a priory and an hospiLsI« 
of both which there are some remains. At present it is an 
insignificant place, built on a soil of gravel and s»n<'.. 
slightly elevated above the surrounding country. It consi^t^ 
chiefly of one wide well-paved street, with a market-hou^c 
and a hall, or brotherhood-house, in which the ma)<jr. 
jurats, aud commons of the Cinque-Ports frequently hotii 
their sittings. There is a weekly market and one year!) 
fair. The parish comprehends 2320 acres, and had, in 
1831, a copulation of 983. The church is a very antirn' 
and handsome building. The lower part of the tower ao'^ 
part of the nave are of Norman architecture and of gotH- 
composition ; the upper part of the tower is of early Etig- 
hsh, and the remaining part chiefly of decorated Englisii 
character, with large and fine windows. The liTing i« i 
vicarage in the diocese of Canterbury, exempt from the 
archdeacon's visitation, of the clear yearly value of 161/.. 
with a glebe-house not fit for residence, in the gift of All 
Souls' College, Oxford. 

There were, in 1823, two infant or dame schools, with 
26 scholars, two day-schools with 50 scholars, and one national 
day and Sunday school with 1 42 children. Up to the pe«$- 
ing of the Reform Act, Romney returned two represen- 
tatives to the House of Commons ; these, like the oih?' 
members for the Cinque-Ports, were styled ' barons.' Thf 
first return of members fh)m the town was in the reign • ( 
Edward I. It was disfranchised by the Reform Act ; and 
is one of the polling-places for East Kent. 

At the village of Dymchurch, about four miles north-esst 
of New Romney, along the shore of Romney Marab, is s 
sea-wall or embarkment of earth more than three miles ir 
length, by which the marsh is preserved from the inundation 
of the sea. It is called Dymchurch wall. Its perpendicul i r 
height varies from fifteen to twenty feet above the genenl 
level of the marshes : at the side next the sea it has a slo^-c 
of a hundred yards : the width of the top varies from fifteen 
to thirty feet. There are sluices through it for drainin.* 
the marshes. Old Romney, fh>m the decay of which Nt >' 
Romney arose, is now a mere village with a population d 
113 persons. 

Bromlev is in Bromley and Beckenham hundred, in ih-^ 
lathe of Sutton at Hone, and near the Ravensboume Ri\e' 
10 miles from London Bridge. Bromley parish contai 
4630 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 4002. *I r • 
town consists principally of one street, with neat vie.. 
built houses, and havmg a market-house in the middle 
the town supported on wooden pillars. The church Cfii 
tains the monuments of Dr. Hawkesworth, Dr. Zacbairi 
Pearce, bishop of Rochester, and several others. The oish ••' 
of Rochester's palace at Bromley is a nlain brick mansi.-». . 
rebuilt a.d. 1777. In the palace garaen is a chal^bvatc 



KEN 



188 



KEN 



which stands at the west end of the town, is a cross church 
of early English character, having a tower in the centre 
supported l»y strong piers. The western end was partly 
blown down by a hurricane in December, 1705, and when 
rebuilt thp dimensioi\^ were contracted. There are three 
dissenting places of worship. There was a Benedictine 
priory at Folkestone, originally alien, but afterwards made 
denizen. A gateway in the wall and some part of the 
foundations are all that remain of this building. The trade 
of the town is dull : fishing and smuggling are both on the 
decline. The market is on Thursday, and there is one 
yearly fair. The council under the Municipal Reform Act 
consists of four aldermen or jurats and twelve councillors. 
The market-house and the guildhall have been lately 
rebuilt. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese 
and archdeaconry of Canterbury, of the clear yearly value 
of 185/. There were, in 1833, one infant-school, with 60 
children ; twelve dame-schools, with 251 scholars ; six day 
or boarding and day schools, with 242 children ; and four 
Sunday-schools, witli 491 children. Dr. William Harvey 
was born at Folkestone. 

Folkestone was by the Reform Act made part of the 
parliamentai7 borough of Hythe. 

The village of Sandgate, which is partly in Folkestone 
parish, is a place of some resort as a bathing-place. There 
18 a castle at Sandgate, built by Henry VIII., probably on 
the site of a more antient one. 

Gravesend is on the south bank of the Thames, locally in 
the hundred of Toltingtrough, in the lathe of Aylesford, 
22 miles from London Bridge through Darlford. The 
western part of the town is in the parish of Gravesend, the 
eastern in that of Milton. In the time of Richard H. 
Gravesend was burned, and most of the inhabitants carried 
into captivity by a squadron of French galleys. In the reign 
of- Henry VIII. two platforms were raised for the protec- 
tion of the town, and a blockhouse at Tilbury, in Essex, to 
guard the passage of the river. 

The parish of Gravesend comprehends 630 acres, with a 
population, in 183 J, of 5097; Milton contains 650 acres, 
with a population of 4348: making together 1280 acres, 
with a population of 9445. Gravesend has of late years 
become a great place of resort for visitors from the metro- 
polis, and has been much enlarged and improved : the old 
town is however still mean and irregular. Two piers 
have been erected for landing passengers, and a convenient 
bathing-house for visitors. There are a library, concert- 
room, theatre, and gardens. The country round Gravesend 
is pleasant, and the view from the Windmill Hill, above 
the town, extensive. Tht church, which is near the centre 
of the town, is a neat spa nous brick building : there are a 
chapel of ease and several dissenting places of worship. 
Milton church is near the east end of the town. 

Formerly vessels sailing from the port of London were 
obliged to stop at Gravesend to take their clearances. Out- 
ward-bound Indiamcu still take in fresh provisions here : 
seamen going out provide themselves with slops. There are 
considerable lime-works and brick-fields about the town, 
and a great quantity of land in the neighbourhood is occupied 
by market-gardeners, who raise vegetables, especialiy aspa- 
ragus, for the supply of the London markets. Many 
vessels are employed in fishing ; and some rope-making 
and ship-building are carried on. The resort of visitors from 
the metropolis to Gravesend during the summer season is 
very great, owing to the cheapness of steam-boat conveyance 
and its convenient distance from London. The market is 
on Wednesday and Saturday, the former for corn. The 
canal which unites the Medway and the Thames enters 
the latter near Gravesend. This town is one of the polling- 
places for West Kent. There is a fort at Graveeend, 
mounting sixteen guns. 

The living of Gravesend is a rectory, of the clear yearly 
value of 307/. ; that of Milton a rectory, of the clear yearly 
value of 359/.; both of them are in the diocese and arch- 
deaconry of Ilochester. 

The inhabitants of the parishes of Gravesend and Milton 
were incorporated by Queen Elizabeth. By the Municipal 
Reform Act the borough was divided into two wards : it 
has 6* jurats or aldermen and 18 councillors. There were, 
in 1833, in the two parishes, two infant or dame schools, 
with 74 children; two national schools, with 180 children ; 
'e endowed day-school, with 34 children ; seventeen other 

-schools, with 449 children ; seven boarding-schools, with 
children ; nnd Ibur Sunday-school^ with ^$9 chUdr^o. 



Lydd, or Lid, is in the hundred of Langport, in i\ke lathe 
of Shepway. The hundred is one of those included in the 
liberty of Komney Marsh ; but Lydd is a corporate town, 
and a member of the cinque-port of New Romney, from 
wbicb it is distant about three miles. The name it written 
in antient records Hlyda, and is supposed to be a oorruptijo 
of the Latin liiius, ' a shore,' a name corresponding to 
its situation. It is upon the tongue of land, the termination 
of which is Denge Ness, about two miles from the aea ; bui 
it is probable that the sea once came nearer to it. Thv 
parish comprehends 11, 660 acres, with a population, in 163i, 
of 1357, more than half of which was agricultural. The 
town consists of houses irregularly built on an open fljt. 
and from its being quite out of any thoroughfare, and frum 
the decline of the contraband trade, by which it wa^ for- 
merly supported, it is a dull decayed place. The church i» % 
large building, with a fine tower in the perpendicular ftt\ le. 
and crocketted'pinnacles. The market is on Thursday : tit 
chief employment of the townsmen is in fishing. The (N»r 
poration, which is left untouched bv the Municipal Reforra 
Act, consists of a bailiff, jurats, ana freemen. The baiiit: 
and jurats aie justices in the borough, which is oo-exten- 
sive with the parish* The living is a vicarage, in tKc 
diocese of Canterbury, exempt from the archdeacon's tl^i- 
tation, of the clear yearly value of 1 247/., with a glebe-bouv^. 
There was, in 1833, only one school in the parish, a nations 
school, of 116 children, with a lending library attaclied. 

On the point of Denge Ness is a lighthoase 110 fe<-: 
high, and a small fort. There is a spring of fresh water o:. 
this point, which is covered by the sea ."very tide. 

Milton, sometimes distinguished as \ ilton-nezt-Sittinj- 
bourne, is in the hundred of Milton and in the lathe ^i 
Scray, on a creek or arm of the Swale, 39^ miles fr^m 
London. 

This town was a demesne of the Saxon kings, who arv 
said to have had a palace in the neighbourh(X»d. In tik 
struggle of the Danish chieftain Hastings with Alfred t :: 
Great, the Danes formed an encampment here, the remait.^ 
of which yet exist, under the name of Castle Rough. fiuQ 
its being overgrown with trees and underwood. The to« ■ 
was burned by Earl Godwin during his quarrel with Edwar i 
the Confessor, but rose to importance again in the time u 
the Conqueror. The parish comprehends 2340 acres, ar. . 
had, in 1831, a population of 2233, of which about an eieh\. 
is agricultural. The town is on the side of a hill slo|^^i... 
down to the creek, and is ill built. The business of ir. 
place arises from its oyster fishery, and from its beiitc: tt ^ 
port of communication with London for the surrouiiii.>^ 
agricultural district. In the centre of the town is ii- 
antient court-house for holding the manor courts and put:., 
meetings, with the town gaol beneath. The market i» «. 
Saturday, and there is one yearly fair. Much corn • 
shipped here. The church, which is to the north of t 
town, is chiefly in the decorated English style; it is la. j 
and handsome, with an embattled tower at the west e* 
The living is a vicarage in the diocese and archdeacon rs * 
Canterbui7, of the clear yearly value of 256/. with a gU . 
house. 

There were in the parish, in 1833, seven infant ord:t - 
schools, containing 140 children; three day-schools, v 
163 children; one day and Sunday national school, v 
150 children, partly supported by endowment; and «. 
Sunday-school, with 152 cnildren. 

Sevenoaks, in the hundred of Codsheath and the l.i* 
of Sutton-at-Hone, is on the Hastings road, 24 miles fi 
London. This town, called in an antient document Seov.i . 
acca, received its name from seven oak trees which ot . 
occupied the eminence on which the town stands. 1 - 
parish comprehends an area of 6790 acres (of which 2 ^ 
are in the liberty of Riverhead, and 3210 in the \\\-. 
liberty), with a population of 4709; about one- third au;:. 
cultural. The town is situated on the northern brou f 
the chalk marl and greensand range of high lands, ui t - 
midst of a fertile and well cultivated district. It is v 
built, and contains a number of good houses. The cbur. ^ 
is spacious and elegant, and, fh>m its situation on an rti • 
iience, forms a conspicuous object; it is chiefly in the (•<:«> 
pendicular style. There are several dissenting meet; .-• 
houses. At the south end of the town is the gramrr. r« 
school, which has a good endowment : there is also « U. .<! 
range of almshouses; both these institutions owft ihJ.c 
origin to Sir William de Seveuoke, a foundling brou - i| 
up by Bomo charitably person* iu this town, ftpm which^iid 



K B N 



190 



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the Wells. A new district church has heen erected here, 
and there is (as already noticed), an endowed free-school. 
The place consists of a number of scattered houses. 

Westerham is in the hundred of Westerham, in the 
lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, 21 miles from London, through 
Bromley. It is near the source of the Darent, and in the 
valley of Holmesdale, between the chalk and the ragstone 
hills. The parish has an area of 5740 acres, and the popu- 
lation in 1831 was 1985, about two-fifths agricultural. The 
town is on a declivity ; the principal street runs east and 
west on the road which runs from Maidstone along 
the valley of Holmesdale into Surrey. The church is a 
neat and tolerably spacious building, chiefly in the perpen- 
dicular style : it contains a neat cenotaph to the memory of 
General Wolfe. There are one or two dissenting places of 
worship. The market is on Wedn^ay, and there is a 
yearly cattle-Aiir. 

The living is a vicarage united with the parochial cha- 
pelry of Edenbridge ; they are in the diocese and arch- 
deaconry of Rochester ; their joint annual value is 608/., 
with a glebe-house. There were in 1833 a national school 
with 46 girls, and five other day-schools with 144 children ; 
.two boarding-schools with 45 children ; and two Sunday- 
schools with 96 children. 

General Wolfe and Bishop Hoadley were natives of Wes- 
terham. 

Queenborough, or Quinborowe, is in the liberty of the 
Isle of Sheppey, in the lathe of Scray, 45^ miles from Lon- 
don, by a road branching from the Dover road eight miles 
beyond Chatham, and leading into the Isle by King's Ferry 
over the West Swale. Queenborough (antiently Cyning- 
burg) belonged to the Saxon kings, who had a castle here, 
on the site of which Edward 111. commenced a new and 
more extensive fortress. Edward made the town a free 
borough, and gave it the name of Queenborough, in honour 
of his consort Philippa. This castle was demolished in the 
time of the Commonwealth, but the moat and well point 
out its site. The well, after being partly filled up with rub- 
bish, was cleared out and restored to use in 1725; it sup- 
plies the town with water. Queenborough is a poor place ; 
the greater part of the inhabitants are dependent on tl^ 
oyster fishery ; a few of them possess boats of their own. 
The houses form one main street : the church was originally 
a chapel to the parish church of Minster, but is now 
parochial : the interior is neat There is a guildhall and 
a small gaol under it. Queenborough has a corporation, 
and until disfranchised by the Reform Act it returned two 
members to parliament. 

The parish had in 1831 a population of 786. The income 
of the corporation is derived from the oyster fishery, the 
management of which is in their hands. The markets, 
which are now disused, were held on Monday and Thurs- 
day, The living is a perpetual curacy in the diocese and 
archdeaconry of Canterbury, of the clear yearly value of 
66/., with a glebe-house. There were in 1833 a free-school, 
with 72 children, five other day schools, with about 100 
children, and two Sunday-schools, with 177 children. 

St. Mary Cray, the most considerable of the villages which 
take their name from the river Cray (the others are St Paul's 
Cray, Foot's Cray, and North Cray), in Ruxley hundred, 
Sutton-at-Hone lathe, is on a cross-road which connects the 
Maidstone and Hastings roads, 13 miles from London. It had 
formerly a market, l)ut it was discontinued in 1703 in 
consequence of the market-house having been blown down. 
The population in 1831 was 905. Elham, or Eleham, is in 
Loningborough hundred, Shepway lathe, on the Lesser 
Stour. It was formerly a place of consequence, though now 
only a village. A market was granted by Henry III., and 
it is still held at intervals of five or six years in the market- 
house, which is yet standing, in order to maintain the 
charter. The church has a large tower of early English 
architecture, with a small leaden spire. Population in 1831, 
1302. Eltham is in Blackheath hundred, Sutton-at-Hone 
lathe, eight miles from Loudon on the Maidstone road. Here 
was a royal palace built at an early but unknown l)eriod. 
Henry HI. kept Christmas here aj>. 1270. Most of the 
succeeding sovereigns frequently resided here till Henry 
VIIL, but on the rise of Greenwich it was deserted. The 

Erincipal part of the palace yet remaining is the antient 
all, 100 feet long by 66 broad, and 60 high, now occupied 
as a barn or cow-house : the windows now bricked up liave 
been extremely elegant : the roof is of timber curiously 
tirrQogUt and richly ornameuted. The area of the palace is 



surrounded by a high stono wall, and a broad deep tnoat, 
now converted into a garden, over which are two bmlecs. 
Population in 1831, 2005, or including the hamlet of Al.r- 
tingham, 2129. Goudhurst is partly in Marden and pjirf !y 
in Cranbrook hundred, in the lathe of Scray. The churt t), 
which is on a commanding eminence, is a spacioua fabric 
with a low massive western tower formerly crowned witli j 
lofty spire. Goudhurst was formerly one of the cIoihMi^ 
towns of the Weald, and had a weekly market. Populat .. .i 
in 1831, 2758. Lenham is in Eyhorne hundred, in tht* 
lathe of Aylesford» on the road from Maidstone to Ashf^rl 
and Folkestone. The market was discontinued early io i:.c 
last century, and the attempts since made to revive it ha\e 
foiled. Population in 1831, 2197. Town Mailing, other- 
wise West Mailing, is in Larkfield hundred, lathe ci 
^lesford, 29 miles Ifrom London Bridge, just out of tho 
Maidstone road. Here was an antient lE&neidictine nunn«rr. 
the yearly value of the possessions of which at the dis<ol > 
tion was 245/. lOs. 2^. gross, or 218/. 4tf. ^id. clear. M.ii.y 
parts of the conventual buildings are yet standing, e^^^r- 
cially a portion of the west end of the church, a beau tit '.I 
specimen of Norman architecture. There is also at St. 
Leonard's, a hamlet of Mailing, a tower 71 feet high, mu' h 
resembling the keep of a Norman castle ; it belonged to S*. 
Leonard's chapel, now destroyed. Town Mailing church, s 
handsome ana spacious building, has a Norman tower a: 
the west end. There is a small endowed- free-school. Tij«> 
market, held on Saturday, has not been long discontinuu*!. 
Population in 1831, 1459. Smarden is in Calehill hundre*). 
in the lathe of Scray, in the Weald. The market^hou.se i- 
yet standing. There are one or two dissenting meeting- 
houses and a small free-school. Population in 1631. 1 ir;. 
Wrotham is in Wrotham hundred, in Aylesford lathe, j 4 
miles from London, on the Maidstone road. It lies ne j^ 
the foot of the chalk hills. The church is a large well-bu.:! 
edi&ce in a great mixture of styles. The market was bii i 
in the centre of the village at the intersection of the tv 
principal streets. Population in 1831,2601. Wye is .. 
Wye hundred, in the lathe of Scray, about three m:i«'^ 
north-east of Ashford under the chalk hills. Here vs * 
before the Reformation a college, the buildings of wbi ^ . 
forming a quadrangle round an open court, are used fur c •. 
purposes of two endowed schools. The market has K . 
long discontinued. Population in 1831, 1639. 

Besides the foregoing decayed market-towns, one or tT;.i 
villages claim notice. Lewisham in Blackheath hundre . 
in the lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, consists of a long strci-t • : 
good houses, extending about two miles along the Ha&itr.^*- 
road. There is a modern church near the centre of i 
town. There are a grammar-school and an English scbv*. . 
both endowed, and an almshouse. The chapelry of Syde.n- 
ham is a part of Lewisham parish, which nad in 1 H,^ i i 

fopulation of 9659. Broadstairs on the coast, near the Nor.b 
breland, has risen into notice as a watering-place : it is in 
Ringslow or Thanet hundred, in St Augustine lathe. A 
small pier for the protection of the fishing craft was &r! 
tiently built here, and the passage down the cliff to the m-^ 
was defended by an arch, gates, and portcullis ; the arch s: ! 
remains. There are some remains of an antient chapel ru- r 
the pier, which is now converted into a dwelling-houvo. 
There are many good houses at Broadstairs, with l^rar^i-^. 
warm baths, and other accommodations. Many Runi..ii 
coins have been found here. Minster, in the Isle of ThaiKt 
and Ringslow hundred, had an antient nunnery destroy t«I 
b^ the Danes. The church is antient, and chiefly of ear^ v 
English character : it is a cross church, with a tower at 
the west end. Minster in Sheppey (lathe of Sera v), had a K < 
a very antient nunnery, whose yearly possessions at the 
dissolution were valued at 29/. 7s. lOJ^ gross. The gate- 
house and part of the church and chapel yet remain. 

Whitstable, in Whitstable hundred, in the Uthe of St Au- 
gustine, on the a)stuary of the Thames, is about six mik-s 
from Canterbury, with which city it communicates by a 
railroad. It may be considered as the port of Canterbur). 
Hoys convey goods to and from London, and colliers d.^- 
charge their cargoes here. The inhabitants are engaged r.i 
the oyster fisherv ; in dredging for oysters rouna a rix^k 
called * the Pudding-pan,' many pieces of Roman potteiy 
ha.e been found. "Population in I83I, 1926. What is calU'l 
Whitotable-street extends into Seasalter parish. Afew nii]e» 
east of Whitstable, on the ajstuary of the Thames, is the ne\r 
watering-place Heme Bay, which contains many gooil 
houses and seyeial hotels ; bat the place has been laid out <>a 



KEN 



192 



K £ N 



Lemana) of Lemanis. Kichborough is one of the noblest Ro- 
man remains in the island. It was the usual place of com- 
munication with the Continent, and guarded one mouth of 
the channel which then insulated Thanet. It stands on a 
small elevation, along the base of which the Stour flows, 
and about one mile in a direct line from its entrance into 
Pegwell Bay. The walls form a parallelogram, but the 
east wall has disappeared and probably &llen into the 
Stour. The area within the walls is five acres. The walls 
are flanked by projecting round towers at the angles, and 
by intermediate round towers. There is a large opening 
in the west wall, and a narrower one, the Porta Decumana, 
in the north wall. The foundations of the walls are laid with 
great care ; and the walls were built of blocks of chalk and 
stone, and faced on both sides with squared blocks of 
Portland or gri^ stone, banded at intervals with double rows 
of large flat tiles. The walls to the height of six feet are 
eleven feet three inches thick, above that height they are 
ten feet eight inches. The top of the wall is everywhere im- 
perfect ; its greatest height is twenty-three feet. A quarter 
of a nifle from the south-west angle of the castle are the 
remains of a Roman circular amphitheatre of about 
seventy yards diameter. Coins and other antiouities 
have been dug up here. In the circuit of Dover Castle 
are the ruins of a pharos or watch-tower, an indubitable 
relic of the Roman Dubrro. This watch-tower has an 
octangular base externally, but within it is a square : the 
height, when Stukeley examined it, was about forty feet, but 
the upper part is an addition or repair of a later period. 
The foundations were laid in a bed of clay, though it is built 
on a chalk rock. The structure is composed of long, thin, 
irregular bricks, with intermediate courses formed by blocks 
of hard stalactitical incrustations : it is now in a very dilapi- 
dated state. The ruin of an old church adjoining the pharos 
18 not Roman, but Roman bricks have been worked up in it. 

At Lymne, or Lympne, near Hythe, are the remains of 
the Roman fortress LemAnee, or Ad Portum I..emanis. 
This fort, now called Stutfall Castle, had an area of about 
five acres. Stukeley and Leland have much exagger- 
ated it ; the walls are imperfect, and have been overthrown 
in some places by the subsidence of the soil, which 
here form.H a steep hill or cliff on the edge of Romney 
Marsh. The river Limene or Rother formerly had its 
course under this hill and formed the harbour. Richard 
spells the name of this place Lemanus. 

At Durovernum (Canterbury) numerous antiquities have 
been discovered, and until towards the end of the last;^ cen- 
tury three semicircular arches of Roman bricks were stand- 
ing in different parts. Many Roman bricks have been 
worked up into the city vralls. Richard gives to Durovernum 
the name Cantiopolis. At Durobrivee (Rochester) various 
antiquities have been found, and Roman bricks have been 
worked up in the ruined walls of the cathedral precinct. 
The name of this place is said to have been corrupted in 
the later period of the empire into Roibis (Roibee), or, in the 
Peu linger table, Raribis (Raribso). From Roibis or Roibs 
appears* to have been formed the Saxon Hrof-Ceastre and the 
modem Rochester. Bede however derives Hrof-Ceastre from 
one Hrof, a Saxon chieftain. To Durolevum two positions 
have been assigned: at Newington there are the remains 
of entrenchments, and an abundance of Roman pottery has 
been dug up ; on Judde Hill, in the parish of Osprinse, 
south of the (Canterbury road, which agrees better with the 
distances of the Itinerarv, are the remains of a square camp 
with the corners rounded off. Roman coins and fragments 
of culinary vessels, intermixed with many parcels of oyster 
shells, have been found ; and in the ruins of Stone Chapel, 
just on the other side of the road, Roman bricks have been 
worked up, and in one place a separate piece of a Roman 
wall has been built in. At Southfleet, the Roman Vagniaces, 
a large earthem vessel and a stone tomb containing several 
funeral antiquities were discovered early in the present 
century. On Hoi wood Hill, near Farnborough, on the 
Hastings road, the antient Noviomagus there are the re- 
mains of an immense elliptical encampment, in which Ro- 
man bricks and tiles have been turned up by the plough, and 
Roman coins picked up. Noviomagus, is said by Richard 
to have been the metropolis of the Bibroci. To the Madus 
of Richard (perhaps it should be Ad Madum) it is difficult 
to assign a position which will accord with the distances 
given by him. The name would lead us to Maidstone, or 
some post, or ferry, or ford, on the Mcdway, but the dis- 
tences as they stand will not admit of this* Some identiQr 



the place with Durobrivs or Rochester, bnt the numbers 
will not agree with this supposition. It may be mentioned 
here, that the numbers in Richard's Itinerary (Durole^'o. . 
Mado Xn. Vagnaca XVIII.)» if transposed, would suffi- 
ciently well suit the distance of Maidstone from Judde 
Hill and Southfleet respectively, if we suppose a branch 
road from the Watling Street at Newington to Maidstone, 
and another road direct from Maidstone to Watling Street 
at Southfleet. The remains of an entrenchment at New* 
enden, the discovery of some Roman coins, and a tradition, 
mentioned by (>amden, that a very antient town and bar- 
hour had existed here, have led some to fix on this as the 
site of Anderida. But the distance from Ad Portum Le^ 
manis in Richard, and the declaration of Gildas, that it vu 
in ' littore oceani ad meridiem,' would lead us to some pc*::- 
tion on the Sussex coast as the site of that town. 

Of the Roman roads, the Watling Street, which ne^ir!? 
coincided with the present road from London to CantiiT- 
bury, may be traced in several places. Dr. Plot observtil 
traces of it on or near Blackheath. It is still visible oa 
Bexley Heath, and again just beyond Dartford, where the 
modem road bends to the left towards Gravesend, while the 
Street pursues a direct course through Southfleet to R'> 
Chester. From hence to Canterburv the antient and modern 
roads coincide, and the traces o^ the antient one appear to 
have been, except in a few places, obliterated. The bran'^h 
of Watling Street which led from Durovernum (Ointei- 
bury) to Lemanes (Lympne), is still conspicuous for some 
miles. It pursues a straight course between the two places 
and is known by the name of Stone Street. 

The North Foreland is mentioned by Ptolemy under tV{* 
name of Kavrtov or *AK^vru>v dgoov, the promontory Can tit' i-j 
or Acantium. The Medway, the Stour, the small strc.iu 
which enters the sea at Dover, and the Rother, appear to b? 
mentioned in Richard under the respective names of Madi.\ 
Sturius, Dubris, and Lemanus. Thanet appears in i) . 
pages of Richard under the name of Thaiiatos, and tr.^ 
channel which insulates it, under that of Wantsuam. Caun^ 
which appears in Richard's map, is probably Canvey Is!ard 
on the Essex shore; but its position more nearly resomtt.'i 
that of Sheppey. 

In the Saxon invasion Cantium was the scene of mn * ■ 
interesting events. The brothers Hengist and Horsa ianc^ ! 
in Pegwell Bay, near Ipwines Fleet, now Ebb Fleet, :• 
Thanet, probably about a.d. 446 or 449. Tlwir force r •*: 
sisted of three snips, and perhaps three hundred men ; at 1 
it is uncertain if their arrival was accidental, or wbetb'.f 
they premeditated an incursion for the sake of plunder. O* <. 
of the island princes, Wyrtgeom or Gwrtheyrn (popu- 
larly Vortigem), engaged them to support him agu \ «' 
the invasions of the Scots, whom they repelled. Ir. 
names of Hengist and Horsa are poetical names (both :.; 
the Anglo-Saxon denoting a horse) ; and their exploits r.r> . 
if not entirely fabulous, of so doubtful a character as to (.• 
serve little credit. Having received a grant of the Isle . 
Thanet, then insulated by a channel of some width, 11*^ 
received accessions of strength from their countrymen ..: 
home, and were soon involv^ in hostilities with the Br ito 
Thanet was called by the Britons Ruim or Ruym. 

Of the early battles of Hengist and his Jutes v 
the Britons, tho principal were fought in the year 455 ; i 
first on the Dereuent (Darent) ; the second at Epsford • r 
Eglesford (Aylesford) on the Medway, in which battle t^ • 
British prince Catigern, son of Vortigem, and the Saii : 
Horsa, fell ; and the third at Stonar, near Sandwich. 1 h • 
localities indicate that at the commencement of the stru^^ 
the Jutes had advanced some way into the island, and \i^\ 
they were gradually repelled. The antient chronicles disiiiu ; < 
assign the victory in the second and third engagements * ■ 
the Britons, who were led by Guortemir, popularly cai:> i 
Vortimer, son of Vortigem ; after the battle of Stonar. t r 
Jutes fled to their ships, and did not return to England : 
Vortimer's death, two years after. In a.i>. 457, Hengist a: . 
his son Eric or ^sc, are said to have defeated the Brit * - 
with ^at slaughter at Creccanford (Crayibrd), the posi:. 
of which indicates the advance of the Jutes; yet that ; 
ranee was probably only for plunder, as the next recorded r 
gageraent, eight years after, a.d. 465,wasat Wyppedes-f.t ; 
in Thanet. In a.d. 473, the Jutes obtained another vu-t< . 
at a place not named. Hengist died some years a: . 
(a J). 488), leaving a reputation out of all proportion to : ■ 
real extent of his achievements. The ravages of oth 
seem to have been asohbed to him» uid his pre-eminer 



lO a. 



- C 



f i 



1 



KEN 



194 



KEN 



*ege to occupy that post. A detachment of the Norman 
fbrce having landed at Romney just before the battle, were 
defeated bv the townsmen, which led William, when after 
the battle he marched along the coast, in order to secure the 
purts which communicated with the Continent, to burn 
that town and massacre the inhabitants. Having secured 
Dover Castle after a slight resistance, hung the governor, 
and burnt the town, he marched toward London by Watling 
Street ; and in his way conciliated the favour, or at least dis- 
armed the resistance, of the men of Kent, by granting them 
the continuance of their privileges. An unsuccessful at- 
tempt was subsequently made, a.d. 1067, by the Kentish- 
men, aided by the Earl of Boulos^ne, to surprise Dover 
Castle. In the reign of William Rufus, Kent was the scene 
of civil war: Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, raised 
the county in favour of Robert duke of Normandy, Roches- 
ter town and castle were defended on behalf of Odo, to 
whom the castle belonged, by Eustace earl of Boulogne, 
anl the besieged did not capitulate till after a siege of many 
weeks. King John, when threatened with an invasion by 
Philippe II. Auguste of France, encamped with an army of 
60,000 men on Barham Downs ; but his courage failed 
him, and he made his memorable submission and sur- 
render of his crown to Pandulphus, the Pope's Legate, at 
Dover. In the subsequent troubles, a. d. 1215, John col- 
lected an army of mercenaries at Dover, and marched in- 
land ; but William de Alluni bravely defended Rochester 
Castle for three months against him, at which he was so en- 
' raged tliat on the suiTcnder of the castle he ordered all 
the common soldiers, except the cross-bowmen, to be hung. 
In A.D. 1*2 1 6, Louis, daiiphm of France, landed in the Isle of 
Thanet, near Sandwich, in order to assist the barons, and 
took the castle of Rochester after a short siege ; but after 
his retreat and the death of John, it again submitted to the 
crown. The rest of Kent submitted for a time to Louis, 
except Dover Castle, which was all along defended for the 
king against the Dauphin and the barons by Hubert de 
Burgh. In the troubles of the succeeding reign Rochester 
Castle was defended for the king agamst Simon de Mont- 
fort, who besieged it in vain. 

It was in Kent that the rebellion of Wat Tyler broke out. 
The commons in this county and in Essex rose in a body, 
AJ>. 1381. They attacked the archbishop of Canterbury's 
house at Maidstone, and released John Halle, a priest, who 
had been imprisoned for teaching doctrines like those of 
Wickliffe. The issue of the rebellion is well known. In 
the reign of Henry VI. the insurrection of Jack Cade broke 
out in Kent,A.D. 1450. [Cad£.] 

At the outbreak of the war of the Roses, a.d. 1451, 
Richard duke of York encamped near Darlford, where he 
fortified himself. The king, Henry VI., encamped on 
Blackheath. Some years afterwards, a.d. 1460, the navy 
which the duke of Somerset had collected at Sandwich was 
surprised and captured by an expedition from Calais, then 
in the power of the Yorkists. The earl of Warwick soon 
after landed at Sandwich and marched to London, being 
joined on his way by nearly 40,000 men. The bastard of 
Falconbridge, a Lancastrian, after his unsuccessful attempt 
on London, ad. 14/1, encamped on Hlackheath, whence he 
slowly retreated through Kent to Sandwich, where he had 
a lleet: he submitted however to Edward IV., and surren- 
dered his Ueet and the town. 

In the reign of Queen Mary, Kent was the scene of re- 
bellion under Sir Thomas Wyatt, a.d. 1654. In the civil 
war of Charles I. and the Parliament, a severe battle was 
fought at Maidstone, a.d. IG48, in which the Parliamen- 
tarians, under Fairfax, obtained a complete victory. 

In the reign of Elizabeth the river Med way appears to 
have formed the only harbour for the royal navy, then in 
its infancy. The dock at Chatham was built by that queen ; 
and she erected Upnor Castle, on the opposite side of the 
Medway, to defend the passage of the river. In the reign 
of Charles II., ad. 1667, a detachment from the Dutch fleet 
under De Ruyter sailed up the Medway as far as Upnor 
Castle. [Chatham.] 

Of ancient castellated edifices, not already noticed or re- 
ferred to, the most remarkable are Leeds, Hever, Chelham, 
AUington and Westerhanger castles, to which may be added 
the castellated mansions of Penshurst and Knowle. Leeds 
Castle is to the right of the road from Maidstone to Ash- 
ford, four or five miles from Maidstone. It is surrounded 
by a broad moat : the entrance is by a stone bridi^e of two 
pointed arches^ and through a deep gateway in good preser- I 



vation. Another g^ateway, which defended the entrance f 
the bridge, is in ruins. Part of the building has been n." 
demizea: the foundations of the more antient part. \\\>, !. 
formed the keep, rise immediately from the water, and in 
very strong. Leeds Castle was the residence occasional !\ .t 
Richard II. and Henry IV. Hever Castle, on the E«l-r., 
one of the upper waters of the Medway, was erected in tt.. 
time of Edward III., and possesses some historical int*T''>; 
as the residence of the Boleyn family. Here Henry VllI 
used to visit Ann Boleyn in the days of their court^ii :•. 
Tlie castle is surrounded by a moat : the entrance gat«^^ x , 
is flanked by round towers; the inner buildings form i 
quadrangle enclosing a court. Chilham Castle, about ni,] 
way between Canterbury and Ashford, occupies a site 
which there was probably a Roman building. AHer t: • 
Conquest a Norman castle was built here, of \«htch tj- 
keep is the only part in good preservation. It i^ ar 
irregular octagon of three stories* with walls ten or t\\\ '• .> 
feet thick, built of flint, chalk, and stone intermin.'. t. 
faced with squared stone, and now mantled with i\'y. I * •. 
interior has been much altered and damaged: the \t« a 
from the platform is very fine. The remains of Allin^t. -. 
Castle, on the left bank of the Medway just below M... '- 
stone, are occupied as two tenements. AUington was il. 
seat of Sir Thomas Wyatt, an accomplished scholar of ti^ 
time of Henry VIIL, and of his son Sir Thomas, who ^u: 
fered for treason against Queen Mary. Of Westerhanger. 
or Westonhanger, near Hythe, the principal remains d.-* 
the outer walls, with the towers of the north and east s <U'< 
and a small chapel. Penshurst Castle is a ver}' extendi. • 
pile. It is one of those castellated dwellings that inimt : 
ately succeeded the baronial castles of a more trouL .. 
period. The principal buildings form a quadrangle en<-. •> 
ing a spacious court, and comprehending a halU chapel, .:»- -i 
other apartments. It derives its chief interest from bav;r . 
been the residence of the Sydney family. Knowle, : 
Knole, near Sevenoaks, the residence of the Sackvi'.! - 
dukes of Dorset, is another extensive and magnificent n; > • 
84on: the princiiial buildinf:;^ form a spacious quad i an., 
and are in the custellated style. The greater part is ui .:• 
fifleenlh century, but tome portions of it are yet ol . 
There are earthworks, remains of castles, at Cowling, i...;- 
the mouth of the Thames; at Thurnbam, on the hi\j^ 
the chalk hills nc^ar Maidstone, and one or two other pi r . • 
Sandown, Saiidg Ue, and Walmer Castles, all on the r . • 
hold a midcile place between antient and modern iurt.. 
tions. They arc coeval with Deal Castle, and are of i. 
time of Henry VIII. 

Of monastic remains the principal are St. August:i i . 
Abbey [Canterbury], Aylesford Priory [AylksfordJ. . 
St. Rauiguiid's Abbey, near Dover, which was foui>. 
about A.D. 1191, for Premonstratensian canons: its )• '- 
revenue at the dissolution was 142/. 8s. 9d. gross, or V^' 
2id. clear. The walls of the outbuildings, gardens, ^ 
cover a considerable extent of ground, and the v/. . 
appears to have been surrounded by a semicircular ram-, 
and ditch. The walls of the entrance gateway are n* . 
entire ; the north and west sides of the chapel, and \ ar: 
the dwelling, now patched up as a form-house, are ^ 
standing. The walls are generally covered with ivy. T- . . 
are considerable remains of the Benedictine priory at D • > 
including the gateway and refectory, both nearly en. • 
The abbeys of Faversham and Mailing, and the pricr.o 
Tunbridge and Folkestone, have been already notice<L i 
Boxley Abbey, near Maidstone, there are few remains ; l . 
the abbey buildings at West Langdon, not far from D.\. : 
have been new fronted with brick and much alu: 
There are some remains of the priories of Bilsington, orj . 
edge of Romney Marsh, and of Monks Horton, near Sr.. 
Street causeway, of which last the western entrance to t 
church is a small but beautiful ruin of late Norman a: 
tecture, with insertions of windows and doors of perj^^r 
cular character. The chapel of St. Nicholas's Hospit;!, 
Harbledown, near Canterbury, is partly of Norman :.• 
partly of later architecture. 

Of the churches of the county the most worthy of :. * 
are its two cathedrals [Cantbrbury ; Rochester] ^ 
antiquity Barfreston, or Barston Church, between Cant 
bury and Dover, but not on the high road, is most de&er\ .. , 
of notice. This has been considered to be of Anglo-Sa\ 
architecture, but is more probably Norman. It eon»»i&ix - 
a nave and chancel, having a joint length of 43 feet 4 iticl.t 
the width of the nave, 16 feet 8 inches; of the cnaucci, i . 



KEN 



196 KEN 



1834, was therefore 46 per cent.; while the saving on the 
entire expenditure, comparing those two years, was 47 per 

Tlie numher of turnpike-roads* trusts in Kent, ascertained 
ID 1835 under the Act S and 4 William IV., chap. 80, was 
50 ; the numher of miles of road under their charge was 
586. The annual income arising from tolls and parish 
compojiiiions in lieu of statute duty was. in 1835, 73,674/. 
9«. Gc/., and the annual expenditure in the same year was 
72,b01/. )S8. 7rf., as follows:— 



£. 

15,112 

10,767 

8,144 

998 

4,677 



i. 
9 
4 
14 

8 



d. 
5 

8 
3 
4 



Manual lahour . . • • 

Teum lahour and carriage of materials . 

Materials for surface repairs . 

I^nd purchased 

Tradesmen's hills, law charges, &c. . 

Salaries of treasurer, clerk, and sur- 
veyors 

Improvements .... 

Interest of deht 

Towards redemption of the deht 

Incidental expenses 

The county expenditure in. 183 4, exclusive of that made 
for the relief of the poor, was 16,692/. 15*. 6rf., and was dis- 
hursed as follows : — 



3,708 

5,743 

10.321 

11.089 

2,239 



7 

5 

6 

10 

12 



10 
2 

7 

4 



The ages of the persons accused were — 



MkIm. 
13 
97 
229 
218 
150 
23 
7 
13 



Pel 



4 

H 



>» 



»» 



•r * 

71 

I 
{} 






£. 
1,538 



8. 




d. 
6 



5,651 11 



13 

17 

14 

8 



260 

1,105 

3.562 

1,102 

1,475 11 

15 

226 18 

449 6 

1.319 8 



10 
4 
8 
8 
1 
3 

10 

5 



Bridges, huilding, repairs, Sec. . 

Gaols, houses of correction, and main- 
taining prisoners 

Shire-halls and courts of justice, huild- 
ing, repairing, &c. 

Lunatic asylum 

Prosecutions 

Clerk of the peace 

Conveyance of prisoners heforc trial 

Apprehending and conveying vagrants 

Constahlcs, high and special 

Coroner . . . • 

Miscellaneous 

The numher of persons charged with criminal offences 
within the county in each of the three septennial periods end- 
ing with 1819, 1826. and 1833, were 2741, 3800, and 4640, 
heing an average of 391 annually in the first period, of 543 
in the second period, and of 663 in the third period. The 
numhers accused in subsequent years were — 

1834 . . 775 

1835 . . 894 

1836 . . 872 

1837 . . 896 

Of the number accused in 1337 there were— 

Males. Females. Total. 

For offences against the person . .50 

„ „ against property, with vio- 
lence . . . . .48 
„ „ „ without violence 623 
„ forgery and offences against the cur- 



f* 



rency .... 
other offences, nut included above 



21 
8 



5 
131 

5 
2 



53 

53 
754 

26 

10 



750 146 896 

The numher of persons against whom bills were not 
found by the grand jury, and who were acquitted on trial, 
was 246; of the remaining 650 who were convicted, 481 
were for simple thefts, and 25 for common assaults. There 
were 9 persons sentenced to death; of these 8 had their 
punishment commuted to transportation for life, and the 
other to transportion fur seven yeai*s. Of the remaining 
convicts there were transported — 

For life . . .34 

„ 15 years . . 2 

„ 14 years . . 24 

„ 10 years . 1 

„ 7 years . . 90 



151 
Imprisoned for 2 years and above 1 year . 
,, 1 >ear and above 6 months 

6 months and under 



Whipping, fine, and discharge on sureties 



. 12 
. 56 
. 410 

478 
12 



12 years and under . 

16 „ and above 12 

21 „ „ 16 

30 ,. „ 21 

50 „ „ 30 

60 „ „ 50 

Above 60 . 

Age could not be ascertained 

Their state of instruction was as follows:— 

Male*. Frai >i t 

Could neither read nor write . .298 

read and write imperfectly . . 398 

road and write well . . .33 

Had received superior instruction . . 8 

State of instruction could not be ascertained 1 3 i 

The numher of electors qualified to vote for the count t 
members in Kent at the registration of 1837 was, for i •it- 
eastern division 7293, and for the western division h*... 
being about 1 in 30 of the whole population, and about I sn 
10 of the male population 20 years of age and upwards i- 
takun in 1831. 

There are 20 savings' banks in Kent. The numb-T . f 
depositors in these, and the amount of their deposits a& lix) 
stood on the 20th of November in each of the last five )envs 
were as follows : — 

1833. 183i. 1835. 1836. !»;. 

Number of de- 
positors 18.188 19,3i2 20,010 21,326 22,14!^ 
Amount of de- 
posits £531,018 £566,017 £582,056 £6 13,804 £629.0 1 3 

The deposits of the last two years were divided in the Tv\ 
lowing classes : — 

1836. 1837- 

Dopnsiton. Deposits. Depotfttors. I>epasb?% 

Not exceeding £20 11,836 £82.248 12,506 £fe6,li>4 

50 5,814 179,553 5,867 J^l,>.i: 

100 2,385 164,325 . 2,442 16H.4:^ 

150 800 96.281 838 * 101, -.'it' 

200 399 67.862 408 6-,>:. 

Above 200 92 23,535 88 2-i,> 






21,326 613,804 22,149 C2'> n> 

Education. — The following summary is takeu fioni -. 
turns n^ade to the House or Commons in the .ses ii>ii < 
1835: — 

Schools. ScliUar^ Ti'X. 

Infant schools . . 207 

Number of infants at such schools; 
ages from 2 to 7 years : — 

Males 

Females 

Sex not specified 



Daily schools . 

Number of children at such schools 
ages from 4 to 14 years : — 
Males 
Females 
Sex not specified 

Schools 



Total of children under daily instruction 53.7: 



Sunday schools 

Number of children at such schools 
ages from 4 to 15 years : — 
Males 
Females 
Sex not specified 



l..?-'5 
l,7i 1 

j,-ir«j 



4,jI. 



1488 



24,241 

18.496 

6.469 



1695 



49.*:i 



479 



15,791 
15,556 

6,176 



3T.5 



Assuming that the population between the ages of :2 a:. . 
15 has increased in the same proportion with the whole {.- 
pulation since 1821, when the relative population at differvi : 
ages was last taken, and likewise assuming that ihe ^Lt . 
population has increased since 1831 in the same rutio &> /• 
did in the ten years preceding that date, we find by s'- 
proximation that there were 127,096 children betwcei'i t.-? 
ages of 2 and 15 years in Kent in 1834. when these retcrr.^ 
were obtained. Thirty-one Sunday-schools are reiunu*! 
from places where no other school existed, and tlie cUiklcva 



KEN 



198 



KEN 



deep cuts, which are team 100 to 300 feet below the sur- 
face of the plain, and in which the rivers run. The plains 
belonging to these rivers are narrow. Though this upland 
region is sparingly provided with spring-water, its soil is 
of the first quality, and as fertile as any part of the United 
States. The western portion of the state is divided between 
the Barrens and a country which is partially hilly. The 
Barrens in their natural state are generally destitute of 
trees, and resemble the prairies or savannas which occur 
north of the Ohio River; but the level surface is diversified 
by a considerable number of gently rising hills, called oak 
knobs, on account of the trees which cover them. Though 
this tract does not deserve the name which it bears, it is of 
inferior fertility when compared with the adjacent countries. 
The Barrens occupy chietiy the tract between the Green 
River and Cumberland River, on the borders of Tennessee. 
On the north and west the Barrens are surrounded by a 
more broken and hilly country, which gradually passes to 
the low fiats which skirt the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 
This tract is superior to the Barrens in fertility, but cannot 
be compared with the upland region. 

/?nwff.— Along the northern boundary runs the Ohio, 
which receives all the larger rivers that drain Kentucky. 
The most eastern is the Big Sandy River, which rises in 
Virginia on the western range of the Appalachian system, 
called the Great Flat-top Mountains, ana traverses that state 
in a north-west direction ; where it approaches the boun- 
dary-line, it turns nearly due north, and continues in that 
direction to its very mouth. Its course is stated to be 
nearly 200 miles, but it is not navigable to a great distance 
from its mouth, owing to some falls which occur where it 
issues from the mountain-region. The Licking River rises in 
Kentucky, and flows, with many windings, in a north-north- 
western direction for nearly 200 miles. Though it swells in 
winter and spring to a considerable height, it has but little 
water in the other seasons ; the limestone rocks through 
which it passes absorb the water which it brings down from 
the mountains. The different branches of the Kentucky 
River rise in the Laurel Mountains and form by their union 
a considerable stream, which first flows north-west, then 
west, and at last nearly due north. Its course is about 280 
miles, and though it is very rapid, it may be navigated by 
small boats for lUO miles from its mouth at the time of high- 
water, but at other times not higher up than Frankfort. 
Green River rises in the western districts of the upland 
region and flows for the greater part of its course westward, 
then declines to the north-west, and finally to the north, 
joining the Ohio about 50 miles above the mouth of the 
Cumberland River. Its course is 280 miles, and it is navi- 
gable for small river-barges to a great distance, but the 
navigation is interrupted by falls, about 50 miles from its 
mouth. Cumberland River rises in the valley between the 
Cumberland Mountains and the Laurel Mountains, where 
it is calle<l Clove River ; it traverses both the mountain and 
upland region generally in a western direction, but on ap- 
proaching the barrens it turns southward, and enters Ten- 
nessee, where it makes a large bend to the southward, and 
then rc-entera Kentucky with a north-western course, con- 
tinuing in that direction to its mouth, which is ten miles 
above that of Tennessee River. It is above 500 miles in 
length, and as its current is comparatively gentle, it ofTers 
an easy navigation for sloops as far up as Nashville in Ten- 
nessee, and it is stated to oe navigable for river-boats 300 
miles farther up. The Tennessee River flows only about 
70 miles through Kentucky, and properly belongs to Ten- 
nessee. [Tennessee.] 

Climate. — ^The mean annual temperature seems to be 
about 55°, and consequently 5° higher than that of London, 
but the differences in the extremes of heat and cold are 
much greater. The winters are long and severe : they bet(in 
about Christmas, and last three months. The thermometer 
annually descends as low as 25°, and has been known to sink 
as low as 14*" of Fahr. Snow falls every winter, but not in 
great quantities. In summer the heat is sometimes very 
great, and the ihennomcter rises to 94° and 95°. In spring 
and autumn south-west winds prevail, and the weather is 
(klightful. The north-west wind produces great cold in 
winter, but it seldom continues many days. Rain fulls 
abundantly in winter and spring, but in the other seasons 
tlie weather is rather dry and constant. Some slight shocks 
i»t earlliquakcs have occurred. 

Plod act ions. — ^I'he cerealia which are most extensively 
cuUivaied are Indian corn^ wheat, rye, and oats, and the 



two last-mentioned kinds of grain are said to tnrive better 
than in the states on the shores of the Atlantic R\e is 
commonly used for the distilling of whiskey. In' tl.e 
south-western districts, near and on the Tennessee. Cliu- 
berland, and Mississippi rivers, cotton is raised in ab'^n- 
dance; and the tobacco which is grown in these distncs 
and the rich lands farther east supplies a consideralilc 
article of exportation. Hemp and flax are generally ctilu- 
vated. The principal firuit-trees are apples and peaches ; 
from the former cider is made, and from the latter pcarh- 
brandy, of which there is a great consumption. Cattle are 
numerous, and great flocks of sheep pasture on the Barrens ; 
the breed of sheep has been improved by crossing them wttL 
merinos. 

As the greatest part of the comitry is covered with forests 
wild animals are still numerous, as deer, panthers, bean, 
wolves, foxes, and hares, but the buffalo and the elk have 
disappeared. Beavers and otters are still found in the 
rivers. Among the wild birds the turkey is still abundant ; 
it weighs from 10 to 25 pounds. Bees are common m the 
woods, and make their nests in hollow trees. 

The forests contain many timber-trees. Those of the 
mountains and upland region consist of liriodendron, elro. 
oak, hickory, black-walnut, cherry, and others ; those of the 
Barrens are chiefly oak, chesnut, and elm. 

Bituminous coal and iron abound in the north-western 
district, and iron also occurs in the districts lying farthtr 
westward ; but both are of inferior quality. Salt seems to 
be generally diffused through the country : the saU-sprii'g< 
are numerous, and many of them have been turned u 
advantage. Saltpetre exists in most of the caverns which 
occur in the limestone-rock of the upland reffioti, and is 
most abundant in the Great Cave near Oooked Creek, the 
length of which is stated to be not less than ten miles. 

Inhabitants, — ^The native tribes, which rendered the set- 
tlement of this state so diflicult and dangerous seventy yefu-^ 
ago, have entirely disappeared, and the population now c«.:i- 
sists entirely of whites and negroes, and a mixture of the 
two. The free population comprehended, according to thf 
census of 1830, 523,490 individuals, and the number of 
slaves was 165,350, making a total of 688,840 souls. Tl.^ 
inhabitants are almost exclusively employed in agricultural 
pursuits, the number of persons engaged in manufticturcs 
being compaiatively very small. The most important mai.u 
facture is the construction of vessels, small and large, lor 
the navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

Political Divisions and Towns, Kentuckv is divided iuij 
83 counties, bat as the country has onlyb^n settled t-r 
about 70 years, it does not contain any largo towns. Frank- 
fort, the capital, is built on the right banksof the Kentuc ^\ 
River where it ceases to be navigable for large vessels. 1: 
contains about 2000 inhabitants. Many vessels of md.i.: 
size are built here. Lexington, which was formerlv uv 
capital, contained (in 1830) above 6000 inhabiUntsi, ai.I 
some manufactures of cotton, hemp, and paper. Trans\ h :•- 
nia University, at Lexington, is the most extensive liicr i:\ 
institution in the United States west of the Appalacb^n 
Mountains. It was founded in 1798, and reorganlst*i ::« 
1818. A well-attended school of medicine and a school f 
law are connected with this university. Louisville, on tie 
banks of the Ohiq,^ is situated near the great rapids of tl ^t 
river. As these rapids cAunot be passed at low water, a.rl 
even at high water are dangerous, a canal has be<?n r it 
along the bank, which begins above the rapids at Beargrji.- v- 
creek, and terminates below them at Shippingport. "Tin* 
canal is 10 miles long. Louisville, which is the port of tlir 
upland region and the place from which the produce of ilt * 
country is sent down the Ohio and Mississippi, conta.r.i 
above 10,000 inhabitants, and has some extensive distil lei e^ 
of whiskey and manufactures of cordage and bagging^. V'^ 
the Ohio there is also Bardstown, with 1200 inhabitan!) ; 
it is the seat of a Catholic bishop and a Roman Cailiol.c 
college. Maysville, which has 2000 inhabitants and a c ^i- 
sidcrable trade with the neighbouring states, is also on liu^ 
Ohio. Besides the literary institutions already mentions i. 
the Methodists and Baptists have each a coUegep and Ljl> 
Presbyterians have two. 

Commerce,— The articles of commerce consist of dilTereni 
kinds of grain, tobacco, hemp, live cattle, whiskey, and pi\i h 
brandy. The greatest part is sent down the Ohio and M.^- 
sissippi to New Orleans, between which place and Loui<i- 
ville steam-boats from 200 to 300 tons burthen and upwar<i% 
are constantly plying. Since the introduction of steam- 



K E P 



200 



K E P 



Lord Kenyon trusted too much to the power of the ter- 
rors of the law in guarding the rights of property from 
fraud or violence ; and he inflicted death as the most terri- 
hle, and therefore the most preventive punishment. That 
this proceeded rather from a mistaken judgment — an 
iznorance of, or a want of power to give sufficient weight to, 
those circumstances which cxeit a more powerful influence 
uiM)n human character, and not from a cold and sanguinary 
disposition, the following anecdote may he considered as a 
proof:— He passed sentence of death upon a young woman 
who had committed a theft ; she fiiinted : Lord Kenyon, in 
great agitation, cried out, '1 don't mean to hanj you— Will 
nohody tell her that I don't mean to hang her? 

Indeed, in behalf of poor and ignorant offenders who 
were the dupes or tools of knaves his kindly feelings were 
ofien displayed, and humble individuals of the working 
classes who were harassed by informers were sure to be 
shielded by him. A prosecution was commenced against 
a man for practising the trade of a tailor without having 
seived an apprenticesliip, and an attempt was made to 
punish him for several acts done in the same day. * Prose- 
cute the man,' said Lord Kenyon, • for different acts in one 
day ! Why not sue for penalties on every stitch?' • 

Lord Mansfield, when chief-justice, had somewhat un- 
settled the bounds of the courts of law; but Lord Kenyon, 
with much wisdom, reverted to the antient strictness, and 
he expressed his determination to maintain it. 'I have,* he 
said, 'been in this profession more than tbrty years, and 
have practised both in courts of law and equity ; and if it 
had fallen to my lot to form a system of jurisprudence, 
whether or not I should have thought it advisable to esta- 
blish different courts, with different jurisdictions, it is not 
necessary to say. But influenced as I am by certain preju- 
dices that have become inveterate with those who comply 
with the systems found established, I find that in these, 
proceeding by different rules, a certain combined system of 
jurisprudence has been framed most beneficial to the people 
of this country, and which I hope I may be indulged in 
supposing has never yet been equalled in any country on 
earth. Our courts of law only consider legal rights — our 
courts of equity have other rules by which they sometimes 
supersede strict legal rules, and in so doing they act most 
beneficially for the subject.' * I will not,' he said, in an- 
other instance, * overturn the law of the land as it has been 
handed down to me.' 

He wisely refused to allow the plain words of a statute 
to be refined away, however severe in its enactments, by any 
subtle sophistry. * The argument^,' he said, • that have 
been pressed ii^ion us might have had some effect if they 
were addresse<l to the legislature; but we are sitting in a 
court of law, and must administer justice according to the 
known laws of the land. Let application be made to the 
legislature to amend the act : as lung as it remains upon 
the statute-book we must enforce it.' 

Mr. Charles Butler, after praising Lord Kenvon's intui- 
tive readiness, complains ' that ho seldom exhibited the 
intermediate patient discussion. The consequence was, 
that though the decision was right, the ground of it was 
sometimes obscure, and the objections to it in the minds of 
the hearers were not always removed. This lessened the 
merit of his adjudications; but they are most deservedly 
held in the highest respect, and considered of the highest 
authority.* 

At Nisi Prius he never brought a book with him into 
court to refer to. The extent as well as the arrangement 
of his legal knowledge needed no such assistance. In per- 
forming the laborious duties of his profession he was dili- 
gent and exact, and proceeded with so much expedition as 
often to get through twenty-five or twenty-six causes to the 
entire satisfaction of the court 

He died in 1 802, sorrow-stricken by the loss of his eldest 
son, after having accumulated a fortune of 300,000/. 

In his private habits Lord Kenyon was temperate, 
frugal even to parsimony, and an early riser. For his hap- 
piness he looked to his home, being most deeply attached 
to his family. He entirely disregarded outward appearance : 
his dress was shabby, his equipage mean, while he entirely 
neglected to exercise the hospitality becoming his high sta- 
tion and lan^e fortune. {Law Magazine, No. 37, p. 49.) 

KEPLER. JOHN, was horn at Weil in the duchy of 
WMrtemberi;, 21st December, 1571. He was a seven 
months child, very weak and sickly, and survived with 
dilliculty a severe attack of smallpox. His parents, | 



Henry Kepler and Catherine 6uldenroann» were of noble 
descent, although their circumstances were far from atfluc nt 
The father, at the time of his marriage, was a petty otGctT 
in the service of the duke of Wirtemberg, and joined t!.e 
army in the Netherlands a few years after the birth of hs 
eldest son John. Upon his return to Grermany he Icmnt 
that an acquaintance for whom he had incautiously be* ..i. •' 
security had absconded, and had left him the une\i>e< !• i 
charge of liquidating the bond. This circumstance obi vt i 
him to dispose of his house and nearly the whole of t;:> 
possessions, and to become a tavern-keeper at Elmendiiui -u 
Young Kepler had been sent in the year 1577 to a Sih .J 
at Elmendingen, and he continued there until the occurrcii": 
of the event to which we have just alluded, and which ^s i^ 
the cause of a temporary interruption in his education. &>;! 
appears that he was taken home and employed in menu 
services until his twelfth year, when he returned to scb.MV.. 
In 1586 he was admitted mto the monastic school of Mau.- 
bronn, where the cost of his education was defrayed b} i: : 
duke of Wirtemberg. The regulations of this ^r!.< < : 
required that after remaining a year in the superior cla-n 
the students should offer themselves for examination at .!• 
college of Tubingen for the de^n^e of Bachelor. On •/.- 
taining this degree they returned with the title of veteran^ : 
and having completed the prescribed course of study, tit . 
were admitted as resident students at Tubingen, n Ik :. • 
they proceeded in about a year to the degree of Mh-Jc 
During his under-graduateship Kepler's studies wereinix ' 
inteiTupted by periodical returns of the disorders \^hirh U.> 
so neai'ly prov^l fatal to him during childhood, as al^o t>' 
the dissensions between his parents, in eonsequenre • 
which his father left his home, and soon after died abr. .. 
Notwithstanding the many disadvantages he must li i. 
laboured under from the above circumstances, and frorj t* 
confused state in which they had left his domestic atia r- 
Kepler took the degree of Master in August, 1591, utt.-t 
ing the second place in the annual examination. Tlio i\. ^ 
name on the list was John Hippolytus Brentius. 

While thus engaged at Tiibingen, the astronomical !.- - 
tureship of Griitz, the chief town in Styria, became vni .. 
by the death of George Stadt, and the situation was ofTr . 
to Kepler, who was forced to accept it by the authori:> 
his tutors, although we havQ his own assurance that at ! 
period he had given no particular attention to astrou.*.' 
This must have been in the year 1593-4. In 1596 he y 
lished his 'Mysterium Cosmographicum,' wherein lu» ..f 
tails the many ingenious hypotheses which he had surt • 
sively formed, examined, and rejected, concern in:^ \. 
number, distance, and periodic times of the planeu ; a: 
finally, proposes a theory which he imagines will acciMiT.: 
a satisfactory manner for the order of the heavenly h- 1. - 
which theory rests upon the fancied analogy between * 
relative dimensions of the orbits of those Mies, anJ : ' 
diameters of circles inscribed and circumscribed ab<kut :• 
five regular solids. In 1597 Kepler married Barbara NLi. • 
von Muhleckh, a lady who, although two years yonn. • 
than himself, was already a widow for the second time. 1 ^• 
alliance soon involved him in difficulties, which toj-«M 
with the troubled state of the pronnce of Styria, an^ 
out of the two great religious pai'ties into which tho • . : 
pire was then divided, induced him to withdraw t> 
Gratz into Hungary, whence he transmitted to a 1'.: - 
at Tiibingen, several short treatises — 'On the Ma-j ^ . 
•On the Cause of the Obliquity of the Ecliptic,' aiul w 
the Divine Wisdom as shown in the Creation.' In ! 
Kepler, having learned that Tycho Brahe was at Bena.ii 
Bohemia, and that his observations had led him to u i:'. 
accurate determination of the eccentricities of the plai. 
orbits, determined on paying him a visit, and was wclc'^r. 
in the kindest manner by Tycho, by whom he vras in:. 
duced the following year to the emperor, and honoured t% 
the title of imperial mathematician, on condition of a'->.> 
ing Tycho in his calculations. Upon the death of 1\ . 
which happened in the month of October of the same ') < 
Kepler succeeded him as principal mathematician to ;. 
emperor. To this great man Kepler was under xnaiiy i 
ligations, not merely for the pecuniary assistance and I 
pitality which himself and family so often experienced tr 
Tycho, and upon which at one period they entire! > •. 
pended for subsistence, but still more for the sound av!\ 
which he gave him, to abandon speculation, and lo ar: 
himself to the deduction of causes fipom their ob**-. ' 
effects, — adyice which Kepler greatly needed, and to "u ti;. 



i ' 



K E R 



202 



K E R 



to obtain a liquidation of his claims upon the imperial trca- 
aury, but the fatigue and vexation of his fruitless joutney 
brought on a fever which terminated his life in the early 
part of November, 1630, and in his d9th year. His body 
was interred in St. Peter's churchyard at Ratiabon, and a 
simple inscription, which has long since disappeared, was 
placed on his tombstone. Upon the character of Kepler, 
upon his failures, and on his success, Delambra has pro- 
nounced the following judgment : — ^"Ardent, restless, burn- 
ing to distinguish himself by his discoveries, he attempted 
everything; and having once obtained a glimpse, no labour 
was too hard ror him in following or verifying it. All his 
attempts had not the same success, and, in feet, that was 
impossible. Those which have failed seem to us only fanci- 
ful ; those wliich have been more fortunate apnear sublime. 
When in search of that which really existed, he has some- 
times found it; when he devoted himself to the pursuit of 
a chimera, he could not but fail ; but even there he un- 
folded the same qualities, and that obstinate perseverance 
that must triumph over all difficulties but those which are 
insurmountable.* 

The following is a list of Kepler's published works. His 
manuscripts were purchased for the library of St. Peters- 
burg, where Euler, Lexell, and Kraft undertook to examine 
them and to select the most interesting parts for publica- 
tion, but the result of this examination has never appeared. 

List of Kepler's published tcorks .— * Ein Calender,' Grati, 
1594 ; * Prodromua Dissertat. Cosmograph.,* Ttibingflo, 1596, 
4to.; 'De fundamentis Astrologi©,' Pragae, 1602, 4to.; 

• Paralipomena ad Viiellionem,* Francoftirti, 1604. 4to. ; 
' Epistola de Solis deKquio,' 1605; * I>e StelW NovA,' Pragn, 
1606. 4to. ; • Vom Kometen/ Halle, 1608, 4to. ; • Antwort 
an Roslin,' Prag», 1609, 4to. ; * Astronomia Nova,' Prag», 
1609, fol.; • Tertius Interveniens.* Frankfurt, 1610, 4to.; 

• Dissertatio cum Nuncio Sidereo,' Francofurti, 1610, 4to. ; 
•Strena, seu De nive sexangulft,' Frankftjrt, 1611, 4to.; 

• Dioptrica,' FrancofUrti, 1611, 4to.; • Vom Geburts Jahre 
des Heylandes,' Strasburg. 1613, 4to.; •Respons. ad cpist 
8. Calvisii,' Francofurti, 1614, 4to.; • Eclo^a ChronicsB,' 
Frankfurt, 1615. 4to.; • Nova Stereometria, Liucii, 1615, 
4to. ; • Ephemerides 1617—1620,' Lincii. 1616, 4to.; * Epi- 
tomes Astron. Copern. Libri i. ii. iii.,' Lentiis, 1618, 8vo.; 
•De Cometis,' Aug. Vindelic. 1619, 4to. ; • Harmonice 
Mundi,' Lincii, 1619, fol; • Kanones Pueriles,' Ulm«, 
1620; • Epitomes Astron. Copern. Liber iv.,] Lentiis, 1622, 
8vo. ; • Epitomes Astron. Copern. Libri v. vi. vii.,' Franco- 
furti, 1622, 8vo. ; * Discurs von der grossen Conjunction,' 
Linz., 1623, .4to.; 'Chilias Logarithmorum,' Martiurgi, 
1624, fol; ' Supplementum,' Lentiis, 1625, 4to.; • Hyper- 
aspisles,' Francofurti, 1625, 8 vo.; * Tabulae RudolphinsB,' 
Ulmae, 1627, fol.; * Resp. ad cpist. J. Bartschii,' Sagani. 

1629, 4to.; 'De anni 1631 Phaenomenis,' Lipsao, 1629, 4to.; 
•Terrenlii Epistolium cum Commentaliunculft,' Sagani, 

1630, 4to.; 'Ephemerides,' Sagani, 1630, 4to.; • Somnium,' 
Francofurti, 1634, 4to.; • Tabulae Manuales,' Argentorati, 
1700, 12mo. 

(Abridged ftrom the Life qf Kepler, in the * Library of 
Useful Knowledge ;' with occasional reference to the Systeme 
du Monde of Laplace, and other works.) 

A splendid edition of Kepler's • Correspondence' was 
published under the auspices of the Emperor Charles VL, 
m 1718, by M. G. Hansch. It is entitled • Epistolae ad J. 
Keplerum,^ &c., and the title-page hai» no place of publi- 
cation, but the preface is dated from Leipzig. It contains 
a Life of Kepler. 

KERMAN. [Persia.] 

KERMANSHAW. [Persia.] 

KERMES MINERAL, a peculiar sulphuret of antimony, 
formerly much, but now little used in medicine. Various 
processes, some in the humid and others in the dry way, 
nave been proposed for obtaining it. 

One of tne best appears to be that of boiling six parts of 
powdered sesquisulphuret of antimony in a solution of 
about twenty times its weight of crystallised carbonate of 
soda in ten times its weight of water. After an hour's 
ebullition, the liquor is to be strained while hot, and allowed 
to cool very slowly, during which the Kermos Mineral 
separates in the state of a brownish>red powder, which, 
after due washing, is to be dried with a gentle heat. 

According to Rose it is composed of sulphur 38*41 and 
antimony 61 '59, which are very nearly in tne proportion of 
2^ equivalents of sulphur 40 + one equivalent of anti- 
mony 65. 



KE'RODON, a genus of rodents, bearing in some re- 
spects resemblance to that of Cavio, but differing both in 
the loeomotive and masticatory organs, established by M. F 

2 4-'4 

Cuvier. Dental formula :— Incisors - , molars -- — - = 20 

8 4—4 





Teeth of Kerodon. (F. Cuvier.) 

The molars all resemble each other, and are composed of 
two equal parts, each of a triangular or rather cordifnrm 
shape, united on the external side of the tooth, and m^s* 
rated on its internal side. These triangles or * hearts* are 
each surrounded by their enamel, and filled with bony nr.t- 
ter, and their separation produces an angular notch part! i 
Ailed with cortical substance. 

When M. F. Cuvier wrote, but one species, Kerodon M<^, 
was known, and this was discovered by Prince Maxim;! ^n 
of Neuwied, and noticed by him under the name of Cinz 
rupestris. The fur is ash-gray mixed with reddish yell w, 
and blackish |)bove and whitish below. Sixe smaller th:iL 
that of the guinea pig. 

This species was found in the rocky places of the inter: r 
ofBraSil near Rio San Francisco. 

In 1836, Mr. Bennett exhibited to a meeting of the 1^ 
logical Society of London a rodent sent home araons tr.c 
animals collected by Captain Phillip Parker King, R. N. 
during his survey of the Straits of Magalhaens, and yv:- 
sentert by him to the Society, which Mr. Bennett rejr«n\ei 
as a second species oi Kerodon^ and fbr which he proptt*^^! 
the name of Kerodon King^ii. It was chiefly distinguisha^- *' 
from that discovered by Prince Maximilian by its more un 
form colour. Excepting a slight dash of white behind v.- 
ear, and a longer line of the same colour marking the e<L' 
of each branch of the lower jaw, the animal is entirely in ?v 
the upper surface being distinguished from the under b> *• 
greatbr depth of tint, and bv the intermixture of a ft-: 
grizzling of yellow and black. The crowns of the m 
teeth, as in the typical species, consist of bone suirounii" 
by two triangles of enamel, the bases of which are r«>^ 
nected by a short line of enamel passing firom one to t! 
other, all the lines being slender ana sharply defined. 

This species was found at Port Desire, on the ea^ti .. 
coast of Patagonia. {Zool. Proc.t 1 835.) 

KERRY, a maritime county of the province of Mun^*-* 
in Ireland ; bounded on the east by the counties of Linger » 
and Cork, on the south by the county of Cork and t:. 
flsstuary of the river of Kenmare, on the west by the Atl«\ir 
Ocean, and on the north by the nstuary of the river Shani^> 
which separates it from the county of Clare. AocoMinj : • 
the map published under the superintendeooe ol the Socict? 



1' 



K E tl 



204 



K E R 



to a height of 2550 feet The castles of Dunlo and Ross, 
and the ruined churches of Aghadoe and Muckreefs, vhich 
are all situated on the eastern shore of the Lower Lake, 
add considerably to the interest and extent of the surround- 
ing scenery. The waters of the lakes of Killamey discharge 
themselves at the northern extremity of the Lower Lake 
through the river Laune, which runs by a course of twelve 
miles mto the head of Dingle Bay. 

The remainder of the plain between Killamey and the 
mountains south of Tndee is drained bv the river Main, 
which rises near the Cork boundary, and after passing the 
towns of Castle Island and Castlemain, discharges itself 
into the head of Dingle Bay, where it forms an oostuary 
called Castlemain Harbour. 

The valley of the Main is bounded on the north by the 
group of the Stack mountains, which sink into compara- 
tively low hills as they trend towards the sea, leaving a pretty 
open communication with Tralee from the south. West- 
ward from this point the lofty ridge of Slievemish occupies the 
entire neck of the peninsula of Corkaguinny, which bounds 
the bay of Dingle on the north. Slievemish is interrupted 
by a lateral valley, beyond which the conical mountain of 
Cahirconree rises to a height of 2784 feot. Westward 
from this a minor chain of hills extends to Dingle on the 
southern side of the peninsula ; beyond and north of 
Dingle the mountains rise towards the Atlantic in great 
masses, of which the chief is Brandon, 3150 feet in height, 
being the second highest ground in Ireland. Tlie extremity 
of the peninsula has an abrupt coast of about six miles 
from north to south, formcfl by Sybil Head, Maran moun- 
tain, Eagle mountain, and Dunmore Head, off which lie the 
Blasquet Islands. 

North of Tralee the country improves in facility of access 
and cultivation. The plain of Ardtert, between Tralee and 
the high ground towards Kerry Head, is rich and. well im< 
proved; its drainage is towards the sea, and the streams 
are insigniQcant. The remaining district, extending from 
the plain of Ardfert to Tarbert on the Limerick boundary, 
is the most extensive tract of open country in Kerry ; it is 
drained by the rivers Feale, Gale^ and Brick, which, uniting 
within five miles of the sea, receive the common name of 
the Cashen river: the united length of their courses is 
about 50 miles. A rou^ district extends from the mouth 
of the Cashen to Beal Point, where the cestuary of the 
Shannon first assumes the character of a river. The coast 
is here precipitous towards the sea, and near the bathing 
villi^ of Ballybunioii abounds in caves which are said to 
be of the most maguificant description. On the Feale is 
situated the town of Listowel. which, with Lixnaw near the 
Brick, and Tarbert and Ballylongford on the Shannon, are 
the only other places of consequence in the county. The dis- 
trict of the Cashen contains a large extent of bog. The total 
area of the bogs of Kerry is estimated at 150,000 acres. 

The harbours on the south side of the river of Kenmare 
* are in general badlv protected from westerly and northerly 
eales. From Dutch Island, which fronts the harbour of 
Ardgroom on this side, as fur up as the tide runs, there is safe 
anchorage in eight to three fathoms water in the middle of 
the channel, the banks being a soft ooze on which vessels 
may be conveniently careened. Opposite to Ardgroom, on 
the north side of the SDstuary, is Sneem Harbour, where 
vessels may lie landlocked in four fathoms water, or in the 
entrance may ride in ten fathoms. Vessels parting tlteir 
cables in any part of the aasluary may safely run aground 
in Nideen Sound, which forms the upper extremity of the 
bay on this side. Towards the middle of the west side of 
Ballinaskelixs Bay is a small island, between which and the 
mainland is anchorage in four to five fathoms, but even 
here in hard weather a vessel requires very strong cables ; 
the remainder of the bay is quite unsafe in southerly or 
westerly winds. Between Bolus Head and Puffin Island is 
St Finian's Bay, which is very much exposed to the'prevalent 
run of the sea. The harbour of Valentia opens about a league 
to the north of Puflin Island ; it possesses the advantage of 
a double entrance, so that ships may sail in or out with any 
wind. It is quite landlocked, but the Entrances are narrow, 
that on the north being contracted by the islands of 
Beginnis and Lamb's Island, between the former of which 
and Valentia there is a sunken rock, which farther con- 
tracts the entrance to a cable's length. Valentia Island 
forms the southern boundary of the bay of Dingle towards 
the sea. Dingle bay is open and unsafe, being full of shoals 
at its upper extremity; vessels embayed here should make 



either for Valencia or the creek of Dingle on the opposije 
side of the aE}Stuary. [Dingle.] A league west of Dingle 
creek is the bay of Ventry, with good anchorage and a ^ul- 
flcient depth of water, but open to the south. Smvru irw 
harbour on the opnosite side of the peninsula has also deep 
water and good holding-ground, but is exposed to the north: 
the bottom of the harbour consists of turf bog, which bhous 
that a portion of this coast must have been submerged wiiluu 
a comparatively recent date. Under the ueck of the pen insuU 
on the northern side is the bay of Tralee, which is dry at low 
water, but now in process of considerable improvement b> ti. 
construction of a ship canal, by which vessels of 300 tons u u\ 
be able to come up to the town. [Tralbb.] From Tralee north 
ward the coast is low and encumbered with shoals and ^all(^ 
bank8. Vessels embayed here, if they cannot make Fein 
Creek on the north of Tralee Bay, have no shelter for a dis- 
tance of two leagues. Beyond Kerry Head opens the Ki*\ u..n 
of the Shannon, in which the first sheltered anchoraL*<- 
is off the point of Tarbert, where ships may lie nearly U'.A- 
locked in twelve fathoms water. There are pien« fur fi^lnttc 
boats and small craft at Kenmare, Ballina&kelligs, CUai- ' 
civeen, Brandon, and Banra; and considerable impt'«\i.- 
ments are projected at Ballylongford and Tarbert 

The roads in the south-western part of Kerry up to Hh* 
year 182(1 were scarcely passable for wheel-carriages, ajul 
there are some parts of the coast between Kenmare an i 
Cahirciveen still inaccessible, except on foot or horseback. 
From Cahirciveen the old line of cummunication was by the 
seaward side of Drung Mountain, at a height of SCO foet 
above the Bay of Dingle. The difficulty of access to the 
district of Glanl ehy situatc<l southward of this line in- 
duced the proprietor, I^rd Headly, in 1807, to commence 
the construction of a road on a more eligible level through 
his property: the development of the resources of the d:>- 
trict which followed the first opening of this road was rt«- 
markably rapid ; and the same result in a more striking- 
manner attended the subsequent construction of a mail- 
coach road, connecting Cahirciveen, by the valley south of 
Drung Mountain, with the law country at the head of 
Dingle Bay. In three years from the opening of the nev 
road in 1821, there were upwards of twenty two-story slated 
houses built in Cahirciveen, together with an inn, a bnde- 
well, a post-office, a chapel, a quay, a salt- work, and t«o 
large stores for grain. Before this time the village con- 
sisted of a few thatched cabins, and the nearest post>offii\ 
was thirty miles distant About the same time ^overnmon: 
commenced several new lines of road, which have »iti{\ 
greatly contributed to the prosperity of the country. Of 
these the most important is a line 23 Irish or 32 statuu 
miles in length, connecting the town of Listowel and the 
northern parts of Kerry with Newmarket in the count\ of 
Cork, by which the distance firom the former town to Cork 
city is diminished 29 miles. Another line 25^ statute miW^ 
in length connects Castle Island with Newcastle in th^ 
county of Limerick, diminishing the former distance frum 
Killamey and the southern parts of Keiry to Limerirk rii> 
29^ statute miles. The old roads in this direction luul ii. 
some places a rise of 1 foot in 4 ; the present road ha> . 
maximum rise of 1 foot in 27^. It crosses the Feale Ri%er 
by one arch of 70 feet span, where formerlv was a bridge m 
twenty-one arches. Before the year 1824 theie was no iua«l 
passable for wheel-carriages between Kenmare and iLi* 
south-western part of Cork, and the car-road from Kenma- <- 
to Killarney was of the worst description. An excellent 
road has since been constructed between the two lattc 
places, and the line across the mountains of Bear ui.v'. 
Bantry is now in progress. Tliese lines will be uuitoil a 
Kenmare by a suspension-bridge, to which the Marquis .• 
Lansdowne contributes 3200/. This will complete a dirxc 
and very important line of communication between tI:o 
Shannon at Tarbert, and the south coast of the counts < 
Cork near Skibbereen, a total distance of 84 miles. Tht 
other roads of the county are constructed and kept in re- 
pair by grand jury presentments. 

The climate is very moist from the vicinity of the AlLin- 
tic, and the south-western district is much exposed tu storiuf^ 
In the inland parts however, especially in the neighbour- 
hood of Killarney, the air is mild and genial, and vegetal u.^ 
extremely luxuriant. There have been some remarkable 
instances of longevity iu this county, notwithstandiui; the 
prevalent use of ardent spirits. 

The geological structure of the chief mountain-ciiains 
is similar to that of the mountains in tlie wc»t vi 



KER 



206 



KEY 



Killarney, Dingle, Kenmare, Cabirciveen, Castle Island, 
Miltown, Listowell, and Taqbert. The total numbers of 
persons eominitted for trial to the county goal in 1836 vas 
747, of whom 503 were convicted. Of the offenders, at the 
time of their commhment, 283 males and 3 females could 
read and write, 123 males and 8 females could read only, 
and 243 males and 87 females could neither read nor write. 
The constabulary force in 1835 consisted of 7 first class 
constables, 26 constables, 1 30 sub-constables, and 1 1 horse ; 
the total cost of the establishment for that year was 5818/. 5«. 
Hd., of which 2830/. 5^. Zd, was chargeable against tbe county. 
The county infirmary and fever nospital are at Tralee; 
there is also a fever hospital at Killarney, and there are 
dispensaries, supported by voluntary contributions and 
grand jury presentments, in all the minor towns. The dis- 
trict lunatic asylum is at Limerick ; tbe proportion of the 
cost of its erection chargeable against Kerry county is 
9303/. 16*. 7rf. Kerry is entirely within the diocese of 
Ardfert and Aghadoe. The proportion of Roman Catholics 
to Protestanls in this diocese is nearly 40 to 1. The pro- 
portion per cent, of the popularion under daily instruction 
IS 4*63, in which respect this diocese stands last among the 
32 dioceses of Ireland. There is however a very general 
turn for classical learning among the peasantry, many of 
whom have a tolerable knowledr^e of the Latin language. 

Kerry, according to some Irish writers, had its name 
from Ciar, the son of Fergus, king of Ulster and signified 
Ciar's kingdom ; and originally formed part of the king- 
dom of Desmond, or South Munster, or which the M&c 
Carthies were sovereigns. Dermod MacCarthy, chief of 
this country, having invited the assistance of Raymond le 
Gros, one of the early Anglo-Norman adventurers, to sup- 
press the rebellion of his son Cormac, granted him as a re- 
compense for his services a larj^e tract in the north of the 
county round Lixnaw, where Raymond, about /r.o. 1177, 
settled bis son Maurice, from whom the Fitzmaurices, 
lords of Kerry, draw their pedigree, and tbe barony of Clan- 
maurice takes its name. Soon after, the Fitzgeralds esta- 
blished themselves in the south of the county, where they 
rose to such power on the downfall of the MacCarthies 
that in 1295 Thomas Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald was captain 
of all Desmond, comprising the counties of Cork, Water- 
ford, and Kerry, and lord justice of Ireland. He left two 
sons, John, afterwards created earl of Kildare, and Maurice, 
created earl of Desmond, with a royal jurisdiction over the 
palatinate of Kerry, a.d. 1329. The liberty of Kerry 
so erected included the entire county, with the exception of 
the church lands, for which tbe king appointed the sheriff. 
The lords of the palatinate bad their own courts, judges, 
and great law officers, the only distinction between the 
liberty and a regular county being that the executive was 
administered by a seneschal instead of a sheriff. The pos- 
session of so great powers in a district removed from all 
direct control drew the succeeding earls of Desmond into 
frequent contempts of tbe royal authority, for which their 
territories were on several occasions wasted by the king's 
forces. The rebellion of Gerald, the sixteenth earl in the 
reign of Elizabeth [Cork], caused the final suppression of 
their authority and confiscation of their estates. The Eng- 
lish knights and gentlemen who had grants from the queen 
of the forfeited lands in the county were— Sir William Her- 
bert, Knt., 13,276 acres : Charles Herbert, Esq., 3768 acres ; 
Sir Valentine Brown, Knt, 6560 acres ; Sir Edward Denny, 
Knt., 6U00 acres ; Captain Conway. 5260 acres ; John Chap- 
man, Esq., 1434 acres; and John Holly, Esq., 4422 acres. 

On the breaking out of the rebellion of 1641, the native 
Irish a8:ain took arms, and laid siege to tbe castle of Tralee, 
to which a great number of English families had lied. After 
a siege of six months the place surrendered, and the Irish 
remained in possession of the country till 1652, when Lud- 
low, with an army of 4000 foot and 200 horse, again reduced 
them. Extensive confiscations of tbe estates of the native 
Irish followed. Among the new proprietors was Sir Wil- 
liam Petty, who obtainea a large grant of lands in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kenmare, and commencod tbe smelting of 
iron, which was carried on with vigoiur while timber lasted. 
A colony of Protestants was planted by Sir William Petty 
round the head of Kenmare river, who were attacked by 
the native Irish in 1688^ and compelled to abandon their 
possessions. A detachment of King William's army, under 
Brigadier Levison, entered the county in 1691 and finally 
reduced it. The confiscations consequent on the last rebel- 
lion amounted to 90, 116 acres, of an estimated total talue 



at tbat time of 47,483/. 12*. 9i. About 1710 tbe coast wa^ 
harassed by French pirates, wnir.h led to the erection of a 
small fort on Valentia Island. Tiie principal proprietors a: 
present are, the Marquis of Laiisdowne, in whom ih^^ 
Fitzmaurice and Petty estates centre; Lord Kenmare. tL. 
representative of the Brown family; Lord Headly, Lori 
Ventry, and the Knight of Kerrj*. 

Kerry contains several monuments of a very remote an 
tiquity, of which the most remarkable are the Cyclopt^.^ 
stone fortresses of Cahirconree, Staigue, and Cahir Donrit- u , 
and the sepulchral stones with ognam inscriptions m tnt 
neighbourhood of Dingle. Stone cells, probably of the »;\ ! j 
and seventh centuries, are still stanaing on the gn>at<*r 
Soellig Idiand, at Ventry, and at Smerwick. There w « 
round tower at Rattoo, one in an island in Loch Currar.*-, 
part of another at Aghadoe, and a fourth formerly st K-i 
near the cathedral of Ardfert There are also the remairi* 
of thirteen religious houses and thirty feudal castles. 

Tbe county expenses are defrayed by grand jury present- 
ment(i. The amount in 1835 was 30,95 1/. 4«. 7^dL, of wbi< h 
19,672/. was for public roads, buildings, institutions, ami 
other general county charges, and 1 1,279/. 4$, 7(L for rwaU 
charged specially to the several baronies. 

(Smithes Ancient and present SitUe qf the County n/ 
Kerry, Dublin, ^1 756 ; Report qf the Irish Bog Commit' 
sinners, 1811; Transactions qf the Dublin Geoht^tnl 
Society, vol. 1, part iv., 1838; Ainsworth*s Account oj th^ 
Caves of Ballybtmion, Dublin, 1834; Guide to KiOarn'^y, 
Dublin. 1835; Parliamentary Reports, Papera, &c.) 

KERSEY, KERSEYMERE. [Woollen MAircFAC- 

TURKS.] 

KERTSCH. [Crivsa.] 

KESTEVEN. [Lincolnshirb.] 

KESTREL, or KESTRIL, the English name of th^ 
Faleo tinnunculua of Linnnus, Cresserelle of the FrenrK. 
Falchetto di Torre of the Italians, CuchU coch of the antieni 
British. [Falcgnida, vol. x., p. 182.J 

KESWICK. [Cumberland.] 

KETCHUP. [Mushrooms.] 

KETTERING. [Northamptonshire.] 

KETUPA. [Owls.] 

K SUPER, in geology, the German term for tbe upper 
portion of the new red sandstone tbrmation. It is su im- 
posed by some geologists that certain sandstones in War- 
wickshire, Worcestershire, and other parts of England, or 
respond to this group of strata. Remains of reptiles a.* 
said to have been found in it near Warwick. 

KEVEL. [Antelope, vol iL, p. 83.] 

KEW. [Surrey.] 

KEY, in music, is the particular diatonic scale, wbetlcT 
major or minor, in which a composition begins and cm.!*, 
and which more or less prevails in a given piece of miKt'^. 

The diatonic scale may commence on any note, and ih •' 
chosen^-called the Key- Note --goyemB the progretssion . '' 
the other notes. [Scale. Diatonic] If a composui i. 
begins and ends in a scale in which neither sharps nor tU- 
are used, it is in the key of c, tne distinctive term n^ifur 
being understood. When three flats are placed at the <>u f 
and the last and lowest note in the pieee is b b, the ktn « 
B k If in such case the last and lowest note is c, the k.>. 
is c minor, &c. 

As any note in the diatonic and chromatic scales nia> W 
taken as a key-note, it follows that there are twelve ke>> t!* 
the major mode, and twelve in the minor ; for each ^m i 
may have either a major or a minor 3rd. [Major. Minor 
Hence arise twenty-four keys. But as three major ai. 
consequently tluree minor keys are binominous, there iu-v 
in name thirty different keys, and as many signatures art 
in actual use [Signature]; though, in feet, there is or«:^ 
the before*mentioned number of keys differing in reality. 



C. 



Table of Major Sjcys. 

G. 




K HO 



206 



K HO 



diiee firom ten to twenty fold, even without manure, if after 
being cropped for five or six years it is suffered to lie fallow for 
an equal time. But the inhabitants dislike agriculture, and 
prefer the breeding of cattle, so that they never raise corn 
enough for their own consumption. Almost every two years 
swarms of locusts desolate the country, but they seldom 
come farther than Kherson, about seventy miles up the 
Dnieper. Hemp and ilax are grown only for domestic 
consumption. Tobacco (some of the best in the empire), 
mustard, and saffron are articles of commerce. There are 
several varieties of the vine, and the wine has been much im- 
proved of late years. Horticulture is much more attended 
to than agricultura The forests, as we have said, are con- 
fined to the north of the province, and to the vicinity of 
Elizabethgrad ; the latter for a long time furnished almost 
all the tiniber required for building the Black Sea fieet, but 
they are now greatly thinned. The banks of the rivers, es- 
pecially of the Dnieper, are covered with strong reeds, 
which are ui?ed both for thatch and for fueL For want of 
wood, hardly any habitations are seen but thatched clay 
huts ; mnny of the inhabitants dig for themselves habita- 
tions in the earth, choosing particularly the antient tumuli, 
with which the plain is covered. Of tame animals the most 
common is thesneep. The wool of the native breed is rather 
coarse, but of late years great numbers of Merinos have been 
imported, and there is no other province that has so many 
slicep of the improved breed. The three provinces of Eka- 
terinoslaf, Taurida, and Kherson have now 500,000 Meri- 
nos. Oxen and buffaloes are numerous, and used for 
draught ; the horses (of which many are wild) are slight, 
but verv spirited and swift-footed. Wild animals of all kinds 
abound, especially wolves and wild-cats, which last are 
formidable beasts of prey. The fields are covered with 
bustards, grey partridges, ortolans, snipes, &c. Besides 
locusts, the country is infested by lart^e rats, which come 
from Taurida. There are great numbers of water and 
other snakes, scolopendrm, whose bite is as venomous 
as that of the Tarantula, incredible numbers of lizards, 
and swarms of gnats. The fisheries on the sea-coast 
and in rivers are very important. The minerals are, fine 
potter's clay, ft-eestone, slate, chalk, talc, saltpetre, agates, 
and garnets. The manufactures are of little importance ; 
some however have been introduced into Kherson and 
Odessa. The province is most happily situated fbr trade. 
The foreign commerce of the country, which is very im- 
portant and rapidly increasing:, will be best described under 
Odessa, which, though founded only in 1 796 by the Duke 
of Richelieu, is now the staple place for the commerce of 
all Southern Russia. [Odessa.] 

The inhabitants, who are estimated at 607,000, consist of 
Great and Little Russians (among the latter are many Cos- 
sacks), Poles, Moldavians, Rascians, Bulgarians, Tartars, 
Greeks, Armenians, and Jews, all settled ; even the Cos- 
sacks of the Bug have renounced their nomadic life, follow 
agriculture, and have fixed habitations. There are in this 
government 35,000 foreign colonists, chiefly German, in 
fifty-six colonies, possessing (in 1836) 284,942 dessatines 
(60,000 acres) of land. There are also a great many gypsies. 
The Greek Christians are under the archbishop of Ekateri- 
noslaf, Kherson, and Taurida, who resides at £katerinoslaf, 
where his cathedral is. In Kherson he has 367 parishes. 
[Chbrson.] 

KHORASSIN. [Persia.] 

KHOSRU I., called Chosroes by the Greek writers, but 
more commonly known in the East by the name of Nushir- 
wan. • noble soul,' succeeded bis fkther Kobad in the kingdom 
of Persia^ a.d. 531. Kobad at the time of his death was 
engaged in a war with Justinian, the emperor of Constanti- 
nople ; but Khosru, shortly after his accession, concluded a 
peace with Justinian, on the payment by the latter of 10,000 
pounds of gold. Khosru diligently employed this interval of 
rest in regulating the internal affairs of his kingdom ; the 
corrupt officers and magistrates, who had been appointed 
during the reign of his father, were removed; justice was 
impartially administered in every part of the empire; and 
the fanatical followers of Mazdak, who had obtained nu- 
merous proselytes to the inviting doctrine of a community 
of goods and women, were banished from his dominions. 
He divided the empire into the four great provinces of 
Assyria, Media, Persia, and Bactriana, and established a 
vizir over each ; and be secured at the same time the sta- 
bilitv of his throne by the murder of his two elder brothers. 
In the course of a few vears he extended his dominions as 



far as the Indus, and compelled the nomadie hordes, who 
had taken possession of the northern provinces of the em])m« 
during the reign of his father, to repass the Oxna and « a!.- 
draw to the central plains of Asia. 

Though Khosru was successful in his wars with ilr 
people of Asia, he beheld with concern the conquests «f 
Belisarius in Italy and Africa; and afraid lest Justiitisu 
should acquire sufficient iH>wer to attack the Persian d > 
minions, he collected a large army, and, in violation of tho 
truce that still subsisted, ne invaded Syria in 54U. U.s 
unexpected attack had given the Greeks no time for de- 
fence; the principal cities were plundered by the PerMat. 
troops, and Antioch, the capital, was taken after a short htt 
vigorous resistance. On his return. Khosru foundofU -.t 
one day's journey from Ctesiphon, a city, which he call* 1 
Antioch Khosru, where he placed the numerous ca])trr, 
he had taken in his invasion of Syria. In the foUowiu^^ 
year Belisarius was recalled to defend the East ; and < .« 
superior military skill enabled him, with an army far :•<- 
ferior to the Persians both in discipline and numben:, i . 
prevent Khosru from extending his conquests. In .Vi. 
Belisarius was recalled to Cilonstantinople, and de^'rmi A 
from all his employments ; and the generals who sucret- ili «i 
him were easily defeated by the Persian troops. The \s a . 
continued to be carried on for many years, though m: . 
little vigour on either side, in the neighbourhood of ti o 
Black Sea, and principally in the territories of the I^^i. a 
(Jolchian people; till at length, afler much delay and m.i* r 
negotiations, Khosru condescended to grant a peace !> 
Justinian in 562, on the annual payment by the latter .f 
30,000 pieces of gold. 

This peace however was only preserved for ten yea r« 
The lieutenants of Khosru had subdued the province <.! 
Yemen in Arabia, and compelled the Abyssinians, who h?A 
possessed the supreme authority for many years, to w^tn 
draw from the country. The Abyssinians were the allu-s • f 
the emperors of Constantinople; and Justin, who had snt- 
ceeded Justinian, having entered into an alliance with t> 
Turks, collected a powerful army in order to avenge ih- 
cause of his allies. But his efforts were unsuccessfnl ; h s 
troops were everywhere defeated, and the province of Sv r 4 
was again plundered by the Persian soldiers. Justin Vv as 
obliged to resign the sovereignty, and his successor Tiben h 
obtained a truce of three years, which time was diliginth 
employed by Tiberius in collecting an immense army fr< i. 
all parts of the empire. The command was given to J*j^- 
tinian; and a desperate battle was fought between U.* 
Greeks and Persians in the neighbourhood of Mehtent*, : 
town in the eastern part of Cappadocia, in which KlKt> u 
was completely defeated. He died in the spring of tij^ 
following year, a.d. 679, after a reign of 48 years, and \...- 
succeeded by his son Hormisdas IV. 

The virtues, and more particularly the justice, of \\>^ 
monarch form to the present day a favourite topir .•: 
Eastern panegyric; and the glories and happiness of ]' - 
reign are frequently extolled by poets as the golden ai:o • 
the Persian sovereignty. His reign forms an import/. • 
epoch in the history of science and literature : he fonml- 
colleges and libraries in the principal towns of his d. 
minions, and encouraged the translation of the most clm 
brated Greek and Sanskrit works into the Persian languaL-' 
A nhysician at his court, of the name of Barzfiyeh, i5$ .«,: 
to nave brought into Persia a Pehlvi translation of th v 
celebrated fables which are known under the name t ; 
Bidpai or Pilpay [Bidpai]; and it was from this tra... 
lation of the Indian tales that these fables found their ujs 
to nearly every other nation of Western Asia and Eur !*-. 
The conquests of Khosru were great and numerous ; I - 
empire extended from the shores of the Red Sea to r h.. 
Indus; and the monarchs of India, China, and Tibet <u. 
represented by Oriental historians as sending ambassador- 
to his court with valuable presents to solicit his friend^!. ( 
and alliance. (See the original passage in Ewald*s Zr;} 
schrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes, voL i., p. 185 > 

KHOSRU II., the grandson of Khosru L, was elevat. ) 
to the throne of Persia, a.d. 590, on the deposition of l.> 
father Hormisdas by Bindoes, a noble of the royal hU>. 
In the first year of his reign Khosru was obliged to Ka- 
his native country to escape from the treachery of Bahr.ir. 
who rebelled against his sovereign and seized upt>n \ : 
royal power. Khosru took refuge in the dominions 
Maurice, the emperor of Constantinople, who asaisteci : i < 
Persian monarch with a numerous army, witli which h« wa 



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against child-stealing, enacts that if any penon ghall mall- 
cidusly, by force or fraud, lead, or take away, or decoy or 
en I ice uway, or detain, a child under the age of ten years, 
wiih intent to deprive its parents, or any other person having 
the lawful care of such child, of the possession of it, or with 
in lent tu steal any article upon or about the person of such 
child, to whomsoever such article may belong, or shall re- 
''eive